M. Rainer Lepsius
M. Rainer Lepsius was a German sociologist. A particular interest was in the work of Max Weber: he was prominent among the co-compilers of the 47 volume edition of the Complete Works of Weber. Mario Rainer Lepsius was born in Rio de Janeiro, at that time the capital of Brazil, his Portuguese first name reflected the country where the family lived when he was born, while his second name reflected the German provenance of the family. After moving to Germany he would stop using the name "Mario", substituting the initial "M", why most sources identify him as "M. Rainer Lepsius". On his father's side Lepsius came from a prominent Berlin family, his mother, the daughter of a Munich judge, came from a middle class protestant Franconian family, with a number of lawyers and pastors among her ancestors. His father, Wilhelm Lepsius had a doctorate in law, by the time of Rainer's birth was working in a commercial capacity for Schering AG, a large pharmaceutical company headquartered in Berlin. In 1934, when Lepsius was aged six, the family relocated to Madrid, where he first attended school.
Two years in 1936, they returned to Germany, settling in Munich where the child grew up, where he was still living when he was fourteen, when his father died. Less than three years on his seventeenth birthday, he was in Munich on 8 May 1945 when the capitulation of the German army marked the formal end of the Second World War. Between 1947 and 1952 he studied social economics and sociology at Munich and Cologne, he received his first degree from Munich in 1950. His doctorate from Munich, followed in 1955. In Munich he was able to obtain a grounding a sociology from Alfred von Martin. In Cologne he was one of the so-called "young Turks" drawn to the ideas of René König, from this point his academic focus was exclusively on sociology. Gerhard Weisser triggered his interest in town planning. In Autumn 1951, during an extended stay in London, he was able to pursue his studies at the London School of Economics, it was in London that he met Renate Meyer whom he would marry. After this Friedrich Lütge offered him a post a seminar assistant in Economic History back at Munich, which made Lepsius and Knut Borchardt colleagues.
He was commissioned to produce a study on the social position of the "Master" / "Foreman" in industrial management structures, which led to the creation of contacts with industrial sociologists such as Theo Pirker, Burkart Lutz and Friedrich Weltz. In 1955/56 Lepsius won a Fulbright scholarship which led to a year spent at Columbia University in New York, studying with Robert K. Merton, whom he found a "lucid teacher" and Paul Lazarsfeld as his "student advisor". At the end of his year he was offered a position as a research assistant by Reinhard Bendix at Berkeley, but after a certain amount of soul searching decided to return to West Germany and participate in the postwar reconstruction of the country's academic base. Between 1957 and 1963 he worked for his former tutor Alfred von Martin as a research assistant at the newly established Munich University Institute for Sociology where he played a central role both in the day-to-day teaching and as an administrator, working with the institute director Emerich K. Francis who, like Lepsius, had been persuaded by Alfred von Martin to return from the United States.
In 1963 Lepsius received from Munich his habilitation for a piece of work critiquing the Functionalist Theory of social organisation. He subsequently expressed regret that the dissertation had never been published: however, in 2015 it was published posthumously, complete with a foreword by his son, Oliver Lepsius and a thoughtful introduction by his fellow Weber scholar, Wolfgang Schluchter.1963 was the year in which he moved from Munich to the National Economic Academy in Mannheim. Here he held a full professorship in Sociology till 1981. In 1981 he took a leading position at the threatened Sociology department at Heidelberg University, where he held an equivalent professorship till he became an emeritus professor in 1993. Between 1971 and 1974 Lepsius chaired the German Sociological Association, he was a member of several learned institutions: from 1977 a full member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, from 1992 a corresponding member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, from 2004 a foreign member of the Turin Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Lepsius was considered one of the leading western researchers and theoreticians of contemporary society. Like most sociologists of the postwar generation, he stated out as an "industry sociologist": like all the better known sociologists of that generation, he was a member of the "Export Committee for Industry Sociology" at the German Sociological Association. A particular interest was in the work of Max Weber: he was prominent among the co-compilers of the 47 volume edition of the Complete Works of Weber, his research work embraced both historical and contemporary social structure analyses. He worked extensively on political sociology and on the European Union. Lepsius powerfully influenced the political culture through his work on the social environment
Zygmunt Bauman was a Polish sociologist and philosopher. He was driven out of Poland by a political purge in 1968 engineered by the Communist government of the Polish People's Republic and forced to give up his Polish citizenship to move to Israel. Three years he moved to the United Kingdom, he resided in England from 1971 and became Professor of Sociology at the University of Leeds Emeritus. Bauman was one of the world's most eminent social theorists, writing on issues as diverse as modernity and the Holocaust, postmodern consumerism and liquid modernity. Bauman was born to non-observant Polish Jewish family in Poznań, Poland, in 1925; when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany and by the Soviet Union, in 1939, his family escaped eastwards into the USSR. Bauman enlisted in the Soviet-controlled First Polish Army, working as a political instructor, he took part of Berlin. In May 1945 he was awarded the Military Cross of Valour. After World War II he became one of the Polish Army's youngest majors. According to the Polish Institute of National Remembrance, from 1945 to 1953 Bauman was a political officer in the Internal Security Corps, a military unit formed to combat Ukrainian nationalist insurgents and part of the remnants of the Polish Home Army.
