Sandpipers are a large family, Scolopacidae, of waders or shorebirds. They include many species called sandpipers, as well as those called by names such as curlew and snipe; the majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the soil. Different lengths of bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat on the coast, without direct competition for food. Sandpipers have long bodies and legs, narrow wings. Most species have a narrow bill, they are small to medium-sized birds. The bills are sensitive, allowing the birds to feel the sand as they probe for food, they have dull plumage, with cryptic brown, grey, or streaked patterns, although some display brighter colours during the breeding season. Most species nest in open areas, defend their territories with aerial displays; the nest itself is a simple scrape in the ground, in which the bird lays three or four eggs. The young of most species are precocial; the family Scolopacidae was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815.
This large family is further subdivided into groups of similar birds. These groups do not consist of a single genus, but as presented here they do form distinct monophyletic evolutionary lineages; the groups, with species numbers in parentheses, are: CurlewsGenus Numenius Upland sandpiperGenus Bartramia GodwitsGenus Limosa DowitchersGenus Limnodromus Snipe and woodcocksGenera Coenocorypha, Lymnocryptes and Scolopax PhalaropesGenus Phalaropus Shanks and tattlersGenera Xenus and Tringa which now includes Catoptrophorus and Heteroscelus Polynesian sandpipersGenus Prosobonia Calidrids and turnstonesRoughly 25 species in Calidris which might be split up into several genera. Other genera accepted are the Arenaria turnstones; the early fossil record is bad for a group, present at the non-avian dinosaur's extinction. "Totanus" teruelensis (Late Miocene of Los Mansuetos is sometimes considered a scolopacid – maybe a shank – but may well be a larid. Paractitis has been named from the Early Oligocene of Saskatchewan, while Mirolia is known from the Middle Miocene at Deiningen in the Nördlinger Ries.
Most living genera would seem to have evolved throughout the Oligocene to Miocene with the waders a bit later. In addition there are some indeterminable remains that might belong to extant genera or their extinct relatives: Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. The sandpipers exhibit considerable range in size and appearance, the wide range of body forms reflecting a wide range of ecological niches. Sandpipers range in size from the least sandpiper, at as little as 18 grams and 11 cm in length, to the Far Eastern curlew, at up to 66 cm in length, the Eurasian curlew, at up to 1.3 kg. Within species there is considerable variation in patterns of sexual dimorphism. Males are larger than females in ruffs and several sandpipers, but are smaller than females in the knots, curlews and godwits; the sexes are sized in the snipes and tringine sandpipers. Compared to the other large family of wading birds, the plovers they tend to have smaller eye, more slender heads, longer thinner bills.
Some are quite long-legged, most species have three forward pointing toes with a smaller hind toe. Sandpipers are more geared towards tactile foraging methods than the plovers, which favour more visual foraging methods, this is reflected in the high density of tactile receptors in the tips of their bills; these receptors are housed in a slight horny swelling at the tip of the bill. Bill shape is variable within the family, reflecting differences in feeding ecology. Bill length relative to head length varies from three times the length of the head in the long-billed curlew to just under half the head length in the Tuamotu sandpiper. Bills may be straight upcurled or downcurved. Like all birds, the bills of sandpipers are capable of cranial kinesis being able to move the bones of the skull and bending the upper jaw without opening the entire jaw, an act known as rhynchokinesis, it has been hypothesized this helps when probing by allowing the bill to be opened with less force and improving manipulation of prey items in the substrate.
Rhynchokinesis is used by sandpipers feeding on prey in water to catch and manipulate prey. The sandpipers have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring across most of the world's land surfaces except for Antarctica and the driest deserts. A majority of the family breed at moderate to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, in fact accounting for the most northerly breeding birds in the world. Only a few species breed in tropical regions, ten of which are snipes and woodcocks and the remaining species being the unusual Tuamotu sandpiper, which breeds in French Polynesia. There are broadly four feeding styles employed by the sandpipers, although many
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Taiga known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting of pines and larches. The taiga is the world's largest land biome. In North America, it covers most of inland Canada and parts of the northern contiguous United States. In Eurasia, it covers most of Sweden, much of Norway, some of the Scottish Highlands, some lowland/coastal areas of Iceland, much of Russia from Karelia in the west to the Pacific Ocean, areas of northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, northern Japan. However, the main tree species, the length of the growing season and summer temperatures vary. For example, the taiga of North America consists of spruces. A different use of the term taiga is encountered in the English language, with "boreal forest" used in the United States and Canada to refer to only the more southerly part of the biome, while "taiga" is used to describe the more barren areas of the northernmost part of the biome approaching the tree line and the tundra biome.
