France national basketball team
The France national basketball team is administered by the French Basketball Federation. France has been a regular with 37 appearances, the most of any nation, its best results have been a gold medal at EuroBasket 2013 and silver medals in 1949 and 2011. The French squad has won two silver medals at the Summer Olympics, in 1948 and 2000. France's best result at the FIBA Basketball World Cup came in 2014. Throughout its history, France's national basketball team has experienced many downs; the time periods where the national team earned medals have been quite streaky. In Europe, team France started out as a fierce competitor; the team won 5 medals at the FIBA EuroBasket between 1937 and 1959.1937: Bronze Medal, 3–2 overall, second in preliminary group, lost semifinal, won bronze medal match1947: Silver Medal, 5–1 overall, round robin tournament, no playoffs1949: Bronze Medal. Its period of glory at the world stage began. At the 1948 Olympics in London, the France team led by Robert Busnel won an Olympic silver medal, the first Olympic medal in its history.
The French finished second only to the United States. In the wake of this Olympic medal, led by captain André Vacheresse, won three consecutive medals, including silver at the EuroBasket 1949, bronze at the EuroBasket 1951 and the EuroBasket 1953; the following years were less glorious. France's basketball team declined to disappear completely from the two major world competitions during the 1960s and 1970s. After the disappointing 60s and 70s, the 1980s were marked by a generation of hope, counting in its ranks French basketball icons such as Richard Dacoury, Stephane Ostrowski and Hervé Dubuisson. During this decade, France returned to the Olympics, the 1986 FIBA World Championship. During the 1990s Team France had its moments to shine despite some internal struggles and many injuries for key players. At the European meetings, the team did not win a medal despite some good performances; the years 1999 and 2000, marked a turnaround for French basketball. The team built around Rigaudeau, Tariq Abdul-Wahad, Bilba, Foirest finished in the top 4 at the EuroBasket 1999 in France and only lost the bronze medal final to Yugoslavia, despite some internal problems that disrupted the group of players.
In 2000, team France traveled to the Olympics in Sydney, full of ambition, which developed the means for major achievement. At the end of its time in Australia, the selection of Jean-Pierre de Vincenzi won the Olympic silver medal, the selection's first top 3 performance at a major basketball event in 46 years and its first Olympic medal in 52 years. After this event, the Olympic vice-champion gained new backbone in Tony Parker, selected by the San Antonio Spurs in the 2001 NBA draft. However, at the EuroBasket 2001, without Rigaudeau, who decided to retire from the team after the Olympics, the 19-year-old Parker alone was not enough as France failed to repeat its outstanding performance at the Olympic Games. France finished 6th place overall. During this time, most of France's players cleared their spots for a new generation of players, which were available in abundance as France Junior national team had won the 2000 junior championship. At the EuroBasket 2003, France competed with an immensely talented squad, which included the NBA players Tony Parker, Jérôme Moïso and Tariq Abdul-Wahad, future NBA-player Boris Diaw and Euroleague players Laurent Foirest, Cyril Julian and Florent Piétrus.
The stated objective was the title, which would come as the second within a short time-period to Tony Parker who had won the NBA title only a few months ago. But despite competing with one of the most promising rosters France lost in the semifinal against Lithuania and also lost the match for 3rd place against Italy, which France had declassified in the preliminary round. At the end, France failed to qualify for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Hoping not to repeat the disappointing performance of 2003, France's squad again saw some considerable changes in 2005. For the EuroBasket 2005 team France was built based on team chemistry instead of big names; the new coach Claude Bergeaud also selected Frédéric Weis, an underachieving player once drafted at the 1999 NBA Draft, who did not participate the team's preparation. After a sobering first round, team France improved to stunning performances in the playoffs. First, France eliminated world champion Serbia-Montenegro on their home court the team defeated the European champion Lithuania.
In a semi-final game against Greece where both side battled each other through tough defense, France failed in the last second after leading by seven points, 45 seconds before the game ended. Unlike 2003, France recovered to win a bronze medal by beating Spain in the small final by more than thirty points. At the World Championship 2006 France competed without Tony Parker, who suffered a twisted finger two
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Finland national basketball team
The Finnish national basketball team represents Finland in men's international basketball tournaments. They have played in 13 EuroBasket tournaments, with its best finish being 6th at the 1967 EuroBasket on home soil. Finland made its FIBA World Cup debut at the 2014 edition. Since 2011, Finland has had the highest FIBA World Ranking among Nordic countries; the Finnish Basketball Association was founded in February 1939. A few months earlier the Finnish Football Federation had decided to add basketball to its own repertoire. Finland first competed at the European championship at its third installment, the EuroBasket 1939. In the round-robin, they struggled and lost to each of the other seven teams and finished with a 70–541 overall point differential. Finland's next European competition was 12 years at the EuroBasket 1951 in Paris. Overall, they fared much better and split their four preliminary round games and finished at third place in the group at 2–2 but were eliminated from championship contention.
They had success after that, winning all three of their classification round 1 games and both round 2 games to finish in 9th place of the 18 teams. In 1952, by virtue of hosting the games in Helsinki, Finland played at the Summer Olympics for the first time; the national team finished at the bottom of Group B in the preliminary round losing all of its game to the Soviet Union and Mexico, failing to advance. Finland used this international experience when they competed again at the EuroBasket 1953 in Moscow. In the preliminary round, they finished with 1 win and 3 losses for 4th place of the 5 teams in the group, they fared better in the first classification round, winning 3 and losing only 1 to finish in the middle of a three-way tie in the group. They lost both the 9–12 and 11/12 classification games, taking 12th place of 17 overall. At the next event, Finland had some difficulty in the preliminary round of EuroBasket 1955, they were relegated to the classification round. Once again, not faced with the world elite opponents anymore, the Fins shone in the classification round and won all four of the pool play games.
They won their classification 9–12 match as well, but lost to France in the 9/10 final to finish 10th of 18 in the tournament. In Sofia, at the EuroBasket 1957, the Finns finished third in their preliminary group after going 1–2, they won five games there with only one loss. They took 11th place overall in the tournament. At the EuroBasket 1995 in Greece, Finland finished 13th. Finland qualified for the EuroBasket 2011; the tournament berth was the first for Finland in 16 years. There they finished third out of six teams in EuroBasket 2011 Group C and defeated Bosnia and Herzegovina 92–64 and Montenegro 71–65; this allowed them to they qualify for the EuroBasket 2011 Group F. In their first match they were defeated by Russia but afterwards they defeated Georgia, before losing to Slovenia in their final match of the tournament. Despite not making it to the best of 8 tournament, Finland ended up making it to their first FIBA World Cup as a Wild Card team alongside Greece and Brazil. Roster for the EuroBasket 2017.
The following is the squad in the EuroBasket 2017 PF/C - Drew Gooden: has a possibility to represent Finland due to his mother being Finnish. Henrik Dettmann – 95-96, 2004-now 1939 EuroBasket: finished 8th among 8 teams Kalevi Ihalainen, Pauli Sarkkula, Erkki Lindén, Ilkka Törrönen, Erkki Saurala, Pentti Vuollekoski, Vladi Marmo, Martti Salminen, Reino Valtonen, Alo Suurna, Heinonen 1951 EuroBasket: finished 9th among 17 teams Kalevi Heinänen, Pentti Laaksonen, Raimo Lindholm, Pertti Mutru, Tapio Pöyhönen, Timo Suviranta, Kalevi Sylander, Oiva Virtanen, Olli Arppe, Kaj Gustafsson, Arto Koivisto, Juhani Kyöstilä, Raine Nuutinen, Allan Pietarinen 1952 Olympic Games: finished 15th among 23 teams Kalevi Heinänen, Pentti Laaksonen, Juhani Kyöstilä, Raimo Lindholm, Pertti Mutru, Tapio Pöyhönen, Eero Salonen, Timo Suviranta, Kalevi Sylander, Oiva Virtanen, Raine Nuutinen, Olavi Lahtinen, Tuomo Ristola, Esko Karhunen 1953 EuroBasket: finished 12th among 17 teams Kalevi Heinänen, Pentti Laaksonen, Pertti Mutru, Allan Pietarinen, Raimo Lindholm, Timo Suviranta, Timo Lampen, Raine Nuutinen, Keijo Hynninen, Oiva Virtanen, Eero Salonen, Kaj Gustafsson 1955 EuroBasket: finished 10th among 18 teams Kalevi Heinänen, Kalevi Sylander, Pertti Mutru, Oiva Virtanen, Timo Lampén, Taisto Ravantti, Seppo Kuusela, Timo Suviranta, Raine Nuutinen, Eero Salonen, Kalevi Tuominen, Asko Jokinen, Raimo Lindholm 1957 EuroBasket: finished 11th among 16 teams Timo Lampén, Arto Koivisto, Pertti Mutru, Raine Nuutinen, Eero Salonen, Seppo Kuusela, Arvo Jantunen, Juhani Kala, Paavo Suhonen, Raimo Lindholm, Timo Suviranta, Kalevi Sylander 1959 EuroBasket: finished 13th among 17 teams Timo Lampén, Raimo Lindholm, Seppo Kuusela, Arvo Jantunen, Juhani Kala, Matti Nenonen, Raine Nuutinen, Eero Salonen, Raimo Vartia, Matti Köli, Kyösti Rousti, Pentti Palkoaho 1961 EuroBasket: finished 14th among 19 teams Martti Liimo, Kari Liimo, Raimo Lindholm, Timo Lampén, Raimo Vartia, Pertti Laanti, Tony Bärlund, Arvo Jantunen, Uolevi Manninen, Lauri Nurma, Seppo Kuusela, Rauno Ailus 1963 EuroBasket: finished 14th among 16 teams Martti Liimo, Kari Liimo, Jorma Pilkevaara, Timo Lampén, Pertti Laanti, Raimo Vartia, Uolevi Manninen, Antero Siljola, Juha Harjula, Seppo Kuusela, Rauno Ailus, Kauko Kauppinen 1964 Olympic Games: finished 11th among 16 teams Martti Liimo, Jorma Pilkevaa
The International Basketball Federation, more known as FIBA, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Known as the Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur, in 1989 it dropped the word amateur from its name but retained the acronym. FIBA defines the rules of basketball, specifies the equipment and facilities required, organises international competitions, regulates the transfer of athletes across countries, controls the appointment of international referees. A total of 213 national federations are now members, organized since 1989 into five zones: Africa, Asia and Oceania; the FIBA Basketball World Cup is a world tournament for men's national teams held every four years. Teams compete for the Naismith Trophy, named in honor of basketball's Canadian creator James Naismith; the tournament structure is similar but not identical to that of the FIFA World Cup in football. A parallel event for women's teams, the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup, is held quadrennially.
The women's tournament will continue to be held in the same year as the FIFA World Cup. In 2009 FIBA announced three new tournaments: two 12-team U-17 World Championships to be played in July 2010, an eight-team FIBA World Club Championship to be launched in October 2010. However, the FIBA World Club Championship did not materialize. In its place, FIBA instead relaunched its original world club championship for men, the FIBA Intercontinental Cup, in 2013; the newest global FIBA tournaments for national teams are in the three-player half-court variation, 3x3. The FIBA 3x3 U-18 World Championships were inaugurated in 2011, the FIBA 3x3 World Championships for senior teams followed a year later. All events included separate tournaments for men's, women's, mixed teams, but mixed championships are no longer contested; the U-18 championships, held annually, feature 32 teams in each individual tournament. The senior championships have 24 teams in each individual tournament, are held in even-numbered years.
The association was founded in Geneva in 1932, two years after the sport was recognized by the IOC. Its original name was Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur. Eight nations were founding members: Argentina, Greece, Latvia, Portugal and Switzerland. During the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, the Federation named James Naismith, the founder of basketball, as its Honorary President. FIBA has organized a World Championship, now known as World Cup, for men since 1950 and a Women's World Championship, now known as the Women's World Cup, since 1953. From 1986 through 2014, both events were held every four years; as noted above, the men's World Cup will be moved to a new four-year cycle, with tournaments in the year before the Summer Olympics, after 2014. The Federation headquarters moved to Munich in 1956 returned to Geneva in 2002. In 1991, it founded the FIBA Hall of Fame. During its 81st anniversary in 2013, FIBA moved into its new headquarters, "The House of Basketball", at Mies.
Andreas Zagklis is the current Secretary General of FIBA. The Youth Olympic Games are an U-19 event, played in FIBA 3x3 format. FIBA Oceania no longer conducts senior-level championships for either sex. Since 2017, that region's members have competed for FIBA Asia senior championships. FIBA Oceania continues to hold age-grade championships. #1 men's team: United States #1 women's team: United States #1 boys' team: United States #1 girls' team: United States #1 combined ranking: United States Beijing Enterprises Group Company Limited Molten Tencent Wanda Group Nike, Inc. TCL Corporation Tissot Official website History of amateur and professional basketball in Canada at Frozen Hoops InterBasket – International Basketball News and Forum, covering FIBA, Euroleague, NBA FIBA at the Wayback Machine
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Scotland national basketball team
The Scottish national basketball team is the basketball side that represents Scotland in international competition. They are organised by basketballscotland, the sport's governing body in Scotland, which in 2005, along with England and Wales merged to form the Great Britain national basketball team; the Scotland national team used to compete in the FIBA Europe's Division C. Scotland's direct affiliation to FIBA ended on 30 September 2016. To date, Scotland's main accomplishments were two qualifications to the EuroBasket, Europe's main basketball event. Further, the team won five bronze medals at the FIBA European Championship for Small Countries; the Scottish team's first European championship competition was at EuroBasket 1951 in Paris. They lost their eight games and finished 16th place out of 18, they outranked Luxembourg, who had had the misfortune of being in a five-team preliminary group instead of a four-team group, Romania, who had dropped out of the tournament at the last minute. Six years at the EuroBasket 1957 in Sofia, Scotland competed much better.
There, the squad won one of its three preliminary round games to be relegated to the classification round. The first match in that round pitted Scotland against Albania, who had not yet achieved a victory in EuroBasket competition; the Scots proved the better, 69–56. Afterwards, they lost their next six matches but showed considerable improvement from the last tournament, they competed against Austria and West Germany the whole game until they ceded by one point and five points to finish the classification round 1–6 in 15th place overall, ahead of Albania which they beat twice. At the 2014 FIBA European Championship for Small Countries: At the FIBA EuroBasket 2010 Division C: Kieron Achara Robert Archibald Iain MacLean Boroughmuir Blaze Great Britain national basketball team Sport in Scotland Basketball Scotland Scotland Basketball Records at FIBA Archive Eurobasket.com – Scotland Men National Team BasketballScotland Presentation on Facebook
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m