Haut-Rhin is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine. Its name means Upper Rhine. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departments of the former administrative Alsace region after the 1871 cession of the southern territory known since 1922 as Territoire de Belfort, although it is still densely populated compared to the rest of metropolitan France; the department consists of the following arrondissements: Altkirch Colmar-Ribeauvillé Mulhouse Thann-Guebwiller Haut-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments, created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790 through the application of the law of 22 December 1789 in respect of the southern half of the province of Alsace. Its boundaries have been modified many times: 1798, it absorbed Mulhouse a free city, the last Swiss enclave in the south of Alsace; the remaining French part formed the Territoire de Belfort in 1922. 1940, it was annexed de facto by Nazi Germany. 1944, it was recovered by France.
Haut-Rhin is bordered by the Territoire de Belfort and Vosges départements and the Vosges Mountains to the west, the Bas-Rhin département to the North, Switzerland to the south and its eastern border with Germany is the Rhine. In the centre of the département lies a fertile plain; the climate is semi-continental. Haut-Rhin is one of the richest French départements. Mulhouse is the home of a Peugeot automobile factory, manufacturing the 206 models; the lowest unemployment rate in France can be found in the Southern Sundgau region. The countryside is marked by hills. Many Haut-Rhinois work in Switzerland in the chemical industries of Basel, but commute from France where living costs are lower. Alsace and the adjacent Moselle department have a legal system different from the rest of France; the statutes in question date from the period 1871 - 1919 when the area was part of the German Empire. With the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France in 1919, Paris accepted that Alsace and Moselle should retain some local laws in respect of certain matters with regard to hunting, economic life, local government relationships, health insurance and social rights.
It includes notably the absence of any formal separation between church and state: several mainstream denominations of the Christian church benefit from state funding, in contrast to principles applied in the rest of France. Alsatian language Cantons of the Haut-Rhin department Communes of the Haut-Rhin department Arrondissements of the Haut-Rhin department General Council website Prefecture website Haut-Rhin at Curlie
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. Inhabitants of the department are known as Mosellans. Moselle is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the former province of Lorraine. In 1793, France annexed the enclaves of Manderen, Lixing-lès-Rouhling, Créhange - all possessions of princes of the Duchy of Luxemburg - a state of the Holy Roman Empire, incorporated them into the Moselle département. One of its first prefects was the comte de Vaublanc, from 1805 to 1814. By the Treaty of Paris of 1814 following the first defeat and abdication of Napoleon, France had to surrender all the territory it had conquered since 1792. In northeastern France, the Treaty did not restore the 1792 borders, but defined a new frontier to put an end to the convoluted nature of the border, with all its enclaves and exclaves.
As a result, France ceded the exclave of Tholey as well as a few communes near Sierck-les-Bains to Austria. On the other hand, the Treaty confirmed the French annexations of 1793, furthermore, the south of the Napoleonic département of Sarre was ceded to France, including the town of Lebach, the city of Saarbrücken, the rich coal basin nearby. France thus became a net beneficiary of the Treaty of Paris: all the new territories ceded to her being far larger and more strategic than the few territories ceded to Austria. All these new territories were incorporated into the Moselle department, so Moselle had now a larger territory than since 1790. However, with the return of Napoleon and his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Treaty of Paris in November 1815 imposed much harsher conditions on France. Tholey and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains were still to be ceded as agreed in 1814, but the south of the Sarre department with Saarbrücken was withdrawn from France. In addition, France had to cede to Austria the area of Rehlingen as well as the strategic fort-town of Saarlouis and the territory around it, all territories and towns which France had controlled since the 17th century, which formed part of the Moselle department since 1790.
At the end of 1815 Austria transferred all these territories to Prussia, making for the first time a shared border for those two states. Thus, by the end of 1815, the Moselle department had the limits that it would keep until 1871, it was smaller than at its creation in 1790, the incorporation of the Austrian enclaves not compensating for the loss of Saarlouis, Rehlingen and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains. Between 1815 and 1871, the department had an area of 5,387 km², its prefecture was Metz. It had four arrondissements: Metz, Briey and Thionville. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 all of the Moselle department, along with Alsace and portions of the Meurthe and Vosges departments, went to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the grounds that most of the population in those areas spoke German dialects. Bismarck omitted only one-fifth of Moselle from annexation, The Moselle department ceased to exist on May 18, 1871, the eastern four-fifths of Moselle was annexed to Germany merged with the German-annexed eastern third of the Meurthe Department into the German Department of Lorraine, based in Metz, within the newly established Imperial State of Alsace-Lorraine.