Hoffman discusses the origin of this differential use in North America and why it is an inappropriate differentiation of the Russian term. Although at high elevations taiga grades into alpine tundra through Krummholz, it is not an alpine biome. Taiga is the world's second-largest land biome, after deserts and xeric shrublands, covering 17 million square kilometers or 11.5% of the Earth's land area. The largest areas are located in Canada; the taiga is the terrestrial biome with the lowest annual average temperatures after the tundra and permanent ice caps. Extreme winter minimums in the northern taiga are lower than those of the tundra; the lowest reliably recorded temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were recorded in the taiga of northeastern Russia. The taiga or boreal forest has a subarctic climate with large temperature range between seasons, but the long and cold winter is the dominant feature; this climate is classified as Dfc, Dsc and Dwd in the Köppen climate classification scheme, meaning that the short summer lasts 1–3 months and always less than 4 months.
In Siberian taiga the average temperature of the coldest month is between −6 °C and −50 °C. There are some much smaller areas grading towards the oceanic Cfc climate with milder winters, whilst the extreme south and west of the taiga reaches into humid continental climates with longer summers; the mean annual temperature varies from −5 °C to 5 °C, but there are taiga areas in eastern Siberia and interior Alaska-Yukon where the mean annual reaches down to −10 °C. According to some sources, the boreal forest grades into a temperate mixed forest when mean annual temperature reaches about 3 °C. Discontinuous permafrost is found in areas with mean annual temperature below 0 °C, whilst in the Dfd and Dwd climate zones continuous permafrost occurs and restricts growth to shallow-rooted trees like Siberian larch; the winters, with average temperatures below freezing, last five to seven months. Temperatures vary from −54 °C to 30 °C throughout the whole year; the summers, while short, are warm and humid.
In much of the taiga, −20 °C would be a typical winter day temperature and 18 °C an average summer day. The growing season, when the vegetation in the taiga comes alive, is slightly longer than the climatic definition of summer as the plants of the boreal biome have a lower threshold to trigger growth. In Canada and Finland, the growing season is estimated by using the period of the year when the 24-hour average temperature is +5 °C or more. For the Taiga Plains in Canada, growing season varies from 80 to 150 days, in the Taiga Shield from 100 to 140 days; some sources claim 130 days growing season as typical for the taiga. Other sources mention. Data for locations in southwest Yukon gives 80–120 frost-free days; the closed canopy boreal forest in Kenozersky National Park near Plesetsk, Arkhangelsk Province, Russia, on average has 108 frost-free days. The longest growing season is found in the smaller areas with oceanic influences; the shortest growing season is found at the northern taiga–tundra ecotone, where the northern taiga forest no longer can grow and the tundra dominates the landscape when the growing season is down to 50–70 days, the 24-hr average of the warmest month of the year is 10 °C or less.
High latitudes mean that the sun does not rise far above the horizon, less solar energy is received than further south. But the high latitude ensures long summer days, as the sun stays above the horizon nearly 20 hours each day, with only around 6 hours of daylight occurring in the dark winters, depending on latitude; the areas of the taiga inside the Arctic Circle have midnight sun in mid-summer and polar night in mid-winter. The taiga experiences low precipitation throughout the year as rain during the summer months, but as fog and snow; this fog predominant in low-lying areas during and after the thawing of frozen Arctic seas
10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae; the first work to apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. Names published before that date are unavailable if they would otherwise satisfy the rules; the only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, published in 1757, but is to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.
During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into ever-expanding editions; the Animal Kingdom: Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance. They have members for the different purposes of life, they all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; the list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals. These classes were created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key: Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood Viviparous: Mammalia Oviparous: Aves Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood Lungs voluntary: Amphibia External gills: Pisces Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood Have antennae: Insecta Have tentacles: VermesBy current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta contained arachnids and crustaceans, one order of Amphibia comprised sharks and sturgeons. Linnaeus described mammals as: Animals.
In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera: Primates: Homo, Lemur & Vespertilio Bruta: Elephas, Bradypus, Myrmecophaga & Manis Ferae: Phoca, Felis, Mustela & Ursus Bestiae: Sus, Erinaceus, Sorex & Didelphis Glires: Rhinoceros, Lepus, Mus & Sciurus Pecora: Camelus, Cervus, Ovis & Bos Belluae: Equus & Hippopotamus Cete: Monodon, Physeter & Delphinus Linnaeus described birds as: A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down, they are areal, vocal and light, destitute of external ears, teeth, womb, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, diaphragm. Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera: Accipitres: Vultur, Strix & Lanius Picae: Psittacus, Buceros, Corvus, Gracula, Cuculus, Picus, Alcedo, Upupa, Certhia & Trochilus Anseres: Anas, Alca, Diomedea, Phaethon, Larus, Sterna & Rhyncops Grallae: Phoenicopterus, Mycteria & Tantulus, Scolopax, Charadrius, Haematopus, Rallus, Otis & Struthio Gallinae: Pavo, Crax, Phasianus & Tetrao Passeres: Columba, Sturnus, Loxia (cardina
Argyll, sometimes anglicised as Argyllshire, is a historic county and registration county of western Scotland. Argyll is of ancient origin, corresponds to most of the part of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata on Great Britain. Argyll was a medieval bishopric with its cathedral at Lismore, as well as an early modern earldom and dukedom, the Dukedom of Argyll, it borders Inverness-shire to the north and Dunbartonshire to the east, —separated by the Firth of Clyde— neighbours Renfrewshire and Ayrshire to the south-east, Buteshire to the south. Between 1890 and 1975, Argyll was an administrative county with a county council, its area corresponds with most of the modern council area of Argyll and Bute, excluding the island of Bute and the Helensburgh area, but including the Morvern and Ardnamurchan areas of the Highland council area. There was an Argyllshire constituency of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 until 1983; the name derives from Old Gaelic airer Goídel. The early 13th-century author of De Situ Albanie wrote that "the name Arregathel means margin of the Scots or Irish, because all Scots and Irish are called Gattheli, from their ancient warleader known as Gaithelglas."
The De Situ Albanie is however of dubious authenticity. However, the word airer carries the meaning of the word'coast' when applied to maritime regions, so the placename can be translated as "Coast of Gaels". Woolf has suggested that the name Airer Goídel replaced the name Dál Riata when the 9th-century Norse conquest split Irish Dál Riata and the islands of Alban Dál Riata off from mainland Alban Dál Riata; the mainland area, renamed Airer Goídel, would have contrasted with the offshore islands of Innse Gall "islands of the foreigners." They were referred to this way because during the 9th to 12th centuries, they were ruled by Old Norse-speaking Norse–Gaels. The term North Argyll referred to what is now called Wester Ross, it acquired the name North Argyll as it was settled by missionaries and refugees from Dál Riata, based at the abbey of Applecross. The position of abbot was hereditary, when Ferchar mac in tSagart, son of the abbot, became the Earl of Ross, the region of North Argyll started to acquire the name Wester Ross.
Both names continued in use until the 15th century. The term shire is somewhat misleading, as it must not be confused with an English county. In medieval Latin, the latter was referred to as a comitatus, which prior to 1889 a Scottish shire had never been. In Scotland, the comitatus was in fact the region controlled as a Lordship, such as a mormaerdom, or an early Earldom, survived as a regality. Shire instead came into use, in Scotland, to refer to the region in which a particular sheriff operated. Following the transfer of the Hebrides and adjacent mainland coast from Norway to Scotland, by the 1266 Treaty of Perth, Argyll was served by the sheriff of Perth. However, in 1293, king John Balliol established the post of sheriff of Kintyre. In 1326, Dougall Campbell, son of Neil Campbell, was rewarded for Campbell support of Robert the Bruce. However, the sheriffdom had only been created to oversee the forfeited MacDougall territory of Lorn, the southern parts of Argyll remained part of the quasi-independent Lordship of the Isles until the late 15th century.
In 1476, John MacDonald, the Lord of the Isles, quitclaimed Kintyre and Knapdale to Scotland, Knapdale was served by the Sheriff of Perth. However, in 1481, it was placed under the control of Tarbertshire - an expanded sheriffdom of Kintyre; the Scottish Reformation co-incidentally followed the fall of the Lordship of the Isles, but the MacDonalds - former lords - were strong supporters of the former religious regime. The Campbells by contrast were strong supporters of the reforms, so at the start of the 17th century, under instruction from James VI, the Campbells were sent to Islay and Jura - MacDonald territory - to subdue the MacDonalds; the sheriffdom of Argyll was an inherited position, had remained in the Campbell family, now it was extended to include Islay and Jura. Campbell pressure at this time lead to the sheriff court for Tarbertshire being moved to Inverary, where the Campbells held the court for the sheriff of Argyll. Somewhat in 1633, Tarbertshire was abolished, in favour of the sheriff of Argyll.
David II had restored MacDougall authority over Lorn in 1357, but John MacDougall had renounced claims to Mull in favour of the MacDonalds, to avoid potential conflict. The MacLeans were an ancient family based in Lorn, following the quitclaim, they no longer had a Laird in Mull, so themselves became Mull's Lairds. Unlike the MacDonalds, they were fervent supporters of the Reformation supporting acts of civil disobedience against king Charles II's repudiation of the Solemn League and Covenant. Archibald Campbell was instructed by the privy council to seize Mull, suppress the non-conformist behaviour. In 1746, following Jacobite insurrections, the Heritable Jurisdictions Act abolished regality, forbade the posit
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith