Web of Science
Web of Science is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service produced by the Institute for Scientific Information maintained by Clarivate Analytics, that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline. A citation index is built on the fact that citations in science serve as linkages between similar research items, lead to matching or related scientific literature, such as journal articles, conference proceedings, etc. In addition, literature which shows the greatest impact in a particular field, or more than one discipline, can be located through a citation index. For example, a paper's influence can be determined by linking to all the papers. In this way, current trends and emerging fields of research can be assessed. Eugene Garfield, the "father of citation indexing of academic literature," who launched the Science Citation Index, which in turn led to the Web of Science, wrote: Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common.
A citation index is built around these linkages. It identifies the sources of the citations. Anyone conducting a literature search can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject just by knowing one, cited, and every paper, found provides a list of new citations with which to continue the search. The simplicity of citation indexing is one of its main strengths. Web of Science is described as a unifying research tool which enables the user to acquire and disseminate database information in a timely manner; this is accomplished because of the creation of a common vocabulary, called ontology, for varied search terms and varied data. Moreover, search terms generate related information across categories. Acceptable content for Web of Science is determined by an evaluation and selection process based on the following criteria: impact, timeliness, peer review, geographic representation. Web of Science employs various analysis capabilities. First, citation indexing is employed, enhanced by the capability to search for results across disciplines.
The influence, impact and methodology of an idea can be followed from its first instance, notice, or referral to the present day. This technology points to a deficiency with the keyword-only method of searching. Second, subtle trends and patterns relevant to the literature or research of interest, become apparent. Broad trends indicate significant topics of the day, as well as the history relevant to both the work at hand, particular areas of study. Third, trends can be graphically represented. Expanding the coverage of Web of Science, in November 2009 Thomson Reuters introduced Century of Social Sciences; this service contains files which trace social science research back to the beginning of the 20th century, Web of Science now has indexing coverage from the year 1900 to the present. As of 3 September 2014, the multidisciplinary coverage of the Web of Science encompasses over 50,000 scholarly books, 12,000 journals and 160,000 conference proceedings; the selection is made on the basis of impact evaluations and comprise open-access journals, spanning multiple academic disciplines.
The coverage includes: the sciences, social sciences and humanities, goes across disciplines. However, Web of Science does not index all journals. There is a positive correlation between Impact Factor and CiteScore. However, analysis by Elsevier has identified 216 journals from 70 publishers to be in the top 10 percent of the most-cited journals in their subject category based on the CiteScore while they did not have Impact Factor, it appears that Impact Factor does not provide a comprehensive and an unbiased coverage of high quality journals. Similar results can be observed by comparing Impact Factor with SCImago Journal Rank. Furthermore, as of September 3, 2014 the total file count of the Web of Science was 90 million records, which included over a billion cited references; this citation service on average indexes around 65 million items per year, it is described as the largest accessible citation database. Titles of foreign-language publications are translated into English and so cannot be found by searches in the original language.
The Web of Science Core Collection consists of six online databases: Science Citation Index Expanded covers more than 8,500 notable journals encompassing 150 disciplines. Coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Social Sciences Citation Index covers more than 3,000 journals in social science disciplines. Range of coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Arts & Humanities Citation Index covers more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals starting from 1975. In addition, 250 major scientific and social sciences journals are covered. Emerging Sources Citation Index covers over 5,000 journals in the sciences, social science, humanities. Book Citation Index covers more than 60,000 editorially selected books starting from 2005. Conference Proceedings Citation Index covers more than 160,000 conference titles in the Sciences starting from 1990 to the present day Since 2008, the Web of Science hosts a number of regional citation indices; the Chinese Science Citation Database, produced in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was the first one in a language other than English.
It was followed in 2013 by the SciELO Citation Index, covering Brazil, Portugal, the Cari
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991 granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union; the declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin; that evening at 7:32 p.m. the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag. From August to December all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had either seceded from the union or at the least denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.
The week before formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol formally establishing the CIS and declaring that the USSR had ceased to exist. Both the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR marked the end of the Cold War. Several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with the Russian Federation and formed multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, Eurasian Economic Community, the Union State, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union to enhance economic and security cooperation. On the other hand, the Baltic states have joined the European Union. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11, 1985, three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko's death at age 73. Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo, his initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political and social structures.
The reforms began with personnel changes of senior Brezhnev-era officials who would impede political and economic change. On April 23, 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members, he kept the "power" ministries happy by promoting KGB Head Viktor Chebrikov from candidate to full member and appointing Minister of Defence Marshal Sergei Sokolov as a Politburo candidate. This liberalization, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union, it led indirectly to the revolutions of 1989, in which Soviet-imposed socialist regimes of the Warsaw Pact were toppled peacefully, which in turn increased pressure on Gorbachev to introduce greater democracy and autonomy for the Soviet Union's constituent republics. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies. In May 1985, Gorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism.
Prices of vodka and beer were raised, intended to discourage drinking by increasing the cost of liquor. A rationing program was introduced, where citizens were assigned punch cards detailing how much liquor they could buy in a certain time frame. Unlike most forms of rationing, adopted as a strategy to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing drunkenness. Gorbachev's plan included billboards promoting sobriety, increased penalties for public drunkenness, censorship of drinking scenes from old movies; this mirrored Tsar Nicholas II's program during the First World War, intended to eradicate drunkenness in order to bolster the war effort. However, that earlier effort was intended to preserve grain for only the most essential purposes, which did not appear to be a goal in Gorbachev's program. Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition; the disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a serious blow to the state budget according to Alexander Yakovlev, who noted annual collections of alcohol taxes decreased by 100 billion rubles.
Alcohol sales migrated to the black market and moonshining became more prevalent as some made "bathtub vodka" with homegrown potatoes. Poorer, less educated Soviets resorted to drinking unhealthy substitutes such as nail-polish remover, rubbing alcohol, or men's cologne, resulting in an additional burden on Russia's healthcare sector due to the increased poisoning cases; the underlying purpose of these reforms was to prop up the existing command economy, in contrast to reforms, which tended toward market socialism. On July 1, 1985, Gorbachev promoted Eduard Shevardnadze, First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party, to full member of the Politburo, the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairs, replacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko; the latter, disparaged as "Mr Nyet" in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Gromyko was relegated to the ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, as he was considered an "old thinker".
On July 1, Gorbachev sidelined his main rival by removing Grigory Romanov from the Politburo and he brought Boris Yeltsin and Lev Zaikov into the CPSU Central Committee Secretariat. In the fall of 1985, Gorbachev continued to bring more energetic men into government. On September 27, 55-year-ol
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
Outline of academic disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which she or he belongs and the academic journals in which she or he publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, these are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities; the following outline is provided as topical guide to academic disciplines. Biblical studies Religious studies Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, Aramaic Buddhist theology Christian theology Anglican theology Baptist theology Catholic theology Eastern Orthodox theology Protestant theology Hindu theology Jewish theology Muslim theology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Archaeology Accounting Business management Finance Marketing Operations management Edaphology Environmental chemistry Environmental science Gemology Geochemistry Geodesy Physical geography Atmospheric science / Meteorology Biogeography / Phytogeography Climatology / Paleoclimatology / Palaeogeography Coastal geography / Oceanography Edaphology / Pedology or Soil science Geobiology Geology Geostatistics Glaciology Hydrology / Limnology / Hydrogeology Landscape ecology Quaternary science Geophysics Paleontology Paleobiology Paleoecology Astrobiology Astronomy Observational astronomy Gamma ray astronomy Infrared astronomy Microwave astronomy Optical astronomy Radio astronomy UV astronomy X-ray astronomy Astrophysics Gravitational astronomy Black holes Interstellar medium Numerical simulations Astrophysical plasma Galaxy formation and evolution High-energy astrophysics Hydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Star formation Physical cosmology Stellar astrophysics Helioseismology Stellar evolution Stellar nucleosynthesis Planetary science Also a branch of electrical engineering Pure mathematics Applied mathematics Astrostatistics Biostatistics Academia Academic genealogy Curriculum Multidisciplinary approach Interdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity Professions Classification of Instructional Programs Joint Academic Coding System List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States List of academic fields Abbott, Andrew.
Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2. Oleson, Alexandra; the Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8. US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs. National Center for Education Statistics. Classification of Instructional Programs: Developed by the U. S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. Complete JACS from Higher Education Statistics Agency in the United Kingdom Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification. Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised. Sandoz, R. Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines, University of Geneva
The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union during the Cold War in opposition to the capitalist Western Bloc. In Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc referred to the USSR and its East European satellite states in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In the Americas, the communist bloc included the Caribbean Republic of Cuba, since 1961. Soviet control of the Eastern Bloc was tested by the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and the Tito–Stalin Split over the direction of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Chinese Communist Revolution and China's participation in the Korean War. After Stalin's death in 1953, the Korean War ceased with the 1954 Geneva Conference. In Europe, anti-Soviet sentiment provoked the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany; the break-up of the Eastern Bloc began in 1956 with Nikita Khrushchev's anti-Stalinist speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences.
This speech was a factor in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The Sino–Soviet Split gave North Korea and North Vietnam more independence from both and facilitated the Soviet–Albanian split; the Cuban Missile Crisis preserved the Cuban Revolution from rollback by the United States, but Fidel Castro became independent of Soviet influence afterwards, most notably during the 1975 Cuban intervention in Angola. That year, the communist victory in former French Indochina following the end of the Vietnam War gave the Eastern Bloc renewed confidence after it had been frayed by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev's 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia to suppress the Prague Spring; this led to the Socialist People's Republic of Albania withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact aligning with Mao Zedong's China until the Sino-Albanian split. Under the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet Union reserved the right to intervene in other socialist states. In response, China moved towards the United States following the Sino-Soviet border conflict and reformed and liberalized its economy while the Eastern Bloc saw the Era of Stagnation in comparison with the capitalist First World.
The Soviet–Afghan War nominally expanded the Eastern Bloc, but the war proved unwinnable and too costly for the Soviets, challenged in Eastern Europe by the civil resistanceof Solidarity. In the late 1980s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev pursued policies of glasnost and perestroika to reform the Eastern Bloc and end the Cold War, which brought forth unrest throughout the bloc. Unlike previous Soviet leaders in 1953, 1956 and 1968, Gorbachev refused to use force to end the 1989 Revolutions against Marxist–Leninist rule in Eastern Europe; the fall of the Berlin Wall and end of the Warsaw Pact spread nationalist and liberal ideals throughout the Soviet Union, which would soon dissolve at the end of 1991. Conservative communist elites launched a 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, which hastened the end of Marxist–Leninist rule in Eastern Europe; the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in China were violently repressed by the communist government there, which maintained its grip on power. Although the Soviet Union and its rival the United States considered Europe to be the most important front of the Cold War, the term Eastern Bloc was used interchangeably with the term Second World.
This broadest usage of the term would include not only Maoist China and Cambodia, but short-lived Soviet satellites such as the Second East Turkestan Republic, the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and Republic of Mahabad, as well as the Marxist–Leninist states straddling the Second and Third Worlds before the end of the Cold War: the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, the People's Republic of the Congo, the People's Republic of Benin, the People's Republic of Angola and People's Republic of Mozambique from 1975, the People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada from 1979 to 1983, the Derg/People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 1974 and the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 until the Ogaden War in 1977. Many states were accused by the Western Bloc of being in the Eastern Bloc when they were part of the Non-Aligned Movement; the most limited definition of the Eastern Bloc would only include the Warsaw Pact states and the Mongolian People's Republic as former satellite states most dominated by the Soviet Union.
However, North Korea was subordinate before the Korean War and Soviet aid during the Vietnam War enabled Vietnam to dominate Laos and Cambodia until the end of the Cold War. Cuba's defiance of complete Soviet control was noteworthy enough that Cuba was sometimes excluded as a satellite state altogether, as it sometimes intervened in other Third World countries when Moscow opposed this; the only surviving communist states are China, Cuba, North Korea and Laos. Their state socialist experience was more in line with decolonization from the Global North and anti-imperialism towards the West instead of the Red Army occupation of the former Eastern Bloc; the five surviving socialist states all adopted economic reforms to varying degrees. China and Vietnam are described as more state capitalist than the more traditionalist Cuba and Laos and the more Stalinist North Korea. Cambodia and Kazakhstan are still led by the same Eastern Bloc leaders as during the Cold War, though they are not Marxis
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm. The firm was founded in Toronto, Canada, where it is headquartered at 333 Bay Street in Downtown Toronto. Thomson Reuters shares are cross listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. Thomson Reuters was created by the Thomson Corporation's purchase of the British company Reuters Group in April 2008, is majority owned by The Woodbridge Company, a holding company for the Thomson family. Thomson Reuters was ranked as Canada's "leading corporate brand" in the 2010 Interbrand Best Canadian Brands ranking. Thomson Reuters operates in more than 100 countries, has more than 45,000 employees; the company was founded by Roy Thomson in 1934 in Ontario as the publisher of The Timmins Daily Press. In 1953, Thomson moved to Scotland the following year, he consolidated his media position in Scotland in 1957 when he won the franchise for Scottish Television. In 1959, he bought the Kemsley Group, a purchase that gave him control of the Sunday Times.
He separately acquired the Times in 1967. He moved into the airline business in 1965, when he acquired Britannia Airways and into oil and gas exploration in 1971 when he participated in a consortium to exploit reserves in the North Sea. In the 1970s, following the death of Thomson, the company withdrew from national newspapers and broadcast media, selling the Times, the Sunday Times and Scottish Television and instead moved into publishing, buying Sweet & Maxwell in 1988; the company at this time was known as the International Thomson Organisation Ltd. In 1989, ITOL merged with Thomson Newspapers. In 1996, The Thomson Corporation acquired West Publishing, a purveyor of legal research and solutions including Westlaw; the Company was founded by Paul Julius Reuter in 1851 in London as a business transmitting stock market quotations. Reuter set up his "Submarine Telegraph" office in October 1851 and negotiated a contract with the London Stock Exchange to provide stock prices from the continental exchanges in return for access to London prices, which he supplied to stockbrokers in Paris, France.
In 1865, Reuters in London was the first organization to report the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The company was involved in developing the use of radio in 1923, it was acquired by the British National & Provincial Press in 1941 and first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984. Reuters began to grow in the 1980s, widening the range of its business products and expanding its global reporting network for media and economic services: key product launches included Equities 2000, Dealing 2000-2, Business Briefing, Reuters Television for the financial markets, 3000 Series and the Reuters 3000 Xtra service; the Thomson Corporation acquired Reuters Group PLC to form Thomson Reuters on April 17, 2008. Thomson Reuters operated under a dual-listed company structure and had two parent companies, both of which were publicly listed — Thomson Reuters Corporation and Thomson Reuters PLC. In 2009, it unified its dual listed company structure and stopped its listing on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
It is now listed only as Thomson Reuters Corporation on the New York Stock Exchange and Toronto Stock Exchange. On February 13, 2013, Thomson Reuters announced it would cut 2,500 jobs to cut cost in its Legal and Risk division. On October 29, 2013, Thomson Reuters announced it would cut another 3,000 jobs in those same three divisions; the Thomson-Reuters merger transaction was reviewed by the U. S. Department of Justice and by the European Commission. On February 19, 2008, both the Department of Justice and the Commission cleared the transaction subject to minor divestments; the Department of Justice required the parties to sell copies of the data contained in the following products: Thomson's WorldScope, a global fundamentals product. The proposed settlement further requires the licensing of related intellectual property, access to personnel, transitional support to ensure that the buyer of each set of data can continue to update its database so as to continue to offer users a viable and competitive product.
The European Commission imposed similar divestments: according to the Commission's press release, "the parties committed to divest the databases containing the content sets of such financial information products, together with relevant assets and customer base as appropriate to allow purchasers of the databases and assets to establish themselves as a credible competitive force in the marketplace in competition with the merged entity, re-establishing the pre-merger rivalry in the respective fields."These remedies were viewed as minor given the scope of the transaction. According to the Financial Times, "the remedy proposed by the competition authorities will affect no more than $25m of the new Thomson Reuters group’s $13bn-plus combined revenues."The transaction was cleared by the Canadian Competition Bureau. In November 2009, The European Commission opened formal anti-trust proceedings against Thomson Reuters concerning a potential infringement of the EC Treaty's rules on abuse of a dominant market position.
The Commission investigated Thomson Reuters' practices in the area of real-time market datafeeds, in particular whether customers or competitors were prevented from translating Reuters Instrument Codes to alternative identification codes of other datafeed suppliers to the detriment of competition. In Dec