MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH is a manufacturer of commercial internal combustion engines founded by Wilhelm Maybach and his son Karl Maybach in 1909. Wilhelm Maybach was the technical director of Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, a predecessor company of the German multinational automotive corporation Daimler AG, until he left in 1907. On 23 March 1909, he founded the new company, Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH, with his son Karl Maybach as director. A few years the company was renamed to Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH, which developed and manufactured diesel and petrol engines for Zeppelins, railcars; the Maybach Mb. IVa was used in aircraft and airships of World War I; the company first built an experimental car in 1919, with the first production model introduced two years at the Berlin Motor Show. Between 1921 and 1940, the company produced various classic opulent vehicles; the company continued to build heavy duty diesel engines for marine and rail purposes. During the Second World War, Maybach produced the engines for Germany's medium and heavy tanks.
The company was renamed MTU Friedrichshafen in the 1960s and continued to supply the engines for the Leopard 2 main battle tank. MTU derives from Motoren- und Turbinen-Union meaning "Motor and Turbine Union". MTU Friedrichshafen remained a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler until 2006 when it was sold off to the EQT IV private equity fund, becoming a part of the Tognum Corporation. Rolls-Royce Holdings and Daimler AG acquired Tognum in 2011. In 2014, Tognum was renamed Rolls-Royce Power Systems, having become a 100 per cent subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Holdings; the company manufactures diesel engines for trains, ships and gas installations, military vehicles, agriculture and construction equipment, as well as diesel generators and molten carbonate fuel cells. 1909: Foundation of Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH in Bissingen an der Enz as part of the Zeppelin corporation. The company manufactures engines for airships. 1912: 1911/12 relocation to Friedrichshafen. 1918: Motorenbau GmbH is renamed Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH.
After the end of the First World War the company began to manufacture car engines. 1966: Merger of the two companies Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau Friedrichshafen GmbH and Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH to form Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH. 1969: Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH is renamed Motoren und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH. The company is a subsidiary of MTU München GmbH, owned at equal shares by Daimler-Benz AG and MAN AG until 1985. 1989: Incorporation of MTU Friedrichshafen in Deutsche Aero-space AG, a company of the Daimler-Benz Group. 1994: Cooperation of MTU Friedrichshafen with Detroit Diesel Corporation 1995: MTU Friedrichshafen and MTU München go their separate ways. 2001: MTU Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH is renamed MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH. 2005: In late 2005, the DaimlerChrysler Off-Highway business unit, including MTU Friedrichshafen and the Off-Highway division of Detroit Diesel Corporation, is sold to the Swedish financial investor EQT Partners.
2006: The business is transferred into the new holding company Tognum, with MTU Friedrichshafen as its core company. 2009: MTU Friedrichshafen celebrates its centenary. In the same year introduction of the new Series 1600, rounding off the performance range at the lower end of the product portfolio. 2011: Rolls-Royce Holdings and Daimler AG announced they were buying Tognum 2014: Tognum was renamed Rolls-Royce Power Systems 2014: From 26 August Rolls-Royce Power Systems became a 100 per cent subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Holdings Rolls-Royce Power Systems Wilhelm Maybach Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH Daimler AG Rolls-Royce Holdings Detroit Diesel Bergen Marine Official website History of the company MTU spare parts Maybach tank engines MTU Western U. S. Distributor: Pacific Power Group
The Leclerc tank is a main battle tank built by GIAT, now Nexter of France. It was named in honour of General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, who led the French element of the drive towards Paris while in command of the Free French 2nd Armoured Division in World War II; the designation AMX-56 – while popular – is not used officially. The Leclerc is in service with the United Arab Emirates Army. In production since 1991, the Leclerc entered French service in 1992, replacing the AMX 30 as the country's main armoured platform. With production now complete, the French Army has 406 Leclercs and the United Arab Emirates Army has 388; the price in 2011 was € 9.3 million. In 1964, studies were initiated about a possible replacement vehicle for the AMX 30: the Engin Principal Prospectif. In 1971, in view of the inferiority of the AMX 30 in comparison to the new generation of Soviet tanks about to be introduced, the Direction des Armements Terrestres ordered the beginning of the Char Futur project. In 1975, a working committee was created that in 1977 agreed on a list of specifications.
In February 1980 however, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed with West Germany involving the joint development of a MBT, called the Napoléon I in France and Kampfpanzer III in Germany. Fundamental disagreements about its desired configuration led to a failure of this cooperation in December 1982, it was announced that a purely French battle tank would be developed, called "EPC". The importation of foreign equipment, like the M1 Abrams, the Leopard 2, or the Merkava, had been studied and rejected. In contrast to most Western programmes of the time, much consideration was given to active, besides passive protection, to limit the overall mass of the vehicle. Mobility for evading enemy fire and fire control systems were given particular attention, it was a stated design goal to achieve at least double the protection against KE-penetrators in comparison to the level attained in current MBTs of the fifty ton weight class, the latter indicated at about 400 mm RHA equivalency, the higher level at the same time protecting against shaped charges.
Partnership with a foreign state was sought to limit the cost per unit, this was found when the United Arab Emirates ordered 436 vehicles, adding to the 426 units planned for the French Army. In 1986, the project was started under six prototypes being built swiftly. Mass production started in 1990 with the four-unit Batch 1, used for comparative tests in foreign countries; the 17 units of Batch 2 were shipped, in the hull armour. These units were diagnosed with problems in the engine and suspension, were retired. Batch 3 followed with some improvements and have been used to define the doctrine of use, instruction. Batches 4 and 5 were better built, eliminating the recurrent problems in the powerplant, are still in service, after having been refitted at the end of the 1990s; the second series started with Batch 6, with an added climate control system in the right rear of the turret. Batch 7 introduced a transmission system to the command vehicle, a data system giving instantaneous vision of the state of all battle tanks and acquired targets.
It incorporated minor improvements in the visor. Batch 8 was a modernisation of the electronic system, Batch 9 replaced the thermal imaging ATHOS by a SAGEM Iris with better resolution. All previous batches will be modernised up to the standards of Batch 9 from 2005. In 2004, Batch 10 was presented, incorporating new information systems which could share the disposition of enemy and friendly units to all vehicles on the battlefield, a new armor package; this was the beginning of the 96-unit third series. By 2007, 355 tanks should have been operational, 320 of them incorporated in four regiments, each of 80 Leclerc vehicles; as of 2010, after a French defence review, each of the four regiments operated 60 Leclerc tanks for a total of 240 in operational units. Due to finance cuts, only 254 tanks were operational in 2011; the four regiments are: 1e régiment de chasseurs stationed near Verdun, part of the 7th Armoured Brigade 4e régiment de dragons stationed in Carnoux-en-Provence, part of the 7th Armoured Brigade 12e régiment de cuirassiers stationed in Olivet, part of the 2nd Armoured Brigade 501e régiment de chars de combat stationed in Mourmelon-le-Grand, 2nd Armoured Brigade In September 2018 Der Spiegel raised questions about the size of the commission paid by GIAT to intermediaries.
The Leclerc is equipped with a GIAT CN120-26 120mm smoothbore cannon. This cannon is capable of firing the same NATO standard 120mm rounds as the German Leopard 2 and US M1 Abrams, but in practice only French-produced ammunition is issued; the gun is insulated with a thermal sleeve and has an automatic compressed-air fume extraction system instead of the usual bore evacuator. The Leclerc has a unique autoloading system, designed for it, reduces the crew to three by eliminating the human loader; the turret of the Leclerc was designed around the auto-loading system in order to avoid the problems common to other tanks with an autoloader. The Leclerc autoloader allows a rate of fire of 12 shots per minute and holds 22 rounds of ready ammunition; the most common types are the armour piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot with a tungsten core and the high explosive anti-tank round. The gun is 52 calibres long instead
The Diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air; this increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised Diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; the process of mixing air and fuel happens entirely during combustion, the oxygen diffuses into the flame, which means that the Diesel engine operates with a diffusion flame. The torque a Diesel engine produces is controlled by manipulating the air ratio; the Diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air.
A small efficiency loss is avoided compared with two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust. Low-speed Diesel engines can reach effective efficiencies of up to 55%. Diesel engines may be designed as either four-stroke cycles, they were used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later. In the 1930s, they began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of Diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US has increased. According to Konrad Reif, the EU average for Diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total newly registered; the world's largest Diesel engines put in service are 14-cylinder, two-stroke watercraft Diesel engines. In 1878, Rudolf Diesel, a student at the "Polytechnikum" in Munich, attended the lectures of Carl von Linde.
Linde explained that steam engines are capable of converting just 6-10 % of the heat energy into work, but that the Carnot cycle allows conversion of all the heat energy into work by means of isothermal change in condition. According to Diesel, this ignited the idea of creating a machine that could work on the Carnot cycle. After several years of working on his ideas, Diesel published them in 1893 in the essay Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor. Diesel was criticised for his essay, but only few found the mistake that he made. Diesel's idea was to compress the air so that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. However, such an engine could never perform any usable work. In his 1892 US patent #542846 Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle: "pure atmospheric air is compressed, according to curve 1 2, to such a degree that, before ignition or combustion takes place, the highest pressure of the diagram and the highest temperature are obtained-that is to say, the temperature at which the subsequent combustion has to take place, not the burning or igniting point.
To make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. In that case the initial pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres, so on. Into the air thus compressed is gradually introduced from the exterior finely divided fuel, which ignites on introduction, since the air is at a temperature far above the igniting-point of the fuel; the characteristic features of the cycle according to my present invention are therefore, increase of pressure and temperature up to the maximum, not by combustion, but prior to combustion by mechanical compression of air, there upon the subsequent performance of work without increase of pressure and temperature by gradual combustion during a prescribed part of the stroke determined by the cut-oil". By June 1893, Diesel had realised his original cycle would not work and he adopted the constant pressure cycle. Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application.
Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion. Now it is stated that the compression must be sufficient to trigger ignition. "1. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air or gas. See US patent # 608845 filed 1895 / granted 1898In 1892, Diesel received patents in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States for "Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work". In 1894 and 1895, he filed patents and addenda in various
The FV4034 Challenger 2 is a British main battle tank in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. It was designed and built by the British company Vickers Defence Systems. Vickers Defence Systems began to develop a successor to Challenger 1 as a private venture in 1986. A £90 million deal for a demonstrator vehicle was finalised in January 1989. In June 1991, the Ministry of Defence placed a £520 million order for 140 vehicles, with a further 268 ordered in 1994. Production began in 1993 and the unit's tanks were delivered in July 1994, replacing the Challenger 1; the tank entered service with the British Army in 1998, with the last delivered in 2002. It is expected to remain in service until 2035; the Royal Army of Oman ordered 18 Challenger 2s in 1993 and a further 20 tanks in November 1997. The Challenger 2 is an extensive redesign of the Challenger 1. Although the hull and automotive components seem similar, they are of a newer design and build than those of the Challenger 1 and only around 3% of components are interchangeable.
A visual recognition feature is the armoured housing for the TOGS thermal gunsight. The tank's drive system provides a 550 km range, with a maximum road speed of 59 km/h; the Challenger 2 is equipped with a 120-millimetre 55-calibre long L30A1 tank gun, the successor to the L11 gun used on the Chieftain and Challenger 1. Unique among NATO main battle tank armament, the L30A1 is rifled, because the British Army continues to place a premium on the use of High-explosive squash head rounds in addition to armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding-sabot rounds; the Challenger 2 is armed with a L94A1 EX-34 7.62 mm chain gun and a 7.62 mm L37A2 machine gun. Fifty main armament rounds and 4,200 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition are carried. The Challenger 2 has a four-man crew; the turret and hull are protected with second generation Chobham armour. On one occasion, in August 2006, during the post-invasion stage of the Iraq War, an RPG-29 was fired at a Challenger 2, climbing over a ramp; the armour on its front underside hull, augmented with an explosive reactive armour package, was damaged, injuring several crew members.
The tank subsequently returned to base under its own power and was repaired and back on duty the following day. As a response to the incident, the explosive reactive armour package was replaced with a Dorchester block and the steel underbelly lined with armour as part of the'Streetfighter' upgrade. To date, the only time the tank has been damaged during operations was by another Challenger 2 in a'blue on blue' incident at Basra in 2003 when the damaged tank had its hatch open at the time of the incident, it has seen operational service in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iraq. The Challenger 2 is the third vehicle of this name, the first being the A30 Challenger, a World War II design using the Cromwell tank chassis with a 17-pounder gun; the second was the Persian Gulf War era Challenger 1, the British army's main battle tank from the early 1980s to the mid-1990s. Vickers Defence Systems began to develop a successor to Challenger 1 as a private venture in 1986. Following the issue of a Staff Requirement for a next-generation tank, Vickers submitted its plans for Challenger 2 to the Ministry of Defence.
They evaluated the American M1 Abrams offered by General Dynamics, but the Thatcher government chose to proceed with the Challenger 2 in December 1988. Secretary of State for Defence George Younger announced to the House of Commons that Vickers would receive a £90 million contract for a demonstrator vehicle, a deal, finalised in January 1989; the demonstration phase had three milestones for progress, with dates of September 1989, March 1990, September 1990. At the last of these milestones, Vickers was to have met 11 key criteria for the tank's design. In June 1991, after competition with other tank manufacturers' designs, the MoD placed a £520 million order for 127 MBTs and 13 driver training vehicles. An order for a further 259 tanks and 9 driver trainers was placed in 1994. Oman ordered 18 Challenger 2s in 1993 and a further 20 tanks in November 1997. Production began in 1993 at two primary sites: Elswick and Wear and Barnbow, although over 250 subcontractors were involved; the first tanks were delivered in July 1994.
The Challenger 2 completed its Reliability Growth Trial in 1994. Three vehicles were tested for 285 simulated battlefield days; each day consisted of: 27 km of on-road travel 33 km of off-road travel 34 main armament rounds fired 1,000 7.62 MG rounds fired 16 hours weapon system operation 10 hours main engine idling 3.5 hours main engine running An important milestone was the In-Service Reliability Demonstration in 1999. 12 crewed tanks were tested at the Bovington test tracks and at Lulworth Bindon ranges. The tank exceeded all staff requirements; the Challenger 2 entered service with the British Army in 1998, with the last delivered in 2002. It serves with the Queen's Royal Hussars, the King's Royal Hussars and the Royal Tank Regiment, each of, the tank Regiment of an Armoured Infantry Brigade. Under Army 2020, only three Challenger 2 Tank Regiments will remain: the Queen's Royal Hussars, the King's Royal Hussars and the Royal Tank Regiment. A single Army Reserve regiment, The Royal Wessex Yeomanry, will provide reservist Challenger crews to the regular regiments.
Deliveries of the Challenger 2 to Oman were complete
MAN SE MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich, its primary output is for the automotive industry heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, turbomachinery. MAN supplies trucks, diesel engines and turbomachinery. In 2016, its 53,824 employees generated annual sales of around €13.6 billion. MAN SE is owned in majority by Volkswagen AG, it is a producer of Commercial Vehicles, through its MAN Truck & Bus and MAN Latin America divisions, participation in the manufacturer Sinotruk. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks "St. Antony", "Gute Hoffnung", "Neue Essen" merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, renamed Gute Hoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany: the "Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik."
It firstly became the "C. Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik", named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, on the "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg"; the branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the railway bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg. In 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region, mechanical engineering became the dominating branch of business in Augsburg and Nuremberg. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a medium-sized business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion and steel building were the big topics of this phase.
The early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies, they constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857 and the Müngsten railway bridge between 1893 and 1897. The invention of the rotary printing press allowed the copious printing of books and newspapers and since 1893, Rudolf Diesel puzzled for four years with future MAN engineers in a laboratory in Augsburg until his first Diesel engine was completed and functional. During 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by Sterkrade. Through well-directed equities and acquisitions of processing industries, e.g. Deutsche Werft, Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau, MAN advanced to a nationwide operating enterprise, with a workforce of 52,000 by 1921. MAN produced tractors by the name MAN Ackerdiesel between.
The decision for tractors production was made due to increasing demand from eastern Germany. At the same time the GHH's economic situation worsened; the causes for this were, among others, the reparations after World War I, the occupation of the Ruhr region and the world economic crisis. In only two years the number of MAN employees sank from 14,000 in the year 1929/30 to 7,400 in 1931/32. While the civil business was collapsing, the military business increased with the armament under the National Socialist regime. GHH/MAN enterprises supplied diesel engines for submarines, cylinders for projectiles and artillery of every description. MAN produced gun parts, including Mauser Karabiner 98k rifle bolts, their Waffenamt code was WaA53, ordnance code was "coc". The MAN works in Augsburg, which produced diesel engines for U-boats, the MAN works in Nuremberg, which built 40 percent of Germany's Panther tanks, were the target of massive Allied bombing attacks during World War II. After the end of World War II the allies split up the GHH group.
A vertical integration in which mining and steel production are consolidated was not allowed any more. The "Gutehoffnungshütte", together with the MAN firms of Southern Germany, therefore concentrated on engineering, plant construction, commercial vehicles and printing machines; this process has been supported by strategic dispositions. In 1982/83 the "Gutehoffnungshütte" plunged into a deep corporate crisis; the enterprise suffered from the late effects of a bad economic situation. This was displayed by the dramatic downturn of the commercial vehicles sales figures. Besides e
The Merkava is a main battle tank used by the Israel Defense Forces. The tank began development in 1970, entered official service in 1979. Four main variants of the tank have been deployed, it was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War. The name "Merkava" was derived from the IDF's initial development program name. Design criteria include rapid repair of battle damage, cost-effectiveness and off-road performance. Following the model of contemporary self-propelled howitzers, the turret assembly is located closer to the rear than in most main battle tanks. With the engine in front, this layout is intended to grant additional protection against a frontal attack, so as to absorb some of the force of incoming shells for the personnel in the main hull, such as the driver, it creates more space in the rear of the tank that allows increased storage capacity and a rear entrance to the main crew compartment allowing easy access under enemy fire. This allows the tank to be used as a platform for medical disembarkation, a forward command and control station, an infantry fighting vehicle.
The rear entrance's clamshell-style doors provide overhead protection when off- and on-loading cargo and personnel. It was decided shortly before the beginning of the 2006 Lebanon War that the Merkava line would be discontinued within four years. However, on November 7, 2006, Haaretz reported that an Israeli General staff assessment had ruled of the Merkava Mark IV that "if properly deployed, the tank can provide its crew with better protection than in the past", deferred the decision on discontinuing the line. On August 16, 2013, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon announced the decision to resume production of the Merkava main battle tank for the IDF Armored Corps. In 1965, Israel's military establishment began research and development on a domestically produced tank, the "Sabra". Britain and Israel collaborated to adapt the United Kingdom's Chieftain tank that had entered British Army service in 1966. However, in 1969, Britain decided not to sell the tank to Israel for political reasons.
Israel Tal, serving as a brigade commander after the Suez Crisis, restarted plans to produce an Israeli-made tank, drawing on lessons from the 1973 Yom Kippur War, in which Israeli forces were outnumbered by those of the Middle East's Arab nations. By 1974, initial designs were completed and prototypes were built. After a brief set of trials, work began to retool the Tel HaShomer ordnance depot for full-time development and construction. After the new facilities were completed, the Merkava was announced to the public in the International Defense Review periodical; the first official images of the tank were released to the American periodical Armed Forces Journal on May 4, 1977. The first Merkava Mk. 1 tanks were supplied to the IDF in April 1979, nearly nine years after the decision to produce the Merkava Mk. 1 tank was taken. The IDF adopted the tank in December 1979; the lead organization for system integration of the Merkava's main components is Israel Military Industries. The Israeli Ordnance Corps are responsible for final Merkava assembly.
More than 90% of the Merkava 4 tank's components are produced locally in Israel by Israeli defense industries. Contributors to the vehicle include: IMI manufactures the 105 mm and 120 mm main guns and their ammunition. Urdan Industries assembles and constructs the hull, drive- and powertrains, turret assemblies. Bental Industries, a TAT Technologies subsidiary, produced the brushless motors used in the Mark IV's turret and gun control system; the Merkava Mark I and II were armed with a 105 mm M64 gun, A license built variant of the M68. The Mark III, Mark III Dor Dalet BAZ kassag, the Mark IV are armed with an IMI 120 mm smoothbore gun which can fire all versions of Western 120 mm smooth bore tank ammunition; each model of the Merkava has two roof mounted 7.62 mm machine guns for use by the commander and loader and another mounted co-axially with the main gun. A 60 mm mortar is fitted for firing smoke rounds or suppressing dug-in infantry anti-tank teams. All Merkava tanks are fitted with a remote-controlled M2 Browning.50 heavy machine gun, aligned with the main gun and controlled from within the turret.
The.50 machine gun has proven to be effective in asymmetric warfare. The tank's 1,500 horsepower turbocharged diesel engine was designed by MTU and is manufactured under license by L-3 Communication Combat Propulsion Systems; the Mark IV's top road speed is 64 km/h. The Mark I
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield manoeuvrability. They are a key part of combined arms combat. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon system platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret, supplemented by mounted machine guns or other weapons, such as ATGMs, or rockets, they combine this with heavy vehicle armour which provides protection for the crew, the vehicle's weapons, its propulsion systems, operational mobility, due to its use of tracks rather than wheels, which allows the tank to move over rugged terrain and adverse conditions such as mud, be positioned on the battlefield in advantageous locations. These features enable the tank to perform well in a variety of intense combat situations both offensively with fire from their powerful tank gun, defensively due to their near invulnerability to common firearms and good resistance to heavier weapons, all while maintaining the mobility needed to exploit changing tactical situations.
Integrating tanks into modern military forces spawned a new era of combat, armoured warfare. There are classes of tanks, some being larger and heavily armoured, with high calibre guns, while others smaller armoured, equipped with a smaller calibre, lighter gun; these smaller tanks move over terrain with speed and agility and can perform a reconnaissance role in addition to engaging enemy targets. The smaller faster tank would not engage in battle with a larger armoured tank, except during a surprise flanking manoeuvre; the modern tank is the result of a century of development from the first primitive armoured vehicles, due to improvements in technology such as the internal combustion engine, which allowed the rapid movement of heavy armoured vehicles. As a result of these advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and by Great Britain and France as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front.
The first British prototype, nicknamed Little Willie, was constructed at William Foster & Co. in Lincoln, England in 1915, with leading roles played by Major Walter Gordon Wilson who designed the gearbox and hull, by William Tritton of William Foster and Co. who designed the track plates. This was a prototype of a new design that would become the British Army's Mark I tank, the first tank used in combat in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme; the name "tank" was adopted by the British during the early stages of their development, as a security measure to conceal their purpose. While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tank's potential, built only twenty. Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II. Important new concepts of armoured warfare were developed. Less than two weeks Germany began their large-scale armoured campaigns that would become known as blitzkrieg – massed concentrations of tanks combined with motorised and mechanised infantry and air power designed to break through the enemy front and collapse enemy resistance.
The widespread introduction of high-explosive anti-tank warheads during the second half of World War II led to lightweight infantry-carried anti-tank weapons such as the Panzerfaust, which could destroy some types of tanks. Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, led to improved armour types during the 1960s composite armour. Improved engines and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed as well, with advances in shell design and aiming technology. During the Cold War, the main battle tank concept became a key component of modern armies. In the 21st century, with the increasing role of asymmetrical warfare and the end of the Cold War, that contributed to the increase of cost-effective anti-tank rocket propelled grenades worldwide and its successors, the ability of tanks to operate independently has declined. Modern tanks are more organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry, who may accompany the tanks in infantry fighting vehicles, supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft.
The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept: that of providing troops with mobile protection and firepower. The internal combustion engine, armour plate, continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. G. Wells in some way "invented" the tank. Leonardo's late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a "tank" show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it; however the human crew would not have enough power to move it over larger distance, usage of animals was problematic in a space so confined. In the 15th century, Jan Žižka built armoured wagons containing cannons and used them in several battles; the continuous "caterpillar" track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century, by the late nineteenth they existed in various recognizable and practical forms in several countries.
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