Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Turkey national basketball team
The Turkey national basketball team represents Turkey in international basketball tournaments. It is governed by the Turkish Basketball Federation, their nickname is the "12 Dev Adam". Turkey has won two silver medals at major international tournaments, namely the FIBA World Cup and EuroBasket. Turkey has won two gold. Turkey stands 17th in the FIBA World Rankings. Ahmet Robenson was known as being the first organizer of basketball in Turkey. In 1936, Turkey played its first basketball match against Greece, winning 49–12. For many years basketball was the second most popular sport in Turkey, but the national team could not win any international tournaments until the 1980s, when Turkey won the gold medal at the 1981 Balkan Championship and the 1987 Mediterranean Games. Efes Pilsen was the first Turkish club to win a European Cup in any team sport, the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup. Since basketball in Turkey has grown as the national basketball team began to play a major role in international tournaments.
The Turkish national team won the silver medal at the EuroBasket 2001, the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship. Turkey's European championship debut came at the EuroBasket 1949; the Turks split their six games in the seven-team round robin tournament, finishing with three wins and three losses for 4th place. Turkey competed again at the EuroBasket 1951 in Paris, their only loss in the preliminary round was to the Soviet Union as Turkey earned the second-rank spot with a 3–1 record. Their single loss to Bulgaria in the semi-final round, was enough to bump them from championship contention as they came out on the bottom of a three-way tie with a 2–1 record, they lost the 5/6 game to Italy. Turkey returned after missing 1953's edition to the EuroBasket 1955 in Budapest, they went 1–2 in their preliminary round group, taking third in the pool and moving to classification play. There they lost only to France on their way to a 3–1 record in classification round 1, they lost their 9–12 semi-final by 1 point to Finland, but defeated England 77–54 in the next game to take 11th place of the 18 team tournament.
Turkey appeared again at the EuroBasket 1957 in Sofia. Losing to the Soviet Union and Poland in the preliminary round, Turkey took third in the group to be sent to the classification pool, they defeated each of the other seven teams in the classification round in order to take 9th place of the 16 teams. The 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were in general a barren period for the Turkish national basketball team, they were, successful at the Mediterranean Games, winning two bronze medals in 1967 and 1983, one silver medal in 1971, one gold medal in 1987. Turkey won the gold medal at the Balkan Championship in 1981; the team was led by notable coaches like Yalçın Granit and Mehmet Baturalp in the 1960s and 1970s, by Aydan Siyavuş during the Balkan and Mediterranean triumphs of the 1980s, which marked the dawn of a successful new era in Turkish basketball starting from the late 1980s and early 1990s. Efe Aydan and Erman Kunter were among the notable players of this period in Turkish basketball. Erman Kunter, who still holds a number of all-time records in the Turkish Basketball League as a player became a successful coach in the Turkish and French basketball leagues, led the Turkish national team at the EuroBasket 1999.
Turkey appeared again at the EuroBasket 1993 after 12 years of absence, but finished 11th among 16 teams. Turkey finished 13th among 14 teams at the EuroBasket 1995, 8th among 16 teams at the EuroBasket 1997, again 8th among 16 teams at the EuroBasket 1999; as the host country of the EuroBasket 2001, the Turkish national basketball team, led by coach Aydın Örs, reached the EuroBasket final for the first time in their history Turkey defeated Croatia in the quarter-finals and Germany in the semi-finals, before playing with Yugoslavia in the final. Turkey finished the tournament with the silver medal. Turkish star İbrahim Kutluay scored 19 points in the final game and was included in the all-tournament team. Team captain Harun Erdenay was another key scorer for Turkey in the tournament; the team's roster included past and future NBA players Mirsad Türkcan, Hidayet Türkoğlu and Mehmet Okur. Turkey qualified for the 2002 FIBA World Championship. Turkey finished 9th. At the EuroBasket 2003, Turkey reached the second round where they got eliminated by Serbia and Montenegro.
