The European Atomic Energy Community is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe, by developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states. However, over the years its scope has been increased to cover a large variety of areas associated with nuclear power and ionising radiation as diverse as safeguarding of nuclear materials, radiation protection and construction of the International Fusion Reactor ITER, it is distinct from the European Union although it has the same membership, is governed by many of the EU's institutions. Since 2014, Switzerland has participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state; the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the organisation on 31 January 2020. The Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the European Coal and Steel Community to cover other sources of energy.
However, Jean Monnet, ECSC architect and President, wanted a separate community to cover nuclear power. Louis Armand was put in charge of a study into the prospects of nuclear energy use in Europe. However, the Benelux states and Germany were keen on creating a general single market, although it was opposed by France due to its protectionism, Jean Monnet thought it too large and difficult a task. In the end, Monnet proposed the creation of separate atomic energy and economic communities to reconcile both groups; the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Château of Val-Duchesse in 1956 drew up the essentials of the new treaties. Euratom would foster co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a popular area, would, along with the EEC, share the Common Assembly and Court of Justice of the ECSC, but not its executives. Euratom would have its own Council and Commission, with fewer powers than the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. On 25 March 1957, the Treaties of Rome were signed by the ECSC members and on 1 January 1958 they came into force.
To save on resources, these separate executives created by the Rome Treaties were merged in 1965 by the Merger Treaty. The institutions of the EEC would take over responsibilities for the running of the ECSC and Euratom, with all three becoming known as the European Communities if each existed separately. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which absorbed the Communities into the European Community pillar, yet Euratom still maintained a distinct legal personality; the European Constitution was intended to consolidate all previous treaties and increase democratic accountability in them. The Euratom treaty had not been amended as the other treaties had, so the European Parliament had been granted few powers over it. However, the reason it had gone unamended was the same reason the Constitution left it to remain separate from the rest of the EU: anti-nuclear sentiment among the European electorate, which may unnecessarily turn voters against the treaty; the Euratom treaty thus remains in force unamended from its original signing.
This overall timeline includes the establishment and development of Euratom, shows that it is the only former EC body that has not been incorporated into the EU. Since 2014, Switzerland has participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state; as of 2020, the community had Co-operation Agreements of various scopes with nine countries: Armenia, Canada, Kazakhstan, United States and South Africa. The United Kingdom announced its intention to withdraw from the EAEC on 26 January 2017, following on from its decision to withdraw from the European Union. Formal notice to withdraw from the EAEC was provided in March 2017, within the Article 50 notification letter, where the withdrawal was made explicit. Withdrawal only became effective following negotiations on the terms of the exit, which lasted two years and ten months. A report by the House of Commons Business and Industrial Strategy Committee, published in May 2017, questioned the legal necessity of leaving Euratom and called for a temporary extension of membership to allow time for new arrangements to be made.
In June 2017, the European Commission's negotiations task force published a Position paper transmitted to EU27 on nuclear materials and safeguard equipment, titled "Essential Principles on nuclear materials and safeguard equipment". The following month, a briefing paper from the House of Commons Library assessed the implications of leaving Euratom. In 2017, an article in The Independent questioned availability of nuclear fuel to the UK after 2019 if the UK were to withdraw, the need for new treaties relating to the transportation of nuclear materials. A 2017 article in the New Scientist stated that radioisotope supply for cancer treatments would need to be considered in new treaties. UK politicians speculated. In 2017, some argued that this would require – beyond the consent of the EU27 – amendment or revocation of the Article 50 letter of March 2017; the Nuclear Safeguards Act 2018, making provision for safeguards after withdrawal from Euratom, received royal assent on 26 June 2018. In the history of European regulation, Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty represents pioneering legislation concerning binding transfrontier obligations with resp
Genesis is the third studio album by Taiwanese Mandopop girl group S. H. E, it was released on 5 August 2002 by HIM International Music. The track "美麗新世界" is listed at number 24 on Hit Fm Taiwan's Hit Fm Annual Top 100 Singles Chart for 2002. Although the title track was an upbeat and lively number, S. H. E regarded it as their most difficult song at the time. While both Girls Dorm and Youth Society had songs that were sung in English, "Woman In Love", a cover of Rebekah Ryan's original in the Genesis album, would be the last English song that S. H. E would sing. In April 2003, eight months after the release of Genesis, actress Chen Mingzhen's "Thinking of Your Moment" covered the same Sweetbox song as "Ocean of Love". According to Chen, she recorded "Thinking of Your Moment" one year before S. H. E had put it on Genesis, but the only reason S. H. E managed to sing "Ocean of Love" first was; the Genesis karaoke VCD was the first to feature music videos for every track. Despite choreographing every music video, only one track, "Where's Love", featured something resembling a plot, which depicted Ella's sadness and nostalgia after breaking up with her boyfriend and Selina and Hebe attempting to comfort her.
