Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners
Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners LLP is a British architectural firm, founded in 1977 and known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Its main offices are located in the Leadenhall London, they were at the Thames Wharf Studios. In its various incarnations it is known for many important buildings including Lloyd's building and the Millennium Dome in London and the National Assembly for Wales building in Cardiff; the firm's principal offices are located at Leadenhall Building in London. It maintains offices in Shanghai and Sydney; as of March 2016 the firm has thirteen partners, including Richard Rogers, Graham Stirk and Ivan Harbour. The practice is run with a profit-share scheme and a limit on the directors' salaries in comparison with those of the lowest paid in the office; the practice is focused on sustainability, urban regeneration and social awareness, themes that have long been a feature of Rogers' work. Celebration of public space and the encouragement of public activities is a recurring theme.
It is owned by a charitable trust, ensuring that no individual owns any share in its value and preventing private trading and inheritance of shares. The practice divides its profits between all of the staff and their chosen charities, according to publicly declared principles. Soon after the Pompidou Centre in Paris was opened in 1977, Richard Rogers formed the Richard Rogers Partnership and started work on the Lloyd's building in London. Richard Rogers explained the reason for the change of the practice name from the Richard Rogers Partnership to Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in 2007 was because "We wanted to avoid the situation where the name of the practice is someone who died 100 years ago. Architecture is a living thing. If I want to leave something to the future, it has to be able to change – but retain something of the ethos that we built up over 50 years."In November 2015 Rogers Stirk Harbour created five new partners including Tracy Meller who became their first woman partner. Founding partner Mike Davies stepped down.
In 2006 the practice was awarded the Stirling Prize for their Madrid-Barajas Airport, Terminal 4. In 2008, Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners was awarded the Manser Medal for Houses and Housing, given for the best one-off house designed by an architect in the UK. In 2009 it was awarded the Stirling Prize for Maggie's Centre in London, it won the RIBA National Award 2015 for NEO Bankside luxury apartments in London and was subsequently shortlisted for the Stirling Prize for the second time. This list contains projects from the beginning of the partnership in 1977 through to the present day. For earlier work by Richard Rogers, Team 4, Richard and Su Rogers and Piano + Rogers, see the Richard Rogers page; the Richard Rogers Partnership Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners Partners of the firm as of 2014 were Richard Rogers, Mike Davies, Graham Stirk, Ivan Harbour, Andrew Morris, Lennart Grut, Richard Paul, Ian Birtles and Simon Smithson Richard Rogers Richard Rogers is the 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate and was knighted in 1991 and made a life peer in 1996.
Rogers' first work came when he co-founded Team 4 in 1963 with Su Brumwell, Wendy Cheeseman and Norman Foster. Team 4's first project was a residential property in Cornwall. Team 4 dissolved in 1967, he established a partnership with Su Rogers, John Young and Laurie Abbott in 1967. By July 1971 Rogers had won a design competition to build the Pompidou Centre in Paris with co-partner with Italian architect Renzo Piano. In 1977 he established the Richard Rogers Partnership with Marco Goldschmied and Mike Davies, where they went on to build the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, the Senedd in Cardiff, the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, he is a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal and Pritzker Prize. Ivan Harbour Ivan Harbour joined Richard Rogers Partnership in 1985, in 1993 he was made a senior director. In 2007 the practice changed from Richard Rogers Partnership to Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners.
Harbour led the design team for the Senedd, Terminal 4 Barajas Airport, the Law Courts in Antwerp and Bordeaux and the European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg. Harbour was lead architect for the Madrid Airport Terminal 4 project and Project Director for the first Maggie’s Cancer Centre in London, 300 New Jersey Avenue, an office building in Washington DC. Graham Stirk Graham Stirk joined Richard Rogers Partnership in 1983 and was made a senior director in 1995. In 2007 the practice changed from Richard Rogers Partnership to Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, he has been involved in the design of a number of projects in the UK as well as projects worldwide, including Japan, USA, Italy, Spain and Ireland. Stirk is the Design Director of several major projects, including a 48-storey office tower at 122 Leadenhall Street that could become the tallest tower in the City of London and NEO Bankside in London, a residential scheme consisting of 229 apartments and an extension to the British Museum.