Turkey qualified for the EuroBasket 2005 held in Serbia and Montenegro, but lost to Lithuania and Croatia, defeating only Bulgaria in the preliminary round. This win brought Turkey to the knock-out stage, where Germany eliminated the team 66–57. Turkey ended the tournament with a 9–12 rank. Turkey was awarded one of the four wild cards by FIBA for the qualification to the 2006 FIBA World Championship in Japan; the Turkish squad completed the preliminary rounds in Group C at second place after the Greek team, was entitled to play in the round of 16, winning 4 matches against Lithuania, Australia and Qatar out of 5 games in total, losing only to Greece in the last match. The young team achieved the first official win over Lithuania and the first 4 consecutive wins in a championship. On A
A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the second place a silver medal. More bronze is traditionally the most common metal used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones; the practice of awarding bronze third place medals began at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, before which only first and second places were awarded. Minting Olympic medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928–1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek game, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In a few tournament sports, such as boxing, judo and wrestling, two bronze medals are awarded in each event – one for each eliminated semi-finalist or for the winners of the repechage brackets. In 1995, a study was carried out by social psychologists Victoria Medvec, Scott Madey and Thomas Gilovich on the effects of counterfactual thinking on the Olympics; the study showed that athletes who won the bronze medal were happier with their winning than those athletes who won the silver medal. The silver medalists were more frustrated because they had missed the gold medal, while the bronze medalists were happy to have received any honors at all; this is more pronounced in knockout competitions, where the bronze medals are achieved by winning a playoff, whereas silver medals are awarded after a defeat in the final. This psychological phenomenon was parodied in the Jerry Seinfeld special I'm Telling You for the Last Time. Bronze and brass ornamental work Third place playoff Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
France national basketball team
The France national basketball team is administered by the French Basketball Federation. France has been a regular with 37 appearances, the most of any nation, its best results have been a gold medal at EuroBasket 2013 and silver medals in 1949 and 2011. The French squad has won two silver medals at the Summer Olympics, in 1948 and 2000. France's best result at the FIBA Basketball World Cup came in 2014. Throughout its history, France's national basketball team has experienced many downs; the time periods where the national team earned medals have been quite streaky. In Europe, team France started out as a fierce competitor; the team won 5 medals at the FIBA EuroBasket between 1937 and 1959.1937: Bronze Medal, 3–2 overall, second in preliminary group, lost semifinal, won bronze medal match1947: Silver Medal, 5–1 overall, round robin tournament, no playoffs1949: Bronze Medal. Its period of glory at the world stage began. At the 1948 Olympics in London, the France team led by Robert Busnel won an Olympic silver medal, the first Olympic medal in its history.
The French finished second only to the United States. In the wake of this Olympic medal, led by captain André Vacheresse, won three consecutive medals, including silver at the EuroBasket 1949, bronze at the EuroBasket 1951 and the EuroBasket 1953; the following years were less glorious. France's basketball team declined to disappear completely from the two major world competitions during the 1960s and 1970s. After the disappointing 60s and 70s, the 1980s were marked by a generation of hope, counting in its ranks French basketball icons such as Richard Dacoury, Stephane Ostrowski and Hervé Dubuisson. During this decade, France returned to the Olympics, the 1986 FIBA World Championship. During the 1990s Team France had its moments to shine despite some internal struggles and many injuries for key players. At the European meetings, the team did not win a medal despite some good performances; the years 1999 and 2000, marked a turnaround for French basketball. The team built around Rigaudeau, Tariq Abdul-Wahad, Bilba, Foirest finished in the top 4 at the EuroBasket 1999 in France and only lost the bronze medal final to Yugoslavia, despite some internal problems that disrupted the group of players.
In 2000, team France traveled to the Olympics in Sydney, full of ambition, which developed the means for major achievement. At the end of its time in Australia, the selection of Jean-Pierre de Vincenzi won the Olympic silver medal, the selection's first top 3 performance at a major basketball event in 46 years and its first Olympic medal in 52 years. After this event, the Olympic vice-champion gained new backbone in Tony Parker, selected by the San Antonio Spurs in the 2001 NBA draft. However, at the EuroBasket 2001, without Rigaudeau, who decided to retire from the team after the Olympics, the 19-year-old Parker alone was not enough as France failed to repeat its outstanding performance at the Olympic Games. France finished 6th place overall. During this time, most of France's players cleared their spots for a new generation of players, which were available in abundance as France Junior national team had won the 2000 junior championship. At the EuroBasket 2003, France competed with an immensely talented squad, which included the NBA players Tony Parker, Jérôme Moïso and Tariq Abdul-Wahad, future NBA-player Boris Diaw and Euroleague players Laurent Foirest, Cyril Julian and Florent Piétrus.