Bauman worked for military intelligence from 1945 to 1948. However, the nature and extent of his collaboration remain unknown, as well as the exact circumstances under which it was terminated. In an interview with The Guardian, Bauman confirmed he had been a committed communist during and after World War II and had never made a secret of it, he admitted that joining the military intelligence service at age 19 was a mistake although he had a "dull" desk-job and did not remember informing on anyone. While serving in the KBW, Bauman first studied sociology at the Warsaw Academy of Political and Social Science. In the KBW Bauman in the rank of major, was dishonourably discharged in 1953, after his father had approached the Israeli embassy in Warsaw with a view to emigrating to Israel; as Bauman did not share his father's Zionist tendencies and was indeed anti-Zionist, his dismissal caused a severe, though temporary estrangement from his father. During the period of unemployment that followed, he completed his M.
A. and in 1954 became a lecturer at the University of Warsaw, where he remained until 1968. During a spell at the London School of Economics, where his supervisor was Robert McKenzie, he prepared a comprehensive study on the British socialist movement, his first major book. Published in Polish in 1959, a revised edition appeared in English in 1972. Bauman went on to publish other books, including Socjologia na co dzień, which reached a large popular audience in Poland and formed the foundation for the English-language text-book Thinking Sociologically. Bauman remained close to orthodox Marxist doctrine, influenced by Georg Simmel and Antonio Gramsci, he became critical of Poland's Communist government. Owing to this he was never awarded a professorship after he completed his habilitation but, after his former teacher, Julian Hochfeld, was made vice-director of UNESCO's Department for Social Sciences in Paris in 1962, Bauman did in fact inherit Hochfeld's chair. Faced with increasing political pressure connected with a political purge led by Mieczysław Moczar, the Chief of the Polish Communist Security Police, Bauman renounced his membership of the governing Polish United Workers' Party in January 1968.
The March 1968 events culminated in a purge that drove many remaining Communist Poles of Jewish descent out of the country, including those intellectuals who had fallen from grace with the communist government. Bauman, who had lost his chair at the University of Warsaw, was among them. Having had to give up Polish citizenship to be allowed to leave the country, he first went to Israel to teach at Tel Aviv University, before accepting the chair of sociology at the University of Leeds, where he intermittently served as head of department. After his appointment, he published exclusively in English, his third language, his reputation grew. Indeed, from the late 1990s, Bauman exerted a considerable influence on the anti- or alter-globalization movement. In a 2011 interview in the Polish weekly, "Polityka", Bauman criticised Zionism and Israel, saying Israel was not interested in peace and that it was "taking advantage of the Holocaust to legitimize unconscionable acts", he compared the Israeli West Bank barrier to the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto where hundreds of thousands of Jews had died in the Holocaust.