Stirk contributed to the design of several key masterplanning projects including Potsdamer Platz and Paddington Basin, London. Stirk was Director in Charge of the expansion to the Lloyds Register of Shipping building at 71 Fenchurch Street, One Hyde Park and 88 Wood Street. Mike Davies Mike Davies was a founding partner of the Richard Rogers Partnership and a senior partner in Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, he joined the partnership between Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano in 1971, shortly after they won the commission to des
Seat of the European Parliament in Strasbourg
The city of Strasbourg is the official seat of the European Parliament. The institution is bound to meet there twelve sessions a year lasting about four days each. Other work takes place in Luxembourg City. All votes of the European Parliament must take place in Strasbourg. "Additional" sessions and committees take place in Brussels. Although de facto a majority of the Parliament's work is now geared to its Brussels site, it is bound to keep Strasbourg as its official home; the Parliament's five buildings, all named after distinguished European politicians, are located in the Quartier Européen of the city, which it shares with other European organisations which are separate from the European Union's. The Parliament used to share the same assembly room as the Council of Europe. Today, the principal building is the Louise Weiss building, inaugurated in 1999; the Louise Weiss building, is located in the Wacken district of Strasbourg, south of Schiltigheim, between the 1920s workers' suburban colony Cité Ungemach and the 1950s buildings of the Strasbourg fair, some of which had to be torn down to make way for the Immeuble du Parlement européen 4, its formal name.
Built at a cost of 3.1 billion French francs at the intersection of the Ill and the Marne-Rhine Canal, it houses the hemicycle for plenary sessions, the largest of any European institution, 18 other assembly rooms as well as a total of 1,133 parliamentary offices. Through a covered footbridge over the Ill, the Louise Weiss communicates with the Winston Churchill and Salvador de Madariaga buildings. With its surface of 220,000m² and its distinctive 60m tower, it is one of the biggest and most visible buildings of Strasbourg; the Louise Weiss was designed by the Paris-based team of architects Architecture-Studio. The architects were inspired by Roman amphitheatres. After the project was approved at an international contest in 1991, commissioned by the Société d'Aménagement et d'Équipement de la Région de Strasbourg on behalf of the Urban Community of Strasbourg, started in May 1995, with up to twelve tower cranes at the time on what was one of the biggest building sites of the decade in Europe.
The inauguration of the building took place on 14 December 1999 by French President Jacques Chirac and Parliament President Nicole Fontaine. In internal EP documents, the building is referred to as "LOW"; the 60m high tower, intentionally left unfinished on one side, carries heavy symbolism, is said to have been oriented eastwards, i.e. towards eastern Europe, as by the time of the completion of the building no country from the former Soviet bloc had yet joined the EU. However, the open side of the tower faces west. In 2010 Glenn Beck suggested that the tower's design consciously mirrors the Vienna painting of the Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. On 14 January 2009, the European Parliament decided to bestow the name of Bronisław Geremek, a deceased member from Poland, on the courtyard inside the tower, calling it the "Bronisław Geremek Agora"; this was inaugurated on 21 April 2009. Members sit in a hemicycle according to their political groups arranged from left to right, although with the non-attached members towards the back and right of the chamber.
All desks are equipped with microphones, headphones for interpretation and electronic voting equipment. The leaders of the groups sit on the front benches at the centre, in the centre is a podium for guest speakers; the remaining segment of the circular chamber is composed of the raised area where the President and staff sit. Behind them there is an EU flag attached to the wall with national flags in rows each side of it. Interpretation booths are located behind them and along the sides of the chamber, while public galleries are located above the chamber around the entire perimeter. Further benches are provided between the sides of the MEPs; the chamber as a whole is of a modern design, with the walls composed of lights with large blue chairs for MEPs. On 7 August 2008, 10% of the ceiling of the plenary chamber collapsed. No one was injured, as Parliament was not meeting at the time, though a number of seats were damaged. A first part of the ceiling collapsed at 18.00 CET followed by a second part at 22.36 CET.