France merged the remaining area of Briey with the truncated Meurthe department to create the new Meurthe-et-Moselle department with its préfecture at Nancy. In 1919, following the French victory in the First World War, Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, it was decided not to recreate the old separate departments of Meurthe and Moselle by reverting to the old department borders of before 1871. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, the annexed part of Lorraine was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle. Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before 1871. Having lost the area of Briey, it had now gained the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg which before 1871 had formed one-third of the Meurthe department and, part of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine since 1871; the new Moselle department now reached its current area of 6,216 km², larger than the old Moselle because the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg were far larger than the area of Briey and Longwy.
When the Second World War was declared on September 3, 1939 around 30% of Moselle's territory lay between the Maginot Line and the German frontier. 302,732 people, around 45% of the department's population, were evacuated to departments in central and western France during September 1939. Of those evacuated, around 200,000 returned after the war. In spite of the June 22, 1940 armistice, Moselle was again annexed by Germany in July of that year by becoming part of the Gau Westmark. Adolf Hitler considered Moselle and Alsace parts of Germany, as a result the inhabitants were drafted into the German Wehrmacht. Several organized groups were formed in resistance to the German occupation, notably the Groupe Mario
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Saarland is a state of Germany. Saarland is located in western Germany covering an area of 2,570 km2 and a population of 995,600, the smallest German state in both area and population apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg. Saarbrücken is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Neunkirchen and Saarlouis. Saarland is surrounded by France to the west and south and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate to the north and east. Saarland was established in 1920 after World War I as the Territory of the Saar Basin, formed from land of Prussia and Bavaria occupied and governed by France and the United Kingdom under a League of Nations mandate; the industrialized region was economically valuable due to the wealth of its coal deposits and location on the border between France and Germany. Saarland was returned to Nazi Germany in the 1935 Saar status referendum, becoming de jure part of Bavaria and de facto part of Gau Westmark. Following World War II, the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany organized the territory as the Saar Protectorate from 1947, becoming a protectorate of France, between 1950 and 1956 was a member of the Council of Europe.
Saarland rejected the 1955 Saar Statute referendum, joined the Federal Republic of Germany as a state on 1 January 1957. Saarland used its own currency, the Saar franc, postage stamps issued specially for the territory until 1959; the region of the Saarland was settled by the Celtic tribes of Mediomatrici. The most impressive relic of their time is the remains of a fortress of refuge at Otzenhausen in the north of the Saarland. In the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire made the region part of its province of Belgica; the Celtic population mixed with the Roman immigrants. The region gained wealth, which can still be seen in the remains of Roman villages. Roman rule ended in the 5th century. For the next 1,300 years the region shared the history of the Kingdom of the Franks, the Carolingian Empire and of the Holy Roman Empire; the region of the Saarland was divided into several small territories, some of which were ruled by sovereigns of adjoining regions. Most important of the local rulers were the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken.
Within the Holy Roman Empire these territories gained a wide range of independence, however, by the French kings, who sought, from the 17th century onwards, to incorporate all the territories on the western side of the river Rhine and invaded the area in 1635, in 1676, in 1679 and in 1734, extending their realm to the Saar River and establishing the city and stronghold of Saarlouis in 1680. It was not the king of France but the armies of the French Revolution who terminated the independence of the states in the region of the Saarland. After 1792 they made it part of the French Republic. While a strip in the west belonged to the Département Moselle, the centre in 1798 became part of the Département de Sarre, the east became part of the Département du Mont-Tonnerre. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the region was divided again. Most of it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Another part in the east, corresponding to the present Saarpfalz district, was allocated to the Kingdom of Bavaria.