The Israeli ambassador to Warsaw, Zvi Bar, called Bauman's comments "half truths" and "groundless generalizations."Bauman was a supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which advocates for democratic reform in the United Nations, the creation of a more accountable international political system. Bauman was married to née Lewinson, they had three daughters, painter Lydia Bauman, architect Irena Bauman, professor Anna Sfard, a leading theorist of education at the University of Haifa. His grandson Michael Sfard is a prominent civil rights author in Israel. Zygmunt Bauman died in Leeds on 9 January 2017. Bauman's published work extends to 57 books and well over a hundred articles. Most of these address a number of common themes, among which are globalisation and postmodernity, morality. Bauman's earliest publication in English is a study of the British labour movement and its relationship to class and social stratification published in P
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno. It lies at the mouth of a deep ravine, at the foot of Monte Cerreto, surrounded by dramatic cliffs and coastal scenery; the town of Amalfi was the capital of the maritime republic known as the Duchy of Amalfi, an important trading power in the Mediterranean between 839 and around 1200. In the 1920s and 1930s, Amalfi was a popular holiday destination for the British upper class and aristocracy. Amalfi is the main town of the coast on which it is located, named Costiera Amalfitana, is today an important tourist destination together with other towns on the same coast, such as Positano and others. Amalfi is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A patron saint of Amalfi is Saint Andrew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at Amalfi Cathedral. See Duchy of Amalfi Amalfi held importance as a maritime power, trading grain from its neighbours, salt from Sardinia and slaves from the interior, timber, in exchange for the gold dinars minted in Egypt and Syria, in order to buy the Byzantine silks that it resold in the West.
Grain-bearing Amalfi traders enjoyed privileged positions in the Islamic ports, Fernand Braudel notes. The Amalfi tables provided a maritime code, used by the Christian port cities. Merchants of Amalfi were using gold coins to purchase land in the 9th century, while most of Italy worked in a barter economy. In the 8th and 9th century, when Mediterranean trade revived it shared with Gaeta the Italian trade with the East, while Venice was in its infancy, in 848 its fleet went to the assistance of Pope Leo IV against the Saracens. An independent republic from the 7th century until 1075, Amalfi extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage in 839 and first elected a duke in 958. In spite of some devastating setbacks it had a population of some 70,000 to 80,000 reaching a peak about the turn of the millennium, during the reign of Duke Manso. Under his line of dukes, Amalfi remained independent, except for a brief period of Salernitan dependency under Guaimar IV. In 1073 the republic was granted many rights.
A prey to the Normans who encamped in the south of Italy, it became one of their principal posts. However, in 1131, it was reduced by King Roger II of Sicily, refused the keys to its citadel; the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair, fighting in favour of Pope Innocent II against Roger, who sided with the Antipope Anacletus, took him prisoner in 1133, assisted by forty-six Pisan ships. The Pisans, commercial rivals of the Amalfitani, sacked the city. In 1135 and 1137, it was taken by the Pisans and declined in importance, though its maritime code, known as the Tavole amalfitane, was recognized in the Mediterranean until 1570. A tsunami in 1343 destroyed the port and lower town, Amalfi never recovered to anything more than local importance. In medieval culture Amalfi was famous for its flourishing schools of mathematics. Flavio Gioia, traditionally considered the first to introduce the mariner's compass to Europe, is said to have been a native of Amalfi. Amalfi has a long history of catering for visitors, with two former monasteries being converted to hotels at a early date, the Luna Convento in the second decade of the 19th century and the Cappuccini Convento in the 1880s.
Celebrated visitors to Amalfi included the composer Richard Wagner and the playwright Henrik Ibsen, both of whom completed works whilst staying in Amalfi. Author Gore Vidal was a long time resident. Amalfi occupied a high position in medieval architecture. At the top of a staircase, Saint Andrew's Cathedral overlooks the heart of Amalfi; the cathedral dates back to the 11th century. The façade of the cathedral is Byzantine in style and is adorned with various paintings of saints, including a large fresco of Saint Andrew; the gold caisson ceiling has four large paintings by Andrea dell'Asta. They depict the flagellation of Saint Andrew, the miracle of Manna, the crucifixion of Saint Andrew and the Saint on the cross. From the left hand nave there is a flight of stairs; these stairs were built in 1203 for Cardinal Pietro Capuano, who, on 18 May 1208, brought Saint Andrew's remains to the cathedral from Constantinople. The bronze statue of Saint Andrew in the cathedral was sculpted by Michelangelo Naccherino, a pupil of Michelangelo.
