California Volunteers (sculpture)
California Volunteers known as the California Volunteers' Memorial and the Spanish–American War Memorial, is an outdoor sculpture installed in 1906 by Douglas Tilden. California Volunteers was installed at the intersection of Market and Van Ness, per the request of the sponsoring committee of citizens and the sculptor; this committee and the sculptor, Douglas Tilden, are unanimous in favor of locating this, the most important of our public monuments, at the junction of Van Ness avenue and Market street. There is a fine open space there. Public parades pass by the spot and the armory of the First California Regiment is but a few blocks distant; the monument cost $25,000. Funding for the monument came from surplus donations for a reception held for the volunteers from California upon their return from the Philippines; the monument was dedicated on Sunday, August 12, 1906. During the ceremony, several dignitaries gave speeches, including former San Francisco Mayor Phelan. In 1925, it was moved to its present location at the corner of Dolores Street.
The central figure depicts Bellona, goddess of war, riding on the back of Pegasus, the winged horse.. There are two soldiers on the monument, one fallen, one standing to the side armed with a pistol. One side of the pedestal is inscribed with the text "Erected by the Citizens of San Francisco in Honor of the California Volunteers, Spanish–American War, 1898. First to the Front." The bronze figures are 16 feet tall and 10 feet long, mounted on a granite base another 10 feet tall. Shortly after its dedication in August 1906, Will Sparks criticized the original placement of the monument at Market and Van Ness, stating "from many points of view, including one of the most important, the is meaningless. Looking down Van Ness avenue it is impossible to tell. There is nothing but a tangled mess of bronze." Sparks went on to recommend the monument should be relocated "up beside a building where only the one impressive side would show. Do this with it and it will become a great monument; as it is there is much, disappointing."
1906 in art Admission Day Monument, an 1897 Tilden bronze on Market Street List of public art in San Francisco Mechanics Monument, a 1901 Tilden bronze on Market "California Volunteers' Memorial monument". Calisphere. UC Berkeley, Bancroft Library. 1906. Retrieved 15 September 2017. Dobbin, Hamilton Henry. "Monument to volunteers". Calisphere. California State Library. Retrieved 15 September 2017. "Monuments - California Volunteers". San Francisco Public Library. 1906–1951. Retrieved 15 September 2017
California's 12th congressional district
California's 12th congressional district is a congressional district in California. Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013; the 12th district is within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, the 12th district consisted of portions of both San Mateo County and San Francisco, it is the smallest district by area outside of New York City. When the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County; as California's population grew, the district was moved northward to the San Francisco peninsula.) Richard Nixon, who would subsequently serve as the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the former 52nd Speaker of the House and current Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, after serving California's 8th Congressional district from 1993-2013.
As of April 2015, there were five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent death was that of Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11, 2008. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. The party is headquartered in Sacramento, is led by acting-Chair Alex Gallardo-Rooker. With 43.5% of the state's registered voters as of 2018, the Democratic Party has the highest number of registrants of any political party in California. Democrats enjoy supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature, holding 61 out of 80 seats in the California State Assembly and 29 out of 40 in the California State Senate. Democrats hold all 8 statewide executive branch offices, 46 of the state's 53 seats in the House of Representatives, both of California's seats in the United States Senate. Since the beginning of the 1850s, issues regarding slavery had split the California Democratic Party. By the 1853 general election campaign, large majorities of pro-slavery Democrats from Southern California, calling themselves the Chivalry, threatened to divide the state in half, should the state not accept slavery.
John Bigler, along with former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor David C. Broderick from the previous McDougall Administration, formed the Free Soil Democratic faction, modeled after the federal Free Soil Party that argued against the spread of slavery; the Democrats split into two camps, with both the Chivalry and Free Soilers nominating their own candidates for the 1853 election. By 1857, the party had split into the Anti-Lecompton factions. Lecompton members supported the Kansas Lecompton Constitution, a document explicitly allowing slavery into the territory, while Anti-Lecompton faction members were in opposition to slavery's expansion; the violence between supporting and opposition forces led to the period known as Bleeding Kansas. Splits in the Democratic Party, as well as the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Whig Party, helped facilitate the rise of the American Party both in state and federal politics. In particular, state voters voted Know-Nothings into the California State Legislature, elected J. Neely Johnson as governor in the 1855 general elections.
During the 1859 general elections, Lecompton Democrats voted for Milton Latham, who had lived in the American South, as their nominee for Governor. Anti-Lecomptons in turn selected John Currey as their nominee; the infant Republican Party, running in its first gubernatorial election, selected businessman Leland Stanford as its nominee. To make matters more complicated, during the campaign, Senator David C. Broderick, an Anti-Lecompton Democrat, was killed in a duel by slavery supporter and former state Supreme Court Justice David Terry on September 13; until the early 1880s the Republican Party held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti freedom of attainment position. In 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry; the party began working with the state's railroad commission to create fair rates for passengers and to eliminate monopolies the railroad companies held over the state.
The main effort focused on making railroads public avenues of transportation similar to streets and roads. This measure passed and was a great victory for the Democrats. Budd was to be the last Democratic governor for thirty years; the struggle between the anti-monopolists and the railroad companies was, however, a key and defining issue for the Democratic Party for some time. Despite their relative lack of power during this period, the Democrats in California were still active in pursuing reform; the party crusaded for tariff reform. The party supported the large scale railroad strikes that sprung up statewide; the corruption of the time in both the railroad companies and the government led to a change in political dynamic. The people of the state moved away from both of the main parties and the Progressive Movement began. While the Progressives were successful in creating positive reform and chasing out corruption, the movement drained away many of the Democratic Party's members; as their movement ended, the Republicans won the governorship, but the Democratic Party had a distinct voter advantage.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and the Power balance between the Republicans and the Democrats in California equalized. However, as Roosevelt's New Deal policies began to raise the nation out of the depression, Democratic strength mounted. Culbert Olson was elected to the governorship, but his term was rocky and both parties organized against him. Shortly thereafter, Earl Warren and the Republicans seized power again; the California Democratic Party needed a new strategy to regain power in the state. A strategy of reorganization and popular mobilization emerged and resulted in the creation of the California Democratic Council; the CDC as it became known was a way for members of the party from all levels of government to come together and as such the party became more unified. A new network of politically minded civilians and elected officials emerged and the party was stronger for it. Despite the fact that the council struggled in the cold war era, due to Republican strength and issues such as the Vietnam War, it still exists today.
By 1992, California was hurting more than most states from a national recession which had started in 1990, causing incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush's approval rating to tank within the state, giving an opening for the Democratic party to break through and become the largest party. Starting with the double digit victory of Bill Clinton, this became the f
Daly City, California
Daly City is the largest city in San Mateo County, United States, with an estimated 2014 population of 106,094. Located south of San Francisco, it is named in honor of businessman and landowner John Donald Daly. Archaeological evidence suggests the San Francisco Bay Area has been inhabited as early as 2700 BC. People of the Ohlone language group occupied Northern California from at least the 6th century. Though their territory had been claimed by Spain since the early 16th century, they would have little contact with Europeans until 1769, when, as part of an effort to colonize Alta California, an exploration party led by Don Gaspar de Portolá learned of the existence of San Francisco Bay. Seven years in 1776, an expedition led by Juan Bautista de Anza selected the site for the Presidio of San Francisco, which José Joaquín Moraga would soon establish; the same year, the Franciscan missionary Francisco Palóu founded the Mission San Francisco de Asís. As part of the founding, the priests claimed the land south of the mission for sixteen miles for raising crops and for fodder for cattle and sheep.
In 1778, the priests and soldiers marked out a trail to connect San Francisco to the rest of California. At the top of Mission Hill, the priests named the gap between San Bruno Mountain and the hills on the coast La Portezuela. La Portezuela was referred to as Daly's Hill, the Center of Daly City, is now called Top of the Hill. During Spanish rule, the area between San Bruno Mountain and the Pacific remained uninhabited. Upon independence from Spain, prominent Mexican citizens were granted land parcels to establish large ranches, three of which covered areas now in Daly City and Colma. Rancho Buri Buri was granted to Jose Sanchez in 1835 and covered 14,639 acres including parts of modern-day Colma, San Bruno, South San Francisco, Millbrae. Rancho Laguna de la Merced was 2,219 acres acres and covered the area around a lake of the same name; the third ranch covering parts of the Daly City–Colma area was named Rancho Cañada de Guadalupe la Visitación y Rodeo Viejo and stretched from the Visitacion Valley area in San Francisco, to the city of South San Francisco covering 5,473 acres.
Following the Mexican Cession of California at the end of the Mexican–American War the owners of Rancho Laguna de La Merced tried to claim land between San Bruno Mountain and Lake Merced. An 1853 US government survey declared that the contested area was in fact government property and could be acquired by private citizens. There was a brief land rush as settlers Irish established ranches and farms in parts of what is now the neighborhoods of Westlake and the cities of Colma and Pacifica. A decade several families left as increase in the fog density killed grain and potato crops; the few remaining families switched to dairy and cattle farming as a more profitable enterprise. In the late 19th century as San Francisco grew and San Mateo County was established, Daly City gradually grew including homes and schools along the lines for the Southern Pacific railroad. Daly City served as a location where San Franciscans would cross over county lines to gamble and fight; as tensions built in approach to the American Civil War, California was divided between pro-slavery, Free Soil advocates.
Two of the main figures in the debate were US Senator David C. Broderick, a Free Soil advocate, David S. Terry, in favor of extension of slavery into California. Quarreling and political fighting between the two led to a duel in the Lake Merced area at which Terry mortally wounded Broderick, who would die three days later; the site of the duel is marked with two granite shafts where the men stood, is designated as California Historical Landmark number 19. On the morning of April 18, 1906 a major earthquake struck just off the coast of Daly City near Mussel Rock. After quake and subsequent fire destroyed many San Franciscans homes, they left to temporary housing on the ranches of the area to the south, including the large one owned by John Daly. Daly had come to the Bay Area in 1853 where he had worked on a dairy farm, after several years married his bosses' daughter and acquired 250 acres at the Top of the Hill area. Over the years Daly's business grew; when a flood of refugees from the quake came and other local farmers donated milk and other food items.
Daly subdivided his property, from which several housing tracts emerged. As some of the refugees established homes in the area, the need for city services grew. This, combined with the fear of annexation by San Francisco and being ignored by San Mateo County, whose seat far to the south left residents feeling ignored, created a demand for incorporation; the first such attempt was proposed in 1908 for incorporation as the city of Vista Grande. Vista Grande would have spanned from the Pacific to the Bay, with San Francisco as its northern border and South San Francisco and the old Rancho Buri Buri as its southern border; the proposal was rejected over the scope of the planned city, too broad for many residents. The initial proposal revealed rifts in the community among the various regions, including the area around the cemeteries, who were excluded from further plans of incorporation. On January 16, 1911, an incorporation committee filed a petition with San Mateo County supervisors to incorporate the City of Daly City.
The city would run from San Francisco along the San Bruno Hills until Price and School streets with San Francisco and west to the summit of the San Bruno Hills. The city would have an estimated population of 2,900. On March 18, 1911, a special election was held, with incorporation narrowly succeeding by a vo
Castro Camera was a camera store in the Castro District of San Francisco, operated by Harvey Milk from 1972 until his assassination in 1978. During the 1970s the store became the center of the neighborhood's growing gay community, as well as campaign headquarters for Milk's various campaigns for elected office. Milk, an avid amateur photographer, was disappointed over a developer ruining a roll of film. With his then-partner, Scott Smith, Milk opened the store in 1972, using the last $1,000 of their savings; the store soon became a focus of the growing influx of young gay people, who were coming from across the US to the Castro, where their sexual orientation was accepted. Beyond selling cameras and film, Milk turned the store into a social center, a refuge for new arrivals, he made it an official polling station for San Francisco elections. Because he was so well known for his civic involvement promoting gay businesses and gay consumers, Milk soon became known unofficially as the "Mayor of Castro Street".
Daniel Nicoletta, the photographer best known for chronicling Milk and his times, first met Milk as a patron of the store later worked there as a store assistant and campaign worker. Another customer, Anne Kronenberg, who became Milk's campaign manager met Milk at the store, described her first impression of him as a "raving maniac". Other members of Milk's inner circle such as Cleve Jones and his speechwriter Frank Robinson met and worked with Milk at the store; the location at 575 Castro Street, a Human Rights Campaign Store as of 2011, was recreated as a set for Milk, the biopic of Milk's life. The sparse set built to original detail including an old red couch and barber's chair, drew the attention of many local residents who remembered the original; the modern-day shop owner and film crew described seeing a ghost at the store, whom they assumed to be Milk. A metal plaque set into the sidewalk in front of the store memorializes Milk, the location has been used as the stepping-off point for an annual memorial march on the date of his death.
Artifacts from Castro Camera, including Milk's barber chair, a collection of antique cameras, displayed at the store and the front panel of the awning bearing the name of the shop, are preserved in the holdings of the GLBT Historical Society, a museum and research center in San Francisco. The society displayed the camera collection in an exhibition it devoted to Milk in 2003, "Saint Harvey: The Life and Afterlife of a Modern Gay Martyr." In addition, the art director for Milk consulted the collection when creating props for the Castro Camera set. The Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society holds a collection of Milk's personal belongings, including artifacts from Castro Camera
Castro District, San Francisco
The Castro District referenced as The Castro, is a neighborhood in Eureka Valley in San Francisco. The Castro was one of the first gay neighborhoods in the United States. Having transformed from a working-class neighborhood through the 1960s and 1970s, the Castro remains one of the most prominent symbols of lesbian, gay and transgender activism and events in the world. San Francisco's gay village is concentrated in the business district, located on Castro Street from Market Street to 19th Street, it extends down Market Street toward Church Street and on both sides of the Castro neighborhood from Church Street to Eureka Street. Although the greater gay community was, is, concentrated in the Castro, many gay people live in the surrounding residential areas bordered by Corona Heights, the Mission District, Noe Valley, Twin Peaks, Haight-Ashbury neighborhoods; some consider it to include Duboce Triangle and Dolores Heights, which both have a strong LGBT presence. Castro Street, which originates a few blocks north at the intersection of Divisadero and Waller Streets, runs south through Noe Valley, crossing the 24th Street business district and ending as a continuous street a few blocks farther south as it moves toward the Glen Park neighborhood.
It reappears in several discontinuous sections before terminating at Chenery Street, in the heart of Glen Park. Castro Street was named for José Castro, a Californian leader of Mexican opposition to U. S. rule in California in the 19th century, alcalde of Alta California from 1835 to 1836. The neighborhood known as the Castro, in the district of Eureka Valley, was created in 1887 when the Market Street Railway Company built a line linking Eureka Valley to downtown. In 1891, Alfred E. Clarke built his mansion at the corner of Douglass and Caselli Avenue at 250 Douglass, referenced as the Caselli Mansion, it survived the 1906 fire which destroyed a large portion of San Francisco. Up to the 19th century, the areal possession of the Russian Empire in North America included the modern-day U. S. state of Alaska and settlements in the modern-day U. S. states of Hawaii. These Russian possessions were collectively and referred to by the name Russian America from 1733 to 1867. Formal incorporation of the possessions by Russia did not take place until the establishment of the Russian-American Company in 1799.
In 1809–1917, Finland was an autonomous part of the Russian Empire and was referred to as the Grand Duchy of Finland. During this era, the operations of both merchant and naval fleets as well as construction of naval vessels, relied on Finnish know-how and officers. At the time, Russia was a young naval power, gaining access to the Baltic Sea only after the city of Saint Petersburg was founded on its coast in 1703, becoming part of Russia only at the end of the Great Northern War in 1721. In 1839, Sitka Lutheran Church, the first Protestant congregation on the west coast of the Americas and the first Lutheran congregation on the entire Pacific Rim was founded in Sitka, Alaska, by Finns who worked for the Russian-American Company. From the start, in 1840–1865, three consecutive Finnish pastors served this pastorate: Uno Cygnaeus, Gabriel Plathan and Georg Gustaf Winter; the Finns Aaron Sjöstrom and Otto Reinhold Rehn served as the parish organists/sextons during this period. In 1841, under the governorship of Russian America by Finnish Arvid Adolf Etholén, the Russian-American area of Fort Ross in Bodega Bay, was sold to Johann Sutter.
On January 24, 1848, the first California gold was discovered on Sutter's land in Coloma, leading to the California Gold Rush, after news of this were spread abroad by the Finnish seamen in the service of the Russian-American Company. During the final three decades of the existence of Russian America, Finnish Chief Managers of Russian America included Arvid Adolf Etholén in 1840–1845 and Johan Hampus Furuhjelm in 1859–1864. A third Finn, Johan Joachim von Bartram, declined the offer for the five-year term between 1850 and 1855. All three were high ranking Imperial naval officers. In reference to San Francisco, researcher Maria J. Enckell states the following about the Finns in the Russian-American Company: Russia relied on Finnish seamen; these seamen manned Russian naval ships as well as its deep-sea-going vessels. Company records show that in the early 1800s these ships were crewed predominantly by merchant seamen from Finland. From 1840 onward the Company's around-the-world ships were manned by Finnish merchant skippers and crews.
Most Company ships stationed in Sitka and the Northern Pacific were manned by Finnish skippers and Finnish crews. During the California Gold Rush and in its aftermath, a substantial Finnish population had settled in San Francisco. In addition to Etholén, Furuhjelm and Niebaum, a number of Finns had become household names in the social circles of San Francisco by the time when the Finnish corvette Kalevala anchored in San Francisco on November 14, 1861. Accordingly, Kalevala's visit in the city received a warm welcome and created much attention. In 1863, a six-vessel Russian Imperial Navy squadron, a part of the Russian Pacific Fleet, sailed via Vladivostok to the West Coast of the United States, to help defend the waters there against a possible attack by the United Kingdom or France, during the American Civil War. In addition to the Finnish-built corvette Kalevala now returning to the U. S. West Coast, this squadron included three other corve
Hartford Street Zen Center
The Hartford Street Zen Center, temple name Issan-ji, is a Soto Zen practice-center located in the Castro district of San Francisco. Issan Dorsey brought the center from its early beginnings as The Gay Buddhist Club of 1980 to the modern-day Hartford Street Zen Center, becoming Abbot there in 1989. In 1987 the group had opened the Maitri Hospice for those dying of AIDS, to which Dorsey himself succumbed in 1990, it was the first Buddhist hospice of its kind in the United States. For a time the center leased a building next door to house the sick offering nine hospice-beds for persons in extremis; the second Abbot was Kijun Steve Allen. In 1991 famed Beat-era poet Zenshin Philip Whalen assumed the abbacy, until ill health obliged him to retire in 1996. By 1997 the hospice had outgrown the Hartford Street location and was moved to a new, custom-designed facility at Church and Duboce Streets in San Francisco with space for fifteen residents. Meanwhile, practice continued at Issan-ji under the guidance of Rev. Ottmar Engel, who served as Practice-Leader until health-concerns necessitated his return to his native Germany in 2001.
After an interregnum, during which the Board of Directors, assisted by Rev. John King, took care of things at Hartford Street, Rev. Myo Denis Lahey, completing a tenure as Prior at Tassajara Zen Mountain Center in Carmel Valley, was invited to be Practice-Leader, as of October 2013 was installed as HSZC's current Abbot. Buddhism in the United States Buddhism and sexual orientation San Francisco Zen Center Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States Hartford Street Zen Center Maitri Hospice 37.76155°N 122.43376°W / 37.76155.