A small part in the northeast was ruled by the Duke of Oldenburg. On 31 July 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III ordered an invasion across the River Saar to seize Saarbrücken; the first shots of the Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 were fired on the heights of Spichern, south of Saarbrücken. The Saar region became part of the German Empire which came into existence on 18 January 1871, during the course of this war. In 1920 the Saargebiet was occupied by Britain and France under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles; the occupied area included portions of the Prussian Rhine Province and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate. In practice the region was administered by France. In 1920 this was formalized by a 15-year League of Nations mandate. In 1933, a considerable number of communists and other political opponents of National Socialism fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany that remained outside national administration following the First World War; as a result, anti-Nazi groups agitated for the Saarland to remain under French administration.
However, with most of the population being ethnically German, such views were considered suspect or treasonous, therefore found little support. When the original 15-year term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.8% of those voting favoured rejoining Germany. Following the referendum Josef Bürckel was appointed on 1 March 1935 as the German Reich's commissioner for reintegration; when the reincorporation was considered accomplished, his title was changed to Reichskommissar für das Saarland. In September 1939, in response to the German Invasion of Poland, French forces invaded the Saarland in a half-hearted offensive, occupying some villages and meeting little resistance, before withdrawing. A further change was made after 8 April 1940 to Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz, he died on 28 September 1944 and was succeeded by Willi Stöhr, who remained in office until the region fell to advancing American forces in March 1945. After World War II, the Saarland came under French occupation and administration again, as the Saar Protectorate.
Under the Monnet Plan France attempted to gain economic control of the German industrial areas with large c
Weil am Rhein
Weil am Rhein is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine, close to the point at which the Swiss and German borders meet, it is a suburb of the Swiss city Basel. Weil am Rhein is part of the "trinationale Agglomeration Basel" with about 830,000 inhabitants. Weil am Rhein is located at 47°35′42″N 7°36′39.6″E in the district of Lörrach in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg. The city limits border France to the west and Switzerland to the south including the triple border of the three countries. Locally, Weil is situated in the region referred to as Markgräflerland; the city's location on the Rhine and proximity to the Black Forest give it a continental climate suited to viticulture. The town is first documented in the year 786 as Willa, a name, thought to be of Roman origin; the duc de Villars crossed the Rhine here in October 1702 to fight the Battle of Friedlingen during the War of the Spanish Succession. Weil was damaged as a result of the conflict. Agriculture dominated local industry until the 19th century, when the city began to grow, aided by its favourable transport connections.
A railway marshalling yard linking Weil am Rhein to Basel was built in 1913. Swiss textile factories were established in the Friedlingen quarter. 1934 saw the construction of a harbour on the Rhine. After the Second World War the population again grew due to the influx of refugees and stateless persons. Between 1971 and 1975 the communities of Ötlingen, Haltingen and Märkt were incorporated and Weil am Rhein became a substantial town. Since 2014, line 8 of the Basel tram system has extended across the border from Switzerland to terminate in Weil am Rhein; the former municipalities were merged into Weil am Rhein: 1 December 1971: Ötlingen 1 January 1975: Haltingen and MärktCoat of arms of the former municipalities Weil am Rhein is twinned with: Bognor Regis Huningue Trebbin The premises of the furniture maker Vitra, featuring buildings by architects such as Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid and Tadao Ando, are an attraction for architecture fans. The premises include the Vitra Design Museum; the Laguna water park Landesgartenschau Baden-Württemberg 1999, "Grün 99" Enjott Schneider and writer Patrik Köbele, President of the German Communist Party Christian Streich, former German Bundesliga footballer and current head coach at SC Freiburg Hubert Schardin, who lived in Weil Martin Beneke, completed his schooling at the Kant-Gymnasium.
Beneke was awarded the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize in 2007 for his researches in the field of theoretical elementary particle physics. Former Lynyrd Skynyrd drummer Artimus Pyle traces his ancestry to Weil am Rhein through Claus Koger Official site Vitra Design Museum Laguna water park Weil am Rhein: pictures
A megacity is a large city metropolitan area with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2014 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge due to close proximity; the terms conurbation and metroplex are applied to the latter. As of 2017, there are 47 megacities in existence. Most of these urban agglomerations are in other countries of Asia; the largest are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Jakarta, each having over 30 million inhabitants. China alone has 15 megacities, India has six. Other countries with multiple megacities include the United States and Pakistan, each with two.