"Fascination" was the last music video made for the album's karaoke VCD because it consisted of footage from S. H. E's N-age Concert in Tainan. S. H. E discography@HIM International Music
The Acheulo-Yabrudian complex is a complex of archaeological cultures in the Levant at the end of the Lower Palaeolithic. It precedes the Mousterian, it is called the Mugharan Tradition or the Acheulo-Yabrudian Cultural Complex. The Acheulo-Yabrudian complex has three stone-tool traditions, chronologically: the Acheulo-Yabrudian, the Yabrudian and the Pre-Aurignacian or Amudian; the Yabrudian tradition is dominated by thick scrapers shaped by steep Quina retouch. Determining the age period for the Acheulo-Yabrudian has been difficult as its major excavations occurred in the 1930s and 1950s before modern radiometric dating; the excavated Qesem and Tabun caves, suggest the oldest period is about 350 kyr and the most recent 200 kyr. This would make the Lower–Middle Palaeolithic transition rapid occurring at 215,000 BP within a 30,000 year period; some date it earlier at 400,000-220,000 bp.. Yabrud I in Syria Tabun Cave in the Mount Carmel range, Israel Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel Zuttiyeh Cave in Wadi Amud in Israel, the location of ‘Galilee Man’ Qesem Cave, the southernmost site yet found Pre-history of the Southern Levant
In computer engineering, directory-based cache coherence is a type of cache coherence mechanism, where directories are used to manage caches in place of snoopy methods due to their scalability. Snoopy bus-based methods scale poorly due to the use of broadcasting; these methods can be used to target both scalability of directory systems. In the full bit vector format, for each possible cache line in memory, a bit is used to track whether every individual processor has that line stored in its cache; the full bit vector format is the simplest structure to implement. The SGI Origin 2000 uses a combination of full bit vector and coarse bit vector depending on the number of processors; each directory entry must have 1 bit stored per processor per cache line, along with bits for tracking the state of the directory. This leads to the total size required being ×number of cache lines, having a storage overhead ratio of /, it can be observed. While this may be fine for a small number of processors, when implemented in large systems the size requirements for the directory becomes excessive.
For example, with a block size of 32 bytes and 1024 processors, the storage overhead ratio becomes 1024/ = 400%. The coarse bit vector format has a similar structure to the full bit vector format, though rather than tracking one bit per processor for every cache line, the directory groups several processors into nodes, storing whether a cache line is stored in a node rather than a line; this improves size requirements at the expense of bus traffic saving × bits of space. Thus the ratio overhead is the same, just replacing number of processors with number of processor groups; when a bus request is made for a cache line that one processor in the group has, the directory broadcasts the signal into every processor in the node rather than just the caches that contain it, leading to unnecessary traffic to nodes that do not have the data cached. In this case the directory entry uses 1 bit for a group of processors for each cache line. For the same example as Full Bit Vector format if we consider 1 bit for 8 processors as a group the storage overhead will be 128/=50%.
This is a significant improvement over the Full Bit Vector format. A cache only stores a small subset of blocks in main memory at a particular time. Hence most of the entries in the directory will belong to uncached blocks. In the sparse directory format the wastage is reduced by storing only the cached blocks in the directory. Consider a processor with a cache size of 64KB with a block size of 32 bytes and the main memory size to be 4MB; the maximum number of entries that the directory can have in the sparse directory format is 2048. If the directory has an entry for all the blocks in the memory the number of entries in the directory will be 131072, thus it is evident that the storage improvement provided by sparse directory format is significant. In this format the directory is decentralised and distributed among the caches that share a memory block. Different caches that share a memory block are arranged in the form of a binary tree; the cache that accesses a memory block first is the root node.
Each memory block has Sharing counter field. The SC field has the number of caches; each cache entry has pointers to the next sharing caches known as L-CHD and R-CHD. A condition for this directory is that the binary tree should be number balanced, i.e the number of nodes in the left sub tree must be equal to or one greater than the number of nodes in the right subtree. All the subtrees should be number balanced. In this format the memory holds the directory pointer to the latest cache that accessed the block and each cache has the pointer to the previous cache that accessed the block. So when a processor sends a write request to a block in memory, the processor sends invalidations down the chain of pointers. In this directory when a cache block is replaced we need to traverse the list in order to change the directory which increases latency. In order to prevent this doubly linked lists are used now in which each cached copy has pointers to previous and the next cache that accesses the block; the limited pointer format uses a set number of pointers to track the processors that are caching the data.
