Euramerica was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny, about 410 million years ago. In the Late Carboniferous, tropical rainforests lay over the equator of Euramerica. A major, abrupt change in vegetation occurred; the forest fragmented and the lycopsids which dominated these wetlands thinned out, being replaced by opportunistic ferns. There was a great loss of amphibian diversity and the drier climate spurred the diversification of reptiles. Euramerica became a part of the major supercontinent Pangaea in the Permian. In the Jurassic, when Pangaea rifted into two continents and Laurasia, Euramerica was a part of Laurasia. In the Cretaceous, Laurasia split into the continents of North Eurasia; the Laurentian craton became a part of North America while Baltica became a part of Eurasia, Avalonia was split between the two. Devonian: The first forests grew in the floodplain around the foothills of the Caledonian mountain range.

Carboniferous: Climate change devastated tropical rainforests, fragmenting the forests into isolated'islands' and causing the extinction of many plant and animal species during the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse. Permian: Euramerica became a part of the supercontinent Pangaea. Jurassic: Pangaea rifted into Gondwana and Laurasia. Cretaceous: Laurasia split into the continents of North America and Asia. Continental drift Eurasia Main Uralian Fault Palaeos Earth: Geography: Euramerica Paleogeographic globe of the Devonian Earth

Association of Translation Companies

The Association of Translation Companies is a professional membership association promoting language services in the United Kingdom and beyond. The ATC represents the interests of translation companies operating in the UK's expanding language services industry, home to over 1,200 translation companies, is worth more than £1 billion and employs more than 12,000 people; the ATC's stated vision is to create recognition and trust for stakeholders by promoting and regulating quality-driven language industry standards and best practice, to support and nurture its members for sustainability and growth. The Association of Translation Companies Ltd is governed by a volunteer Council elected from ATC member companies; the association's direction is set by the Council, led by its elected Officers: Chair, Vice Chair and Treasurer. Responsible for implementing the Council's vision and strategy is the ATC's Chief Executive Officer who heads the association's activities supported by its Secretariat. In addition to convening a minimum of four times a year, Council members participate in the association's committees and lead its projects.

The ATC's promotes quality-driven professional language services for the benefit of its member companies. The association's activities serve the needs of the people and public-sector organisations commissioning translation and other language services; the Association provides specific information to translation buyers about members’ specialities. Its objectives are to: Promote the use of ATC member companies; the Association of Translation Companies was formed in 1976 by leading British translation companies keen to promote the use of professionally produced, high quality, translation work by professional translation companies, to support the UK's exporters. Since its inception, the ATC has played a pivotal role in the development of European language services, it was the driving force behind the establishment of the European Union of Associations of Translation Companies, one of the original developers of the European translation services standard EN 15038, a precursor to the international translation services standard ISO 17100.

Membership is available to established companies able to provide full accounts of the previous three trading years. A minimum of 65% of the company's core business must be the provision of translation services. Membership of the ATC as a Supported Start-up is available to start-up Language Service Provider businesses that have been trading for over six months who are able to provide the supporting documents in the ATC's Eligibility and Criteria section. Membership is available to translation departments within companies whose core business may be in any sector. Accredited Partner status is available to those companies who are stakeholders in the translation industry, for example office furniture suppliers. Technology Partner status is available to those companies supplying hardware or software tailored to the translation business; the ATC organises regular networking and training events and webinars, hosts an annual conference, the Language Industry Summit. The association publishes an annual Language Industry Survey, charting the state of the language services industry in the UK.

The ATC speaks with authority on the economic case of languages for the future of the UK's international trade and exporting and supports several research activities and government lobbying initiatives. Full ATC member companies have the use of the ATC Certification Stamp, which maybe be used to certify official translations such as certificates; the stamp carries the member's name, membership number, the current year, the stamp line “The mark of quality-managed translation service”. The ATC's commercial ISO Certification Service provides auditing and certification services and training on language service and quality management ISO standards to ATC members and translation companies worldwide. List of UK interpreting and translation associations List of professional associations in the United Kingdom Association of Language Companies Homepage

Józef Bonawentura Załuski

Józef Bonawentura Załuski was a Polish General Officer and diarist, participant in the Napoleonic Wars of 1808–1814. Załuski was born on 14 July 1787 in Ojców. From 1807 he participated in wars with Spain and with Austria, he participated in the Moscow campaign and in battles in Germany and France. From 1815 he was in the army of the Kingdom of Poland and he became an adjutant of Nicholas I and Alexander I. From 1826 to 1830 he was a curator of Free City of Kraków schools. After resignation in 1829 he became a curator of Jagiellonian University. During the November Uprising he was a director of intelligence and division commander in Polish Army. After the uprising he lived in Galicia. During the Revolutions of 1848 Załuski was a commander of National Guard in Lviv. Załuski died on 25 April 1866 in Kraków. DiariesWspomnienia w skróceniu z r. 1831... Wspomnienia o pułku lekkokonnym Gwardii Napoleona I... Wspomnienia o pułku lekkokonnym polskim "Załuski Józef Bonawentura". Internetowa encyklopedia PWN.

Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2007-10-07. "Załuski Józef Bonawentura". WIEM Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-10-07