Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
The EuroLeague, known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for sponsorship reasons, is the top-tier European professional basketball club competition, organized by Euroleague Basketball since 2000. Introduced in 2000, the competition replaced the FIBA EuroLeague, run by FIBA since 1958; the FIBA European Champions Cup and the EuroLeague are considered to be the same competition, with the change of name being a re-branding. The EuroLeague is one of the most popular indoor sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 8,780 for league matches in the 2017–18 season; that was the fifth-highest of any professional indoor sports league in the world, the second-highest of any professional basketball league in the world, only behind the National Basketball Association. The EuroLeague title has been won by 21 different clubs, 13 of which have won the title more than once; the most successful club in the competition is Real Madrid, with ten titles. Real Madrid are the current champions, having defeated Fenerbahçe in the 2018 final.
The FIBA European Champions Cup was established by FIBA and it operated under its umbrella from 1958 until the summer of 2000, concluding with the 1999–00 season. That was. FIBA had never trademarked the "EuroLeague" name though it had used that name for the competition since 1996. Euroleague Basketball appropriated the name, since FIBA had no legal recourse to do anything about it, it was forced to find a new name for its championship series. Thus, the following 2000–2001 season started with two separate top European professional club basketball competitions: the FIBA SuproLeague and the brand new Euroleague 2000–01 season; the rift in European professional club basketball showed no signs of letting up. Top clubs were split between the two leagues: Panathinaikos, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, CSKA Moscow and Efes Pilsen stayed with FIBA, while Olympiacos, Kinder Bologna, Real Madrid Teka, FC Barcelona, Paf Wennington Bologna, Benetton Treviso, AEK and Tau Cerámica joined Euroleague Basketball. In May 2001, Europe had two continental champions, Maccabi of the FIBA SuproLeague and Kinder Bologna of the Euroleague.
The leaders of both organizations realized the need to come up with a unified competition. Although only a year old, Euroleague Basketball negotiated from a position of strength and dictated proceedings. FIBA had no choice but to agree to Euroleague Basketball's terms; as a result, European club competition was integrated under Euroleague Basketball's umbrella and teams that competed in the FIBA SuproLeague during the 2000–01 season joined it as well. In essence, the authority in European professional basketball was divided over club-country lines. FIBA stayed in charge of national team competitions, while Euroleague Basketball took over the European professional club competitions. From that point on, FIBA's Korać Cup and Saporta Cup competitions lasted only one more season before folding, when Euroleague Basketball launched the ULEB Cup, now known as the EuroCup. In November 2015, Euroleague Basketball and IMG agreed on 10-year joint venture. Both Euroleague Basketball and IMG will manage the commercial operation, the management of all global rights covering both media and marketing.
The deal was worth €630 million guaranteed over 10 years, with projected revenues reaching €900 million. On 26 July 2010, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball announced a €15 million strategic agreement to sponsor the top European basketball competition across the globe. According to the agreement, starting with the 2010–11 season, the top European competition would be named Turkish Airlines Euroleague Basketball; the EuroLeague Final Four would be named the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four, whereby the new league title would appear in all media accordingly. This title partnership was set to run for five seasons, with the option of extending it to an additional five. On 23 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball agreed to extend their partnership, up until 2020. FIBA era: FIBA European Champions Cup: FIBA European League: FIBA EuroLeague: FIBA SuproLeague: Euroleague Basketball era: Euroleague:. EuroLeague:.*There were two separate competitions during the 2000–01 season.
The SuproLeague, organized by FIBA, the Euroleague, organized by Euroleague Basketball. The EuroLeague operated under a tournament system, from its inaugural 1958 season, through the 2015–16 season. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, the current European Champions Cup title holders, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with either a single game final, or a 2-game aggregate score finals. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA European League: The champions of the European national domestic leagues, the current European League title holders, along with some of the other biggest teams from the most important national domestic leagues, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA EuroLeague: The champions of th
Galatasaray S.K. (women's basketball)
Galatasaray is the women's basketball section of Galatasaray S. K. a major sports club in Istanbul, Turkey. Galatasaray women's basketball team play matches in Abdi İpekçi Arena which has a seating capacity for 12,270 spectators; the team won EuroLeague Women 2013–14 EuroLeague Women and Turkish Women's Basketball League title after beating Fenerbahçe Women's Basketball in the finals. Galatasaray Galatasaray Medical Park Galatasaray Galatasaray OdeaBank Galatasaray EuroLeague Women Winners: 2013–2014 Third: 1998–1999 Fifth: 2011–2012 FIBA EuroCup Winners: 2008–2009, 2017–2018 Third: 2007–2008 Fourth: 2016–2017 European Super Cup Runners-up: 2009, 2018 Turkish Women's Basketball League Winners: 1987–1988, 1989–1990, 1990–1991, 1991–1992, 1992–1993, 1993–1994, 1994–1995, 1995–1996, 1996–1997, 1997–1998, 1999–2000, 2013-2014, 2014-2015 Runners-up: 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2012–2013 Turkish Cup Winners: 1992–1993, 1993–1994, 1994–1995, 1995–1996, 1996–1997, 1997–1998, 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2011–2012, 2012–2013, 2013-2014 Runners-up: 1998–1999, 1999–2000, 2000–2001, 2008–2009, 2015–2016 Turkish Super Cup Winners: 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2008, 2011 Runners-up: 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 See Turkey women's national basketball team See Galatasaray S.
K. See Galatasaray Wheelchair Basketball Team Galatasaray S. K. official website Unofficial Fan Site and Forum Turkish Women Basketball League
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
University of Tartu basketball team
University of Tartu basketball team, is a professional basketball team based in Tartu, Estonia. The team plays in the Latvian–Estonian Basketball League, they play their home games at the University of Tartu Sports Hall. Founded in 1937 as division of the University of Tartu Academic Sports Club, the team have won a record 26 Estonian Championships, a record 16 Estonian Cups and 1 Soviet Championship; the team was founded in 1937 by Herbert Niiler as Tartu Estonian Academic Sports Club, or Tartu EASK. The team was promoted to the top-tier Estonian Championship. Led by Estonia national team players Oskar Erikson, Aleksander Illi, Heino Veskila and Ralf Viksten, the team won the 1938 Estonian Championship and managed to defend the title in the two following seasons; the club's success was cut short by the Soviet occupation. University of Tartu returned to the Estonian Championship in 1948. On 28 August 1948, the team defeated Tartu Dünamo with a record score of 132–6, with Ilmar Kullam scoring 40 points.
Led by a generation of star players such as Kullam, Heino Kruus and Joann Lõssov, the team won five consecutive Estonian Championships from 1948 to 1952. In 1949, the team won the Soviet Championship; the team, now coached by Ernst Ehaveer, won another Estonian Championship in 1956 with a team of players from different generations like the veteran Kullam and the young Mart Laga. In 1957, center Jaak Lipso joined the team and Tartu won two more championships in 1958 and 1959. After Lipso's departure, the team struggled in the 1960s before acquiring Aleksei Tammiste in 1968; the team won the 1968–69 season by defeating Tallinna Kalev 82–80 in the final, fielding an unorthodox starting lineup of 4 guards and 1 forward. Led by Tammiste and Anatoli Krikun, the team won eight Estonian Championships from 1969 to 1978. In 1983, Ehaveer ended his 27-season tenure as the head coach. Under Ehaveer, the team had won a total of 5 Estonian Cups. In the 1980s, the team entered into a period of decline. Tartu continued to struggle after the restoration of Estonia's independence in 1991.
In the 1995–96 season, the team reached the finals, but lost the series to Kalev 0–3. In 1997, University of Tartu hired Teet Laur as head coach. In 1998, the team signed Marek Doronin. University of Tartu finished the 1999–2000 regular season in third place, but reached the finals in the playoffs and won their first title since 1978, defeating Tallinna Kalev in three games; the team made their debut in Europe, entering the 1999–2000 FIBA Saporta Cup, but failed to advance past the group stage with just one win in 10 games. In 2000, Jüri Neissaar replaced Laur as head coach; the team defended their KML title in the 2000–01 season, defeating Tallinna Ülikoolid-A. Le Coq in three games in the finals. Tanel Tein was named Most Valuable Player of the season; the team failed to win their third consecutive KML title as Tartu lost the series to Tallinna Kalev 2–3. Tein was named MVP for the second year in a row. In 2003, Tõnu Lust was hired as head coach. University of Tartu won the 2003–04 regular season and won the title, defeating EBS/Nybit in 4 games to 2 in the finals.
Augenijus Vaškys was named Lust won the Coach of the Year award. The team finished the 2004–05 regular season with a 12–4 record, but lost the finals to Ehitustööriist 3 games to 4. After the season, Lust was replaced as head coach by the assistant coach Paavo Russak; the team reached the finals in the 2005–06 season, but were once again defeated by Kalev/Cramo 3 games to 4, losing the deciding seventh game by a single point, 68–69. Despite the loss, Tein was named MVP of the season for the third time. University of Tartu signed Gert Kullamäe, Martin Müürsepp and Giorgi Tsintsadze for the 2006–07 season, while Algirdas Brazys replaced Russak as head coach; the team won the regular season and reached the finals in the playoffs, where they defeated Kalev/Cramo 4 games to 2. Tein was named the KML Finals MVP. Üllar Kerde was hired as the new head coach for the next season. University of Tartu competed in the 2007–08 FIBA EuroCup and made Estonian basketball history by reaching the Final Four, where they were defeated by Barons LMT 82–88 in the semifinals.
In the third place games, the team faced Proteas EKA AEL, but lost 70–79. University of Tartu defended their KML title in the 2007–08 season, defeating Kalev/Cramo in a four-game sweep in the finals. Brian Cusworth was named the KML Finals MVP, in addition to regular-season MVP, while Tein was named Estonian Player of the Year and Kerde won the Coach of the Year award. On 20 December 2008, Kerde was replaced by assistant coach Indrek Visnapuu. University of Tartu advanced to the finals in the playoffs. In the finals, the team faced Kalev/Cramo once again and lost the series 2 games to 4; the team won the 2009 -- 10 season. Janar Talts was named KML Finals MVP. On 25 January 2012, Visnapuu was replaced by assistant coach and former University of Tartu player Gert Kullamäe; the team won their next Estonian Championship in the 2014–15 season, defeating Kalev/Cramo 4 games to 1 in the finals. Tanel Kurbas was named the KML Finals Kullamäe won the Coach of the Year award. University of Tartu participated in the 2015–16 season of the newly established FIBA Europe Cup, reaching the round of 32.
In Estonia, the team finished the 2015–16 regular season in second place. The team advanced to the finals, but were defeated by Kalev/Cramo 4 games to 1; the team has had several denominations through the years
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original