The stated objective was the title, which would come as the second within a short time-period to Tony Parker who had won the NBA title only a few months ago. But despite competing with one of the most promising rosters France lost in the semifinal against Lithuania and also lost the match for 3rd place against Italy, which France had declassified in the preliminary round. At the end, France failed to qualify for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Hoping not to repeat the disappointing performance of 2003, France's squad again saw some considerable changes in 2005. For the EuroBasket 2005 team France was built based on team chemistry instead of big names; the new coach Claude Bergeaud also selected Frédéric Weis, an underachieving player once drafted at the 1999 NBA Draft, who did not participate the team's preparation. After a sobering first round, team France improved to stunning performances in the playoffs. First, France eliminated world champion Serbia-Montenegro on their home court the team defeated the European champion Lithuania.
In a semi-final game against Greece where both side battled each other through tough defense, France failed in the last second after leading by seven points, 45 seconds before the game ended. Unlike 2003, France recovered to win a bronze medal by beating Spain in the small final by more than thirty points. At the World Championship 2006 France competed without Tony Parker, who suffered a twisted finger two
The International Basketball Federation, more known as FIBA, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Known as the Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur, in 1989 it dropped the word amateur from its name but retained the acronym. FIBA defines the rules of basketball, specifies the equipment and facilities required, organises international competitions, regulates the transfer of athletes across countries, controls the appointment of international referees. A total of 213 national federations are now members, organized since 1989 into five zones: Africa, Asia and Oceania; the FIBA Basketball World Cup is a world tournament for men's national teams held every four years. Teams compete for the Naismith Trophy, named in honor of basketball's Canadian creator James Naismith; the tournament structure is similar but not identical to that of the FIFA World Cup in football. A parallel event for women's teams, the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup, is held quadrennially.
The women's tournament will continue to be held in the same year as the FIFA World Cup. In 2009 FIBA announced three new tournaments: two 12-team U-17 World Championships to be played in July 2010, an eight-team FIBA World Club Championship to be launched in October 2010. However, the FIBA World Club Championship did not materialize. In its place, FIBA instead relaunched its original world club championship for men, the FIBA Intercontinental Cup, in 2013; the newest global FIBA tournaments for national teams are in the three-player half-court variation, 3x3. The FIBA 3x3 U-18 World Championships were inaugurated in 2011, the FIBA 3x3 World Championships for senior teams followed a year later. All events included separate tournaments for men's, women's, mixed teams, but mixed championships are no longer contested; the U-18 championships, held annually, feature 32 teams in each individual tournament. The senior championships have 24 teams in each individual tournament, are held in even-numbered years.
The association was founded in Geneva in 1932, two years after the sport was recognized by the IOC. Its original name was Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur. Eight nations were founding members: Argentina, Greece, Latvia, Portugal and Switzerland. During the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, the Federation named James Naismith, the founder of basketball, as its Honorary President. FIBA has organized a World Championship, now known as World Cup, for men since 1950 and a Women's World Championship, now known as the Women's World Cup, since 1953. From 1986 through 2014, both events were held every four years; as noted above, the men's World Cup will be moved to a new four-year cycle, with tournaments in the year before the Summer Olympics, after 2014. The Federation headquarters moved to Munich in 1956 returned to Geneva in 2002. In 1991, it founded the FIBA Hall of Fame. During its 81st anniversary in 2013, FIBA moved into its new headquarters, "The House of Basketball", at Mies.
Andreas Zagklis is the current Secretary General of FIBA. The Youth Olympic Games are an U-19 event, played in FIBA 3x3 format. FIBA Oceania no longer conducts senior-level championships for either sex. Since 2017, that region's members have competed for FIBA Asia senior championships. FIBA Oceania continues to hold age-grade championships. #1 men's team: United States #1 women's team: United States #1 boys' team: United States #1 girls' team: United States #1 combined ranking: United States Beijing Enterprises Group Company Limited Molten Tencent Wanda Group Nike, Inc. TCL Corporation Tissot Official website History of amateur and professional basketball in Canada at Frozen Hoops InterBasket – International Basketball News and Forum, covering FIBA, Euroleague, NBA FIBA at the Wayback Machine
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE