A diamond rush is a period of feverish migration of workers to an area that has had a discovery of diamonds. Major diamond rushes took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in South Africa and South-West Africa. In 1871, the discovery of an 83.50 carat diamond on the slopes of Colesberg Kopje on the farm Vooruitzigt in South Africa led to the foundation of Kimberley Mine, the town of Kimberley. This diamond rush was termed the "New Rush". In 1908, the discovery of a diamond near Grasplatz station in German South-West Africa led to a diamond rush developing the town of Lüderitz and creating several mining settlements that today are ghost towns. In the 1990s, several frequency domain heliborne electromagnetic anomalies were discovered by Charles E. Fipke around Lac de Gras, a lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Several mines were established. Gold rush
William Guybon Atherstone
William Guybon Atherstone medical practitioner and geologist, one of the pioneers of South African geology and a member of the Cape Parliament. He arrived in South Africa with his parents as 1820 Settlers, his father, Dr John Atherstone, was appointed District Surgeon of Uitenhage in 1822. William, a young man of wide interests and outstanding ability, received his first training at Dr James Rose Innes's academy in Uitenhage, being at first apprenticed to his father and serving as Assistant-Surgeon in the Sixth Frontier War 1834-1835. In 1836 he studied medicine in Dublin and was admitted as M. R. C. S; the following year, obtaining an MD in Heidelberg, Germany in 1839, returning to Grahamstown in the same year and joining his father in practice. He carried out research in lung-sickness, horse-sickness and tick-borne fever and was in 1847 the first surgeon outside Europe and America to perform an amputation using an anaesthetic; this operation, on 16 June 1847, was performed on the Albany Deputy Sheriff, Mr F Carlisle, was successful.
On recovering from the anaesthetic, the patient said "What? My leg is off? Impossible - I can't believe it!.... It's the greatest discovery made". In 1839 his interest was aroused in geology, from that date he devoted the leisure resulting from a long and successful medical career to the pursuit of geological science. In 1857 he published an account of the fossils of Uitenhage, he studied many fossil reptilia from the Karroo beds, sent specimens to the British Museum. These were described by Sir Richard Owen. Atherstone's identification, in 1867, with the help of Peter MacOwan and HG Galpin, of a crystal found at De Kalk near Hopetown, as the Eureka Diamond - the first found in Africa - led indirectly to the establishment of the diamond industry of South Africa, he encouraged the workings at Jagersfontein, he called attention to the diamandiferous pipe at Kimberley. He was responsible for the foundation of the Grahamstown library, botanical garden and, in 1855, the Albany Museum, he traveled in the eastern Cape and the Transvaal, collecting minerals, plant specimens and seeds, sending material to Hooker at Kew.
He was a friend of Andrew Geddes Bain of pass-building fame. He was made F. R. C. S. in 1863 and F. G. S in 1864, he represented Grahamstown as Member of Parliament from 1881-1883 whence he was elected to the Legislative Council where he served until 1891. He is commemorated in the names of various fossil reptiles, he was one of the founders of the Geological Society of South Africa at Johannesburg in 1895. He died at Grahamstown, on 26 March 1898. Father: John Atherstone *25 January 1793 Nottingham, England, he died in 1853 at Table Farm, Grahamstown mother: Elizabeth Damant *c1785. She died at Table Farm, Grahamstown She married John Atherstone in 1811 in St John's, London, England. Siblings:John Craddock Atherstone. William Guybon Atherstone Catherine Damant Atherstone Elizabeth Atherstone was born in 1817. Emily Atherstone John Frederick Korsten Atherstone Bliss Ann Atherstone Caroline AtherstoneHis son was the railway engineer Guybon Atherstone. Atherstone family Biography of William Guybon Atherstone at the S2A3 Biographical Database of Southern African Science
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and British royal family and for its architecture; the original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe; the castle's lavish early 19th-century State Apartments were described by the art historian Hugh Roberts as "a superb and unrivalled sequence of rooms regarded as the finest and most complete expression of Georgian taste". Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St George's Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be "one of the supreme achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic" design. Designed to protect Norman dominance around the outskirts of London and oversee a strategically important part of the River Thames, Windsor Castle was built as a motte-and-bailey, with three wards surrounding a central mound.
Replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a prolonged siege during the First Barons' War at the start of the 13th century. Henry III built a luxurious royal palace within the castle during the middle of the century, Edward III went further, rebuilding the palace to make an grander set of buildings in what would become "the most expensive secular building project of the entire Middle Ages in England". Edward's core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the tumultuous period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters by Parliamentary forces and a prison for Charles I. At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, creating a set of extravagant Baroque interiors that are still admired. After a period of neglect during the 18th century, George III and George IV renovated and rebuilt Charles II's palace at colossal expense, producing the current design of the State Apartments, full of Rococo and Baroque furnishings.
Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge by the royal family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War and survived a fire in 1992, it is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, the preferred weekend home of Elizabeth II. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, combines the features of a fortification, a palace, a small town; the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, with Gothic features reinvented in a modern style. Since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions imitating outmoded or antiquated styles; as a result, architect Sir William Whitfield has pointed to Windsor Castle's architecture as having "a certain fictive quality", the Picturesque and Gothic design generating "a sense that a theatrical performance is being put on here", despite late 20th century efforts to expose more of the older structures to increase the sense of authenticity.
Although there has been some criticism, the castle's architecture and history lends it a "place amongst the greatest European palaces". At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a bailey formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward; the motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk excavated from the surrounding ditch. The keep, called the Round Tower, on the top of the motte is based on an original 12th-century building, extended upwards in the early 19th century under architect Jeffry Wyatville by 30 ft to produce a more imposing height and silhouette; the interior of the Round Tower was further redesigned in 1991–3 to provide additional space for the Royal Archives, an additional room being built in the space left by Wyatville's hollow extension. The Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it; the current height of the tower has been criticised as being disproportionate to its width. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, a gateway leads north from the ward onto the North Terrace.
The eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. This gatehouse, despite its name, dates from the 14th century, is vaulted and decorated with carvings, including surviving medieval lion masks, traditional symbols of majesty, to form an impressive entrance to the Upper Ward. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, the interior was heavily converted in the 19th century for residential use; the Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the upper bailey wall, forming a central quadrangle. The State Apartments run along the north of the ward, with a range of buildings along the east wall, the private royal apartments and the King George IV Gate to the south, with the Edward III Tower in the south-west corner; the motte and the Round Tower form the west edge of the ward. A bronze statue of Charles II on horseback sits beneath the Round Tower. Inspired by Hubert Le Sueur's statue of Charles I in London, the statue was cast by Josias Ibach in 1679, with the marble plinth featuring carvings
Bangles are traditionally rigid bracelets, originating from the Indian subcontinent, which are made of metal, glass or plastic. They are traditional ornaments worn by women from the Indian subcontinent, it is common to see a new bride wearing glass bangles at her wedding, the traditional view is that the honeymoon will end when the last bangle breaks. Bangles have a traditional value in Hinduism as it is considered inauspicious for a married woman to be bare armed. Bangles may be worn by young girls and bangles made of gold or silver are preferred for toddlers. Bangles are known as Kannada: ಬಳೆ Bale, Nepali: चुरा Chura, Bengali: চুড়ি churi, Assamese: খাৰু kharu, Tamil: வளையல், Hindi: चूड़ी Choodi, Marathi: बांगडी Bangadi, Telugu: గాజు, Urdu: چوڑیاں, Pashto: بنګړې and Balochi: بنگڑي Bangří; some men and women wear a single bangle on the wrist called kada or kara. In Sikhism, the father of a Sikh bride will give the groom a gold ring, a kara, a mohra. Chooda is a kind of bangle, worn by Punjabi women on her wedding day.
It is a set of red bangles with stonework. According to tradition, a woman is not supposed to buy the bangles. Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh is India's largest producer of bangles. Bangles made from sea shell, bronze, agate, etc. have been excavated from multiple archaeological sites throughout the Indian subcontinent. A figurine of a dancing girl wearing bangles on her left arm has been excavated from Mohenjo-daro. Other early examples of bangles in ancient India include copper samples from the excavations at Mahurjhari, followed by the decorated bangles belonging to the Mauryan Empire and the gold bangle samples from the historic site of Taxila. Decorated shell bangles have been excavated from multiple Mauryan sites. Other features include gold-leaf inlay in some cases. Bangles are circular in shape, unlike bracelets, are not flexible; the word is derived from Hindi bungri. They are made of numerous precious as well as non-precious materials such as gold, platinum, wood, ferrous metals, etc. Bangles made from sea shell, which are white colour, are worn by married Bengali and Oriya Hindu women.
A special type of bangle is worn by women and girls in the Bengal area known as a "Bengali bangle", used as a substitute for a costly gold bangle, is produced by fixing a thin gold strip is thermo-mechanically fused onto a bronze bangle, followed by manual crafting on that fused gold strip. Bangles are part of traditional Indian jewellery, they are sometimes worn in pairs by one or more on each arm. It is common for women to wear a single bangle or several bangles on just one wrist. Most Indian women prefer wearing a combination of both. Inexpensive bangles made from plastic are replacing those made by glass, but the ones made of glass are still preferred at traditional occasions such as marriages and on festivals. Bangles are the signs for traditional girls. Bangles play a important role in various India dance forms; some of dance forms include bangles striking to each other a tone of the music. The designs range from simple to intricate handmade designs studded with precious and semi-precious stones such as diamonds and pearls.
Sets of expensive bangles made of gold and silver make a jingling sound. The imitation jewellery tends to make a tinny sound. There are two basic types of bangles: a solid cylinder type; the primary distinguishing factor between these is the material used to make the bangles. This may vary from anything from glass to jade to metal to lac and rubber or plastic. One factor that adds to the price of the bangles is the artifacts or the work done further on the metal; this includes embroidery or small glass pieces or paintings or small hangings that are attached to the bangles. The rareness of a color and its unique value increase the value. Bangles made from lac are one among the most brittle. Lac is a resinous material, secreted by insects, collected and molded in hot kilns to make these bangles. Among the recent kinds are rubber bangles, worn more like a wristband by youngsters, plastic ones which add a trendy look. A bangle worn by people around the world is an inflexible piece of jewelry worn around the wrist.
However, in many cultures those from Indian cultures and the broader Indian subcontinent, bangles have evolved into various types in which different ones are used on different occasions. Hyderabad, has a historic world-famous market for bangles named Laad Bazaar. Glass bangles are produced in the old Indian city of Firozabad in North India. Pakistan glass bangles are produced in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Choora Ghosh, Amalananda. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09264-1
The Mineral Revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and economic changes which occurred in South Africa from the 1870s onwards. The Mineral Revolution was driven by the need to create a permanent workforce to work in the mining industry, saw South Africa transformed from a patchwork of agrarian states to a unified, industrial nation. In political terms, the Mineral Revolution had a significant impact on diplomacy and military affairs; the policies and events of the Mineral Revolution had an negative impact on race relations in South Africa, formed the basis of the apartheid system, which dominated South African society for a century. The Mineral Revolution began with the discovery of diamonds at the town of Kimberley in 1867; the discovery of diamonds led to a rush of prospectors descending on the town, whose population skyrocketed as increasing numbers of prospectors arrived to seek their fortune. As more diggers arrived in Kimberley, diamond-mining increased in scale, focusing in open-pit mining of three main sites.
As surface deposits of diamonds were excavated, deeper pits had to be dug, propelling the Mineral Revolution into a new phase. To excavate deep deposits of diamonds, diggers needed machinery, a large labour force; these were unavailable to ordinary diggers, the diamond mines were taken over by the "mining capitalists" – large corporations with access to credit and labour. The discovery of gold at the Witwatersrand orefields in 1886 triggered a gold rush which escalated this continuing trend; the orefields, which overlapped British and Afrikaner territory, were excavated of all surface deposits and a similar pattern to Kimberley emerged – small diggers were bought out by large corporations. At Kimberley, the diamond mines fell under the monopoly of De Beers, while at the Rand orefields, land was bought up by Wernher, Breit & Eckstein, Consolidated Gold Mines Inc. and a number of smaller companies. The emergence of industrial-scale mining forced major demographic shifts in South Africa's population.
During the early stages of mining, labour had been provided by young men from the African states Pedi men. The young men would travel to the mines during the summer to provide temporary labour and earn enough wages to buy status symbols, such as cattle or guns, before returning home; this system, was too unreliable to provide a permanent labour force and was not acceptable to the mining corporations. Young men arriving at the mines were exhausted from their journey and had to be given two weeks' rest, at company expense, before they were fit to work in the mines. Workers who were not paid on time or did not like their living conditions tended to drift away, workers were at risk of being recalled to their own countries, as happened in 1876 when the chief of Pediland recalled all Pedi men at the mines to fight in a war against the Transvaal; the need to create a fixed, permanent labour force at Kimberley and on the Rand became the primary objective of the mining corporations and the colonial government.
The increasing scale of mining operations prompted the corporations to offer low wages. Extracting diamonds from rocks, processing the low-quality gold ore at the Rand, was labour-intensive and required armies of workers. To offset the cost of employing so many workers, to compensate for the high salaries offered to machine supervisors and administrators, the companies offered low wages to ordinary labourers, resulting in falling living standards in urban areas; the need to create a fixed labour force resulted in the colonial government, the mining corporations, introducing a variety of schemes to keep workers on-site for lengthy periods of time. Corporate agents travelled to African states, offering fixed contracts and prearranged wages to attract young African men to the mines. At the mine sites, corporations introduced various schemes to keep workers on-site; this was motivated in Kimberley by the corporation's fear that workers were stealing diamonds and selling them on the black market.
To counteract this assumed threat, De Beers introduced strip searching, whereby workers leaving the mines at the end of a shift would be undressed and searched for diamonds. A more extreme measure was taken in the early 1880s by De Beers, when the company introduced corporate compounds; these enclosed compounds were built in the style of open-air prisons, where workers were required to live by the terms of their contract, in exchange for food and cheap beer provided by the company. In reality, workers had to pay for things out of their paltry wages, while the compounds themselves were notorious for disease and death. In 1886 white workers at the De Beers compound in Kimberley elected a local member of parliament who campaigned for white employees to live in the town, but black workers, who had no vote, were forced to remain on the compounds; the growth of towns and cities across South Africa prompted changes in rural areas, as farms lost labourers to the mines and demand for food and agricultural produce increased.
By the 1870s, "agrarian capitalism" had emerged, with large commercial farms buying up smallholdings and producing commercial goods for sale in the towns. This resulted in tens of thousands of black and white farmers losing their jobs, being forced to work as wage-labourers on commercial farms or migrate to the cities in search of work; these changes increased South Africa's agricultural output as commercial farms were more efficient and had greater access to farming machinery than small farms, saw social changes in rural areas. The peasa
Exposition Universelle (1867)
The International Exposition of 1867, was the second world's fair to be held in Paris, from 1 April to 3 November 1867. Forty-two nations were represented at the fair. Following a decree of Emperor Napoleon III, the exposition was prepared as early as 1864, in the midst of the renovation of Paris, marking the culmination of the Second French Empire. Visitors included Tsar Alexander II of Russia, a brother of the emperor of Japan, King William and Otto von Bismarck of Prussia, Prince Metternich and Franz Josef of Austria, Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz, the Khedive of Egypt Isma'il. In 1864, Napoleon III decreed that an international exposition should be held in Paris in 1867. A commission was appointed with Prince Jerome Napoleon as president, under whose direction the preliminary work began; the site chosen for the Exposition Universelle of 1867 was the Champ de Mars, the great military parade ground of Paris, which covered an area of 119 acres and to, added the island of Billancourt, of 52 acres.
The principal building was rectangular in shape with rounded ends, having a length of 1608 feet and a width of 1247 feet, in the center was a pavilion surmounted by a dome and surrounded by a garden, 545 feet long and 184 feet wide, with a gallery built around it. In addition to the main building, there were nearly 100 smaller buildings on the grounds. Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, Ernest Renan, Theophile Gautier all wrote publications to promote the event. There were 50,226 exhibitors, of whom 15,055 were from France and her colonies, 6176 from Great Britain and Ireland, 703 from the United States and a small contingent from Canada; the funds for the construction and maintenance of the exposition consisted of grants of $1,165,020 from the French government, a like amount from the city of Paris, about $2,000,000 from public subscription, making a total of $5,883,400. In the "gallery of Labour History" Jacques Boucher de Perthes, exposes one of the first prehistoric tools whose authenticity has been recognized with the accuracy of these theories.
The exhibition included two prototypes of the much acclaimed and prize-winning hydrochronometer invented in 1867 by Gian Battista Embriaco, O. P. professor at the College of St. Thomas in Rome. Among the horological exhibits, stood out a monumental model, an elaborate conical pendulum clock crafted by two of France's most important artisans of the second half of the 19th century—renowned clockmaker E. Farcot and sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Be Belleuse. Farcot exhibited several units, one of them it is in the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans, its base, which features the clock's face and inner mechanical movements, is carved from solid onyx marble. Atop the base, a bronze sculpture depicting a robed female figure holds a scepter. Rotating soundlessly from the female subject's hand, the scepter provides consistent motion that adds to the clock's sense of grandeur and mystery. From its base to the top of the bronze figure stands at nearly 10 feet tall. Farcot, the most well-known of the French conical clock-makers, established himself in 1860 and mastered his craft over a period of 30 years, helping to popularize the unique pendulum escapement, the mechanism which controls the motion of the inner wheels.
Carrier de Belleuse was one of the most important and renowned sculptors of the 19th century, as well as the teacher of Auguste Rodin. In 1857, his bronze sculptures grabbed the attention of Napoleon III, he was commissioned for several important national works, including his most famous piece, which still flanks the staircase of the Paris Opera House. One of the Egyptian exhibits was designed by Auguste Mariette, featured ancient Egyptian monuments; the Suez Canal Company had an exhibit within the Egyptian exhibits, which it used to sell bonds for funding. The German manufacturer Krupp displayed a 50-ton cannon made of steel. Americans displayed their latest telegraph technology and both Cyrus Field and Samuel Morse provided speeches; the exposition was formally opened on 1 April and closed on 31 October 1867, was visited by 9,238,967 persons, including exhibitors and employees. This exposition was the greatest up to its time of all international expositions, both with respect to its extent and to the scope of its plan.
For the first time Japan presented art pieces to the world in a national pavilion pieces from the Satsuma and Saga clans in Kyushu. Vincent van Gogh and other artists of the post-impressionism movement of the late 19th century were part of the European art craze inspired by the displays seen here, wrote of the Japanese woodcut prints "that one sees everywhere and figures." Not only was Van Gogh a collector of the new art brought to Europe from a newly opened Japan, but many other French artists from the late 19th century were influenced by the Japanese artistic world-view, to develop into Japonism. The Paris street near Champs de Mars, Rue de L'Exposition was named in hommage to this 1867 universal exhibition. Jules Verne visited the exhibition in 1867, his take on the newly publicized discovery of electricity inspiring him in his writing of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. A famous revival of the ballet Le Corsaire was staged by the Ballet Master Joseph Mazilier in honor of the exhibition at the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra on 21 October 1867.
The World Rowing Championships were held on the Seine River in July and was won by the underdog Canadian team from Saint John