African megacities are present in Nigeria and the DRC. This is the list of the world's largest metropolitan areas by population as of 2016; the term "megacity" entered common use in the late early 20th centuries. The United Nations used the term to describe cities of 8 million or more inhabitants, but now uses the threshold of 10 million. In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; the UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities. This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries. One billion people one-seventh of the world's population, now live in shanty towns. In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions and lack of basic health care.
By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums. Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries live in slums. By 2025, Asia alone will have at least 30 megacities, including Mumbai, Shanghai, Delhi, Tokyo and Seoul, South Korea. In Africa, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 21 million today. For five hundred years, Rome was the largest and most politically important city in Europe, its population passed one million people by the end of the 1st century BC. Rome's population started declining in 402 AD when Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423, moved the government to Ravenna and Rome's population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation. Baghdad was the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation in 762 AD until the 930s, with some estimates putting its population at over one million.
Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Kaifeng experienced huge population booms during prosperous empires. According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu, the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity of Chang'an; the medieval settlement surrounding Angkor, the one-time capital of the Khmer Empire which flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, could have supported a population of up to one million people. From around 1825 to 1918 London was the largest city in the world, with the population growing rapidly. In 1950, New York City was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million. Geographers had identified 25 such areas as of October 2005, as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985; this increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe. Since the 2000s, the largest megacity has been the Greater Tokyo Area.
The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, is estimated to be between 37 and 38 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba and Saitama are included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate. A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and estimating the populations. Another list defines megacities as urban agglomerations instead of metropolitan areas; as of 2010, there are 25 megacities by this definition, like Tokyo. Other sources list the Rhein-Ruhr as megacities. According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums or informal settlements decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005.
The Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau is a Franco-German eurodistrict, a cross-border administrative entity sharing common institutions, established on 17 October 2005 and functional since 4 February 2010. The district is formed by the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and 3 other urban communities in the Grand Est region on the French side of the Rhine and the Ortenau district in the Baden-Württemberg region on the German side; the population of the district was 915,000 in 2014. It covers an area of 2,368 km². Building on regional and Franco-German cooperation, it aims to develop bonds between citizens, public administrations, educational establishments and corporations, it is in the context of European integration, with the presence of European institutions in Strasbourg, has been compared to a European version of Washington D. C.. In addition to the array of European and Franco-German institutions, the district includes three ports, two airports and 10 universities; the Eurodistrict's Council is composed of 48 members, with 24 each representing either the French or the German side.
The idea of a eurodistrict Strasbourg-Kehl was launched on 22 January 2003, by then-French President Jacques Chirac and then-German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder during a meeting in the Élysée Palace. 22 January was furthermore declared "French-German day" A common resolution to create the Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict was signed on 24 May 2003 in Offenburg by Fabienne Keller, the mayor of Strasbourg, Robert Grossmann, the president of the Communauté urbaine de Strasbourg, the mayors of Kehl, Achern and Oberkirch as well as the President of the Ortenau district. The resolution's aim was to present a viable version of the project at the upcoming French-German summit on 10 June 2003. On 30 June 2003, the French minister for European Affairs, Noëlle Lenoir, her German colleague, Hans Martin Bury, signed the official document specifying the legal, economical, demographic etc. frameworks within which the Eurodistrict was to be called into existence. The document announced that further presentations of the project were to be made at the French-German summit in the following autumn, as well as during the crossborder flower festival on both banks of the Rhine held in Strasbourg and Kehl in the spring 2004.
Mayor of Strasbourg Roland Ries and after his election campaign in 2007, proposed the strengthening of the district in order to maintain the presence of the European Parliament in the city and making it more autonomous and akin to a European capital territory. However the Ortenaukreis communities have been less enthusiastic about the Eurodistrict project. In late January 2010 the German State greenlighted the entity and the inaugural session of the Eurodistrict's Council took place on 4 February 2010. Roland Ries was elected as the Council's first president; the Eurodistrict is served by several cross-border transportation companies: Ortenau S-Bahn, TER Alsace, Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois. Official website Strasbourg Region