When a new processor caches a block, a free pointer is chosen from a pool to point to that processor. There are a few options for handling cases when the number of sharers exceeds the number of free pointers. One method is to invalidate one of the sharers, using its pointer for the new requestor, though this can be costly in cases where a block has a large number of readers, such as a lock. Another method is to have a separate pool of free pointers available to all the blocks; this method is effective as the number of blocks shared by a large number of processors is not very large
State Route 781 is an east–west state highway in southern Ohio, a U. S. state. The western terminus of SR 781 is at SR 41 about 2 1⁄2 miles southwest of Peebles in the unincorporated community of Jacksonville, its eastern terminus is eleven miles to the southeast at a T-intersection with SR 348, five miles northeast of the community of Wamsley. Created in the late 1930s and existing within Adams County, SR 781 passes through rough terrain and by Peach Mountain, which rises over 1,200 feet. All of SR 781 is located within the eastern portion of Adams County; the highway is not inclusive within the National Highway System. SR 781 was first designated in 1938 along the routing between SR 41 and SR 348 that it occupies to this day; the route has not experienced any changes of major significance. The entire route is in Adams County
Holy Trinity Parish Hall is a heritage-listed Anglican church hall at 141 Brookes Street, Fortitude Valley, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built from 1891 to 1892 by John Quinn, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Holy Trinity Parish Hall at Church Street, Fortitude Valley is a substantial brick building constructed in 1891-92 to the design of Brisbane architect JH Buckeridge, it replaced an earlier stone school room on the site. The Church of England was the first institutional religion established in Queensland, with the parish of St John's in Brisbane created in 1849 as part of the Diocese of Newcastle. Land bounded by George and Elizabeth streets was granted to the church and St John's Church was consecrated on this site in 1854; this parish encompassed a wide district which extended well beyond the Brisbane town boundary and included Milton and Sandgate. By the mid-1850s a village of 100 to 150 houses had been established at Fortitude Valley just north of the Brisbane town boundary and there were more homes scattered through the semi-bush to the north and east.
For Forrtitude Valley residents, access to St John's Church at the southern end of North Brisbane was difficult. Principal access was via the steep, unformed track of Ann Street over Duncan's Hill, not cut down until the 1860s and 1870s. Wickham Street did not exist at this period. In recognition of the increasing settlement of the district north of Brisbane, part of St John's parish separated in 1856 to form Holy Trinity parish; the new parish encompassed the areas of Fortitude Valley, Bowen Hills and New Farm and extended west to Enoggera and north to Sandgate. At first a cottage was rented at the corner of Ann and Ballow Streets for use as a Church of England school on weekdays and as a place of worship on Sundays. In 1857 the New South Wales Government granted to the parish two acres of land bounded by Ann, Brookes and Wickham streets for church purposes. In the same year a long, stone building was erected on this site for use as a school room and temporary church; the Anglican Diocese of Brisbane was formed in 1859, with Bishop Edward Tufnell taking office as the first Bishop of Brisbane in 1860.
At this time St John's Church was designated as the pro-Cathedral, Holy Trinity parish was incorporated into the Diocese of Brisbane. During the 1860s and 1870s Fortitude Valley developed as a commercial and residential centre and population density in Fortitude Valley and surrounding areas increased substantially; the 1857 stone building was enlarged in 1862 to accommodate an expanding congregation and by the mid-1870s Holy Trinity parish was committed to the construction of a new, larger church on the Brookes Street site. Designed in 1875 by the Queensland Colonial Architect, Francis Drummond Greville Stanley, the second Holy Trinity church was erected in 1876-1877 by contractor James Robinson; the 1857 stone church/school building remained in use as a schoolroom. In 1889 a new rectory was constructed fronting Brookes Street, replacing an earlier rectory in Leichhardt Street. In 1891 the parish's Leichhardt Street property was sold for £3,500 and the stone schoolroom was demolished to make way for the present brick parish hall in Church Street.
The sale of the Leichhardt Street land financed construction of the new hall. Holy Trinity Parish Hall was designed as a Sunday school-cum-hall by architect John Hingeston Buckeridge; as Brisbane Diocesan architect from 1887 to 1902, Buckeridge was responsible for many Church of England ecclesiastical buildings in southeast Queensland, including: the St John the Baptist Anglican Church, Bulimba. Buckeridge designed the All Souls' Quetta Memorial Church on Thursday Island; the foundation stone of the new parish school was laid by the Bishop of Brisbane, Dr William Webber, on 17 October 1891. The building was completed in approximated 3 months by contractor John Quinn at a cost of £1,775, which included stabling at the rear of the building, it was opened formally as the Holy Trinity Sunday School by the Governor of Queensland, Sir Henry Wylie Norman, on 23 January 1892. At completion the building was described in the local press as "a creditable addition to the architecture of the Valley." It contained a main hall measuring 92 by 24 feet, two transepts each 24 by 14 feet and four classrooms, each 17 by 12 feet.
The classrooms were separated from the main hall and transepts by arches and folding timber doors, which could be opened to allow the whole to be used as one hall. At one end of the main hall was a platform or stage, with a library at one side and a retiring room on the other