In 1206, Saint Andrew's relics were brought to Amalfi from Constantinople by the Pietro Capuano following the Sack of Constantinople after the completion of the town's cathedral. The cathedral contains a tomb in its crypt that it maintains still holds a portion of the relics of the apostle. A golden reliquary which housed his skull and another one used for processions through Amalfi on holy days can be seen; the Chiostro del Paradiso was built by Filippo Augusta
Richard Sennett is the Centennial Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics and former University Professor of the Humanities at New York University. He is a Senior Fellow of the Center on Capitalism and Society at Columbia University. Sennett has studied social ties in cities, the effects of urban living on individuals in the modern world, he has been a Fellow of The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the Royal Society of Literature. He is the founding director of the New York Institute for the Humanities. In 2006, Sennett was the winner of the Hegel Prize awarded by the German city of Stuttgart, in 2008 he was awarded the Gerda Henkel Prize, worth 100,000 Euros, by the Gerda Henkel Foundation of Düsseldorf, in 2016 he received the European Essay Prize awarded by the Charles Veillon Foundation in Lausanne. Sennett was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to design in the 2018 New Year Honours and in July 2018 he was elected Fellow of the British Academy.
Sennett grew up in a family of Russian emigres. As a child he trained in music, studying the cello and conducting, working with Claus Adam of the Juilliard String Quartet and the conductor Pierre Monteux; when a hand injury put an end to his musical career, he entered academia. He studied under David Riesman, Erik Erikson, Oscar Handlin at Harvard, graduating with his Ph. D. in the History of American Civilization in 1969. His intellectual life as an urbanist came into focus during the time he spent as a fellow of the Joint Center for Urban Studies of Harvard and MIT. Sennett's scholarly writing centers on the development of cities, the nature of work in modern society, the sociology of culture. Families Against the City, his earliest book, examines the relationship between family and work in 19th-century Chicago. A subsequent quartet of books explores urban life more largely: The Uses of Disorder, an essay on identity formation in cities. Another quartet of books is devoted to labor; the Hidden Injuries of Class is a study of class consciousness among working-class families in Boston.
Authority is an essay in political theory. Sennett is working on a project called'Homo Faber,' exploring material ways of making culture; the first book in this series is The Craftsman, published in 2008. In the public realm, Sennett founded, directed for a decade, the New York Institute of the Humanities at New York University. Sennett chaired a United Nations commission on urban development and design; as president of the American Council on Work, Sennett led a forum, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, for researchers trying to understand the changing pattern of American labor. Most he helped create, has chaired, the LSE Cities Programme at the London School of Economics; the Urban Age project emerged as a product of the research and ideas by Sennett and others at LSE Cities. In 2006, he served as Chair of the jury of the Venice Biennale. Sennett's literary hobby is writing including novels with musical themes, he has been married to sociologist Saskia Sassen since 1987. Nineteenth Century Cities: Essays In The New Urban History, Yale Classic Essays On The Culture Of Cities, editor, ISBN 0-13-135194-X The Uses of Disorder: Personal Identity & City Life, ISBN 0-393-30909-6 Families Against the City: Middle Class Homes of Industrial Chicago, 1872-1890, Harvard, ISBN 0-674-29226-X The Hidden Injuries of Class, with Jonathan Cobb, Knopf, ISBN 0-393-31085-X The Fall of Public Man, Knopf, ISBN 0-14-100757-5 Authority, ISBN 0-571-16189-8 The Conscience of the Eye: The design and social life of cities and Faber, ISBN 0-393-30878-2 Flesh and Stone: The Body And The City In Western Civilization, Norton, ISBN 0-393-31391-3 The Corrosion of Character, The Personal Consequences Of Work In the New Capitalism, Norton, ISBN 0-393-31987-3 Respect in a World of Inequality, Penguin, ISBN 0-393-32537-7 The Culture of the New Capitalism, Yale, ISBN 0-300-11992-5 The Craftsman, Allen Lane, ISBN 978-0-7139-9873-3 The Foreigner: Two Essays on Exile, Notting Hill, ISBN 1-907903-08-9 Together: The Rituals and Politics of Cooperation, Yale, ISBN 0-300-11633-0 Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City, Farrar and Giroux, ISBN 9780374200336 The Quito Papers and the New Urban Agenda, Routledge, ISBN 978-0815379294Fiction The Frog Who Dared to Croak, ISBN 0-374-15884-3 An Evening of Brahms Palais-Royal, ISBN 0-393-31251-8Literature on Richard Sennett Dominik Skala: Urbanität als Humanität.
Anthropologie und Sozialethik im Stadtdenken Richard Sennetts. Paderborn: Schoeningh, ISBN 978-3-506-78394-3 Igor Pelgreffi: "Soggetto, scr
Charles Tilly was an American sociologist, political scientist, historian who wrote on the relationship between politics and society. He was professor of history and social science at the University of Michigan 1969–1984 and in his last position the Joseph L. Buttenwieser Professor of Social Science at Columbia University, he has been described as "the founding father of 21st-century sociology" and "one of the world's preeminent sociologists and historians" as his "scholarship was unsurpassed, his humanity of the highest order, his spirit unwavering." After his death, numerous special journal issues, conferences and obituaries appeared in his honor. Tilly was born in Illinois, he graduated from Harvard University in 1950 with a Bachelor of Arts magna cum laude. He served in the US Navy as a paymaster of an amphibious squadron during the Korean War. Tilly completed his Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology at Harvard in 1958. While at Harvard, he was a student in the Department of Social Relations during the "Harvard revolution" in social network analysis.
According to Dr. Victor Lee Burke, one of Tilly's graduate students at the University of Michigan, Tilly stated that he was a teaching assistant to Pitirim Sorokin, who along with Talcott Parsons and George C. Homans was considered by many in the profession to be among the world's leading sociologists. According to Tilly, Sorokin was known to call him up in the wee small hours of the morning and say in a distinct Russian accent, "Mr. Tilly you have to teach my class today" and hang up, leaving Tilly in a panic. Tilly dutifully taught the class without the slightest idea of. Tilly planned to have Sorokin chair his dissertation but every time Sorokin heard Tilly's ideas he would say something like "Very interesting Mr. Tilly but I do think Plato said it better." Tilly failed his preliminary examination at Harvard because he forgot what time it was and never showed up. He turned to Barrington Moore and George Homans to supervise his dissertation, but Tilly never failed to say that Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin was a great person though Tilly eschewed any great person theory of history.
Although Tilly rejected exchange theory, he considered Homans, one of exchange theory's creators, to be among the best writers in the history of sociology and he mentioned to the audience at the American Sociological Association where he accepted his Distinguished Scholarship Award that he wished that George Homans were alive so he could thank him. Charles Tilly died in the Bronx on April 2008, from lymphoma; as he was fading in the hospital, he got one characteristic sentence out to early student Barry Wellman: "It's a complex situation." In a statement after Tilly's death, Columbia University president Lee C. Bollinger stated that Tilly "literally wrote the book on the contentious dynamics and the ethnographic foundations of political history". Adam Ashforth of The University of Michigan described Tilly as "the founding father of 21st-century sociology". Charles Tilly was brother to Richard H. Tilly and the longtime husband of Louise A. Tilly although they were separated at the time of Charles' death.
Both are distinguished historians. Charles Tilly taught at the University of Delaware, Harvard University, the University of Toronto, the University of Michigan, The New School, Columbia University. At Michigan, Tilly was professor of history 1969–1984, professor of sociology 1969–1981, the Theodore M. Newcomb Professor of Social Science 1981–1984. At Columbia, he was the Joseph L. Buttenwieser Professor of Social Science, along with Harrison White, Tilly played a key role in the emergence of the New York School of relational sociology. Over the course of his career, Tilly monographs, he was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Sociological Research Association and the Ordre des Palmes Academiques. Tilly's academic work covered multiple topics in the social sciences and influenced scholarship in disciplines outside of sociology, including history and political science, he is considered a major figure in the development of historical sociology, the early use of quantitative methods in historical analysis, the methodology of event cataloging, the turn towards relational and social-network modes of inquiry, the development of process- and mechanism-based analysis, as well as the study of: contentious politics, social movements, the history of labor, state formation, democratization and urban sociology.
Examining political and technological change in Europe from the Middle Ages to the present, Tilly attempted to explain the unprecedented success of the nation-state as the dominant polity-type on Earth in his 1990 book Coercion and European States. Tilly focused his attention on Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. During this period, state organization was informal and the work of local lords who controlled small areas. Peasants gave up revenue in order to benefit from the security and protection offered by a powerful local lord. Over time, these feudal lands consolidated and required bigger armies in order to offer protection from both internal and external threats. Larger armies proved more effective and subsequently, more money was needed to pay these armies. Feudal lands continued to combine into larger kingdoms ruled by kings. Kings demanded money in the form of taxes. To impose these taxes, they required a protocol for counting and enforcing collections, so they set up formal state institutions.
Tilly argues that stat
Michel Maffesoli is a French sociologist. He is a former pupil of Gilbert Durand and Julien Freund, an emeritus professor at Paris Descartes University, his work touches upon the issue of community links and the prevalence of "the imaginary" in the everyday life of contemporary societies, through which he contributes to the postmodern paradigm. Michel Maffesoli has been a member of the Institut Universitaire de France since September 2008, following a controversial nomination. More he has been the subject of several controversies, both scientific and professional, the most known of which concerns his supervision of the PhD dissertation of astrologer Élizabeth Teissier. In 1972, Michel Maffesoli was co-director the ESU urban sociology research team in Grenoble, he developed a reflection on space. His work was influenced by Pierre Sansot and Jean Duvignaud, who were members of his PhD board in 1978. Maffesoli gave space a founding importance in the expression of subjectivity. In 1978, Michel Maffesoli became the teaching assistant of Julien Freund, a conservative political theorist and follower of Vilfredo Pareto, while he was lecturing in Strasbourg.
Freund offered him to host the Institute of Polemology, which shows in his works, under the themes of the "founding conflict", the "conflictual society", the use of the myth of Dionysus as "regenerating disorder". In 1982, he founded with Georges Balandier the Centre d'études sur l'actuel et le quotidien, a research laboratory in the humanities and social sciences at the Paris Descartes University, where he led a doctoral seminar until his retiring in 2012. Maffesoli Michel was awarded the Grand Prix des Sciences de l'Académie française in 1992 for La transfiguration du politique. Michel Maffesoli is the director of the Cahiers Européens de l'imaginaire and Sociétés journals, as well as a member of the editorial board of Space and Culture and Sociologia Internationalis. Michel Maffesoli called to vote for Nicolas Sarkozy in the French presidential election of 2012. Which he denied. Michel Maffesoli is sometimes associated with freemasonry, although there is no way to prove that he was a member of it.
Within the scientific community of French sociologists, the scientificity of Maffesoli's works is questioned since the furore concerning the thesis of Elizabeth Teissier "has created great controversy within the community, has led many sociologists to intervene in order to challenge the legitimacy". On this issue, Maffesoli presented arguments on his methods, in particular through a new edition of his epistemological book, La connaissance ordinaire, in 2007. An opposition exists between Maffesoli's positions on "sensitive thinking" and supporters of a sociology embedded in the criteria of systematic and transparent scientificity; the conference "Raisons et Sociétés", held at the Sorbonne in 2002 following the Teissier controversy to debate the broader issue of methodologies in human sciences identified differences between the various sociological traditions relating to this case. Other controversies have led to challenges to Maffesoli's institutional position: the scientific community protested against his appointment to the board of the CNRS and against his appointment at the Institut Universitaire de France.
On the other hand, Maffesoli's theories have been the subject of counter-inquiries, such as survey by Laurent Tessier on free parties in France and England. Maffesoli's work has achieved acclaim from authors including Serge Moscovici, Edgar Morin, Patrick Tacussel, Philippe-Joseph Salazar or Patrick Watier who cite him, his influence can be seen in various foreign journals. It is his book Le Temps des tribus, translated into nine languages, which made his notoriety outside France. Universities in Brazil and Italy request him for conferences, he has received a chair, named after him in Brazil, a honoris causa doctorate from the University of Bucharest. His reception outside France is ambivalent. In a 1997 article in the Sociological Review, sociologist David Evans concluded that Maffesoli's theories were not a positive sociological paradigm, criticising his work "incoherent" and "biased"; the accounts of books written by foreign sociologists were less forthright, but sometimes stressed that Maffesoli's approach was subjective and had a lack of reflexivity.
One sociologist stated that Maffesoli's sociology was a "sociology of club". Maffesoli came to the attention of the general public in April 2001 when he defended the thesis of Élizabeth Teissier about the ambivalence of the social reception of astrology contentious theory that he directed and whose jury was chaired by Serge Moscovici at the Paris Descartes University; the attribution of a doctorate to Teissier "created great controversy in the community, led many sociologists to intervene to challenge the legitimacy". The thesis aroused criticism in the field of French sociology that published by Le Monde by Christian Baudelot and Roger Establet on 17 April 2001, the petition of 30 April 2001 for the President of the Paris V University, signed by 300 social scientists. Many critical comments were published in the national daily press, along with less radical comments. Beyond sociology, four French Nobel Prize winners protested against the title of "doctor" awarded to Élizabeth Teissier in a protest l
Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was a German sociologist, philosopher and political economist. His ideas profoundly influenced social research. Weber is cited, with Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as among the three founders of sociology. Weber was a key proponent of methodological anti-positivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions. Unlike Durkheim, he did not believe in mono-causality and rather proposed that for any outcome there can be multiple causes. Weber's main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalisation, "disenchantment" that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity, he saw these as the result of a new way of thinking about the world. Weber is best known for his thesis combining economic sociology and the sociology of religion, elaborated in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he proposed that ascetic Protestantism was one of the major "elective affinities" associated with the rise in the Western world of market-driven capitalism and the rational-legal nation-state.
He argued. Thus, it can be said. Against Marx's historical materialism, Weber emphasised the importance of cultural influences embedded in religion as a means for understanding the genesis of capitalism; the Protestant Ethic formed the earliest part in Weber's broader investigations into world religion. In another major work, "Politics as a Vocation", Weber defined the state as an entity that claims a "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory", he was the first to categorise social authority into distinct forms, which he labelled as charismatic and rational-legal. His analysis of bureaucracy emphasised that modern state institutions are based on rational-legal authority. Weber made a variety of other contributions in economic history, as well as economic theory and methodology. Weber's analysis of modernity and rationalisation influenced the critical theory associated with the Frankfurt School. After the First World War, Max Weber was among the founders of the liberal German Democratic Party.
He ran unsuccessfully for a seat in parliament and served as advisor to the committee that drafted the ill-fated democratic Weimar Constitution of 1919. After contracting Spanish flu, he died of pneumonia in 1920, aged 56. Karl Emil Maximilian Weber was born in Erfurt, Province of Saxony, Prussia, he was the oldest of the seven children of Max Weber Sr. a wealthy and prominent civil servant and member of the National Liberal Party, his wife Helene, who descended from French Huguenot immigrants and held strong moral absolutist ideas. Weber Sr.'s involvement in public life immersed his home in both politics and academia, as his salon welcomed many prominent scholars and public figures. The young Weber and his brother Alfred, who became a sociologist and economist, thrived in this intellectual atmosphere. Weber's 1876 Christmas presents to his parents, when he was thirteen years old, were two historical essays entitled "About the course of German history, with special reference to the positions of the Emperor and the Pope", "About the Roman Imperial period from Constantine to the migration of nations".
In class and unimpressed with the teachers—who in turn resented what they perceived as a disrespectful attitude—he secretly read all forty volumes of Goethe, it has been argued that this was an important influence on his thought and methodology. Before entering the university, he would read many other classical works. Over time, Weber would be affected by the marital tension between his father, "a man who enjoyed earthly pleasures", his mother, a devout Calvinist "who sought to lead an ascetic life". In 1882 Weber enrolled in the University of Heidelberg as a law student. After a year of military service, he transferred to the University of Berlin. After his first few years as a student, during which he spent much time "drinking beer and fencing", Weber would take his mother's side in family arguments and grew estranged from his father. With his studies, he worked as a junior lawyer. In 1886 Weber passed the examination for Referendar, comparable to the bar association examination in the British and American legal systems.
Throughout the late 1880s, Weber continued his study of history. He earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a dissertation on legal history titled The history of commercial partnerships in the Middle Ages; this work was used as part of a longer work On the History of Trading Companies in the Middle Ages, based on South-European Sources, published in the same year. Two years Weber completed his Habilitationsschrift, Roman Agrarian History and its Significance for Public and Private Law, working with August Meitzen. Having thus become a Privatdozent, Weber joined the University of Berlin's faculty and consulting for the government. In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation, Weber took an interest in contemporary social policy. In 1888 he joined the Verein für Socialpolitik, a new professional association of German economists affiliated with the historical school, who saw the role of economic