London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
MINES ParisTech, created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL. MINES ParisTech is distinguished for the outstanding performance of its research centers and the quality of its international partnerships with other prestigious universities in the world, which include Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Novosibirsk State University, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and Tokyo Tech; the École des Mines de Paris publishes a world university ranking based on the number of alumni holding the post of CEO in one of the 500 largest companies in the world: the Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. The school is a member of the ParisTech alliance. Created by decree of the French King's Counsel on March 19, 1783, the first school of Mines was located in the Hôtel de la Monnaie, in Paris.
The school disappeared at the beginning of the French Revolution but was re-established by decree of the Committee of Public Safety in 1794, the 13th Messidor Year II. It moved to Savoie, after a decree of the consuls the 23rd Pluviôse Year X. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, the school moved to the Hôtel de Vendôme. From the 1960s onwards, it created research laboratories in Fontainebleau, Évry and Sophia Antipolis; the initial aim of the Ecole des mines de Paris, namely to train high-level mining engineers, evolved with time to adapt to the technological and structural transformations undergone by society. Mines ParisTech has now become one of the most prestigious French engineering schools with a broad variety of subjects, its students are trained to have management positions, work in research and development departments, or as operations officers, etc. They receive a well-rounded education in a variety of subjects, ranging from the most technical to economics, social sciences or art in order to be able to tackle the managing or engineering-related issues they are to face.
Exchange programs are possible during the third semester with prestigious universities around the world, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Tokyo Tech, Seoul National University... Mines ParisTech provides different educational paths: The Ingénieurs civils degree, ranked among the best French Grande école engineering degrees, similar to that offered at École polytechnique, École des Ponts ParisTech or École Centrale Paris; the Corps of Mines, one of the greatest technical corps of the French state. It is a third cycle degree, lasting for three years, consisting in two long-term internships both in public and private economical institutions and courses in economics and public institutions; the admission to the Corps des Mines is selective as only the top students from École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, Mines ParisTech and Telecom ParisTech may apply Mastère Spécialisé degrees, post-graduate programs accredited by the Conférence des Grandes écoles, in the fields of Energy, Environment and Logistics, Informatics and management in industry and Materials engineering Doctoral and Master studies in various fields For students having studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to Civil Engineer of Mines is decided through a nationwide competitive examination.
Every year, ten applications are accepted from students around the world according to their academic achievements. Admission to the Corps of Mines is possible for French students at the end of the studies in École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, École des télécommunications de Paris and École des mines de Paris, or from the other great technical corps of the French state. Admission in third year is open to one Ph. D graduate. A Student Union is elected every year after a one-week campaign, is in charge of enhancing the contact between students and various sponsoring industries as well as organizing events for the students. Various other organizations are part of the students' lives: the Students' Sport Committee, the Junior Enterprise, the Arts' Office, Cahier Vert, CAV, Catholic community, Fanfare band, Entrepreneur club, humanitarian organizations, photography club, Sailing club, among others. Maurice Allais, Nobel Prize in Economics, 1988 Jean-Louis Bianco, General Secretary of President of France, Minister of Social Affairs, Minister of Transport, députy of Alpes de Haute Provence's 1st constituency Louis Paul Cailletet and inventor Georges Charpak, Nobel Prize in Physics 1992 Jean-Baptiste Élie de Beaumont, founder of geology, Wollaston Medal 1843 Thierry Desmarest, former CEO of Total Jean-Martin Folz, former CEO of PSA Peugeot Citroën Noël Forgeard, former CEO of Airbus and EADS Charles de Freycinet, prime minister of France at the end of the 19th century Tidjane Thiam, CEO of Credit Suisse Car
École Spéciale des Travaux Publics
École Spéciale des Travaux Publics, du bâtiment et de l'industrie, is a French engineering and research graduate school in Paris. The ESTP was founded in 1891 by Léon Eyrolles and was recognized by the State in 1921, it is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of construction and project management. ESTP Paris is one of the most prestigious civil engineering schools in France, it has trained a total of 7,000 construction site managers. The school has educated since 1891 site managers in building and public works in an undergraduate program. In 1999 the school formed a partnership with Arts et Métiers ParisTech to offer a double-degree program; the institution offers courses in building engineering, civil engineering, surveying, electrical engineering granting diplomas and degrees for two- and three-year courses. The college was located on Boulevard Saint-Germain, in what has since become New York University's Paris campus, but moved to Cachan, in the southern suburbs of Paris.
The college is open to English-speakers. Notable alumni include: Patrick Bernasconi, French business executive Dominique Cerutti, French businessman Léon Eyrolles, French politician and entrepreneur, founder of the first ESTP Menachem Mendel Schneerson, last rebbe of the Lubavitch Hasidic dynasty Moshé Feldenkrais, Israeli engineer Marc de Garidel, French businessman Nicolas Grunitzky, second president of Togo Roger Guérillot, French colonist of Ubangi-Shari Saad Hassar, Moroccan politician Bruno Itoua, Congolese politician Harold Martin, New Caledonian politician Guillaume Sarkozy, French entrepreneur Jeanne Scelles-Millie, French architectural engineer and author Gilles Tonelli, Monegasque engineer and politician ESTP Website ESTP Website Former site manager students website
The École supérieure d'ingénieurs en génie électrique is a French school of engineers located in Rouen, created in 1901. It is part of the best French academic institutions known as Grandes écoles specialized in engineering and sciences and is a university level institution with the special status Grands établissements, it is under supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and jointly managed by the chamber of commerce of Rouen, the Society of Engineers in Electrical Engineering, a consortium of private companies. In 1901, Alexandre Charliat, an engineer from École Centrale Paris, decided to create a school of engineers corresponding to its own perspective on education, he named it the Practical School of Industrial Electricity and established it at 53 rue Belliard in Paris. The school became the School of Industrial Electricity of Paris, it will change one last time of name in 1980, becomes the Superior School of Electrical Engineers. The Ministry of Higher Education and Research recognizes the school as a Grandes écoles in 1922 and the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur authorizes it to award the Diplôme d'Ingénieur in 1936.
In 1989, ESIGELEC becomes a permanent member of the Grande Ecole conference. In 2011, ESIGELEC becomes an associate school of the Institut Mines-Télécom and the Groupe des écoles des mines; the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur renews its capacitation to grant the Diplôme d'Ingénieur in 2014 for the maximal duration of 6 years. The school resettles many times; the first resettlement saw all the components of the school moved to Beauvais. The board of directors understood that the only way to develop the school with its own educational values was to relocate it far from Paris and all the parisian schools of engineers, they decided to move to Mont-Saint-Aignan, a city close from Rouen, in 1991. This genius idea benefits directly to students as apartment rentals are much higher in the capital. In 2004, funding is released to offer the school its own state of the art facilities; the school relocates in the Technopôle du Madrillet, in Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, south of Rouen, an area dedicated to innovation with many companies and three academic institutions.
The staff and students moved into the new buildings day of the inauguration. ESIGELEC is a semi-private school of engineers, it is under supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research but is co-led by the chamber of commerce of Rouen. It has been created as a nonprofit organization according to the law of 1901. Therefore, students have to make a contribution to the student fee paid by private and public funds and the school cannot be profitable. ESIGELEC has an integrated Classe préparatoire. ESIGELEC is capacitaded by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to award a Diplôme d'Ingénieur, equivalent to a master's degree; as French Government requires it, it is awarded after three years of study. Eligible applicants are students having achieved the prep school, a two-year Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles or an equivalent university level. Schools of engineers in France are known to promote student life in order to create strong relations between students and allow them to do things they could not do at Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles, the two-year of intense study preceding the entry in the engineering cycle.
ESIGELEC strengthen this reputation by investing money in student unions. The student bureau or student union office is elected every year in May by the students, it consists of second year students of the engineering cycle gathering in lists and campaigning to obtain the management of the union office. The campaign implies an important organisation; the student bureau has in charge to organize the integration week and to finance the other unions of the school. The unions of the school are: La Tortue Déchainée: The newspaper of ESIGELEC. ESGIG’AERO: The union for those who love planes and parachuting. Gala ESIGELEC Defi 24h 4L Trophi Club Zik ESIGELEC is one of the few French schools to have its own research center, it is in 2001 that the Research Institute for Embedded Electronic Systems is created, a research laboratory specialized on embedded systems. In 2010, the laying of the foundation stone of a state of the art research facility is made to create the Embedded Systems Integration Campus.
It is inaugurated in 2012. This center, dedicated to electrical systems and mecatronics, reinforces the range of research and teaching capabilities of both ESIGELEC and IRSEEM. ESIGELEC has many famous international partners around the world with agreements of double-degrees and exchange programs. Lehigh University University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering Cranfield University Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation Manipal University It has been ranked in the top 50 in 2014 by the serious French newspaper L'Usine nouvelle. Students' Main Web Portal
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées, more known as EPITA is a private French Grande École specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering created in 1984 by Patrice Dumoucel. It is a private engineering school, member since 1994 of IONIS Education Group, accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, based at Le Kremlin-Bicêtre south of Paris. In June 2013, EPITA becomes member of the Union of Independent Grandes Écoles, which includes 30 grandes écoles; the school is part of IONIS Education Group. The first two years of studies are preparatory years. During these two years, students study mathematics and electronics as well as algorithmics and computer science; the third year is the first year of engineering studies, where students learn the fundamentals in information technology and software engineering. This year is famous for its first month, during which students will be asked to make several projects, which lead them to code more than 15 hours per day.
Third year students are known to say that "sleeping is cheating" and remember this year as their most painstaking year at EPITA. During the fourth and fifth years students have to choose one of the eight majors: SRS, Systèmes, Réseaux et Sécurité MTI, Multimédia et Technologies de l'Information SCIA, Sciences Cognitives et Informatique Avancée GISTRE, Génie Informatique des Systèmes Temps Réel et Embarqués SIGL, Systèmes d’Information et Génie Logiciel TCOM, Télécommunications CSI, Calcul Scientifique et Image GITM, Global IT Management Official website The Multimedia and Information Technology major The Information Systems and Software Engineering major The Systems and Security major The Research and Development laboratory The Systems and Security laboratory The Innovation laboratory
The Erasmus Programme is a European Union student exchange programme established in 1987. Erasmus+, or Erasmus Plus, is the new programme combining all the EU's current schemes for education, training and sport, started in January 2014; the Erasmus Programme, together with a number of other independent programmes, was incorporated into the Socrates programme established by the European Commission in 1994. The Socrates programme ended on 31 December 1999 and was replaced with the Socrates II programme on 24 January 2000, which in turn was replaced by the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 on 1 January 2007; the programme is named after the Dutch philosopher, Renaissance Humanist and devout Roman Catholic, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Erasmus, along with his good friend Thomas More, became the center of European intellectual life during the Renaissance. Known for his satire, Erasmus urged internal reform of the Catholic Church, he encouraged a recovery of the Catholic Patristic tradition against contemporary abuses of the Sacraments and certain excessive devotional practices.
He famously clashed with Protestant revolutionary Martin Luther on the subject of free will. ERASMUS is a backronym meaning EuRopean community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students. By the time the Erasmus Programme was adopted in June 1987, the European Commission had been supporting pilot student exchanges for 6 years, it proposed the original Erasmus Programme in early 1986, but reaction from the Member States varied: those with substantial exchange programmes of their own were broadly hostile. Exchanges between the Member States and the European Commission deteriorated, the latter withdrew the proposal in early 1987 to protest against the inadequacy of the triennial budget proposed by some Member States; this method of voting was not accepted by some of the opposing Member States, who challenged the adoption of the decision before the European Court of Justice. Although the Court held that the adoption was procedurally flawed, it maintained the substance of the decision; the programme built on the 1981–1986 pilot student exchanges, although it was formally adopted only shortly before the beginning of the academic year 1987-1988, it was still possible for 3,244 students to participate in Erasmus in its first year.
In 2006, over 150,000 students, or 1% of the European student population, took part. The proportion is higher among university teachers, where Erasmus teacher mobility is 1.9% of the teacher population in Europe, or 20,877 people. In the past twenty years, over two million students have benefited from Erasmus grants, the European Commission aims to reach a total of 3 million by 2012; the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 replaced the Socrates programme as the overall umbrella under which the Erasmus programmes operate from 2007. The Erasmus Mundus programme is another, parallel programme, oriented towards globalising European education. Whereas the Erasmus Programme is open to Europeans, Erasmus Mundus is open to non-Europeans with Europeans being exceptional cases. On 9 May 2012, Fraternité 2020 was registered as Europe's first European Citizens' Initiative, its goal was to increase the budget for EU exchange programmes like Erasmus or the European Voluntary Service from 2014. To be successful it would have needed 1 million signatures by 1 November 2013.
It collected only 71,057 signatures from citizens across the EU. Erasmus+ called Erasmus Plus, is the new 14.7 billion euro catch-all framework programme for education, training and sport. The new Erasmus+ programme combines all the EU's current schemes for education, training and sport, including the Lifelong Learning Programme, Youth in Action and five international co-operation programmes; the Erasmus+ regulation was signed on 11 December 2013. Erasmus+ provides grants for a wide range of actions including the opportunity for students to undertake work placements abroad and for teachers and education staff to attend training courses. Erasmus+ key action 1 provides a unique opportunity for teachers, headmasters and other staff of education institutions to participate in international training courses in different European countries; the staff home institution shall apply to receive the grant to send its staff members abroad for training. Erasmus+ conducts projects in Central Asia's Kazakhstan.
The programme funded 40 projects involving 47 universities in Kazakhstan. The total sum of the grant amounted to more than 35.5 million euro. On 30 May, the European Commission adopted its proposal for the next Erasmus programme, with a doubling of the budget to 30 billion euros for the period 2021-2027. Further negotiations will now take place with the European Parliament and the European Council before the final programme is adopted. There are more than 4,000 higher institutions participating in Erasmus across the 37 countries involved in the Erasmus programme and by 2013, 3 million students had taken part since the programme's inception in 1987. In 2012-13 alone, 270,000 took part, the most popular destinations being Spain, Germany and France. Erasmus students represented 5 percent of European graduates as of 2012. Studies have discussed issues related to the selection into the progra