No extreme weather conditions were reported and the structure was new, so it was assumed that the false ceiling had a defect. The President's office stated that a third of the ceiling had been affected and that "The preliminary results have revealed that the partial collapse of the ceiling resulted from the breakage of parts holding the suspended ceiling that connects it with the actual structure of the ceiling."Repair work began but it became apparent that it could not be repaired in time for the next sitting. Thus, the session starting on 1 September was moved to the Brussels hemicycle. Parliament was expected to move back to Strasbourg for the session starting on 22 September but had to remain in Brussels for that session as well as safety inspections dragged on; the event was greeted with joy by those who oppose the Parliament's presence in Strasbourg, mocked by eurosceptics who wore hard hats to the first plenary in Brussels after the incident. In August 2012, the Paul-Henri Spaak building
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of 500 million euros; the organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union, although it is sometimes confused with it because the EU has adopted the original European Flag, created by the Council of Europe in 1955, as well as the European Anthem. No country has joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe; the Council of Europe is an official United Nations Observer. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics; the best known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state.
The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and the European Audiovisual Observatory; the headquarters of the Council of Europe are in France. English and French are its two official languages; the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress use German, Italian and Turkish for some of their work. Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war," once victory had been achieved, think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business".
He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it. The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers and a Consultative Assembly, the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe; this dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was copied for the European Communities, North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London.
The Statute was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. Three months on 10 August 1949, 100 members of the Council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from twelve nations, met in Strasbourg for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month, they debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet facing a new East-West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every European citizen, took the first steps towards what would in time become the European Union. In August 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium was elected president of the first session of the assembly. Spaak helped develop a network of intergovernmental contacts in many fields, such as human rights, local government, culture and youth policy. However, the organization only played an advisory role, was not nearly strong enough to achieve Spaak's long-term goals of European unification.
In 2018 an archive of all speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe by heads of state or government since the Council of Europe's creation in 1949 appeared online, the fruit of a two-year project entitled "Voices of Europe". At the time of its launch, the archive comprised 263 speeches delivered over a 70-year period by some 216 Presidents, Prime Ministers and religious leaders from 45 countries - though it continues to expand, as new speeches are added every few months; some early speeches by individuals considered to be "founding figures" of the European institutions if they were not heads of state or government at the time, are included. Addresses by eight monarchs appear in the list as well as the speeches given by religious figures and several leaders from countries in the Middle East and North Africa; the full text of the speeches is given in both En
The franc commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money, it was reintroduced in 1795. After two centuries of inflation, it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs; the NF designation was continued for a few years before the currency returned to being the franc. The French franc was a held international reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries; the first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France. This coin secured the king's freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval; the obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the king's title as Francorum Rex and provides another reason to call the coin a franc. Its value was set as one livre tournois. John's son, Charles V, continued this type, it was copied at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, at Flanders.
Conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom and he voluntarily returned to English captivity. John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces, and so he did. Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage. An edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse, pictured under a canopy, its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, this coin is universally known as a franc à pied. In accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed.
The Mayor of Paris, Étienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The franc fared better, it became associated with money stable at one livre tournoisHenry III exploited the association of the franc as sound money worth one livre tournois when he sought to stabilize French currency in 1577. By this time, inflows of gold and silver from Spanish America had caused inflation throughout the world economy and the kings of France, who weren't getting much of this wealth, only made things worse by manipulating the values assigned to their coins; the States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the public pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc, now as a silver coin valued at one livre tournois; this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver écu. The name "franc" continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois; the decimal "franc" was established as the national currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver.
This was less than the livre of 4.505 g, but the franc was set in 1796 at 1.0125 livres, reflecting in part the past minting of sub-standard coins. Silver coins now had their denomination marked as "5 FRANCS" and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs; this ended the ancien régime's practice of striking coins with no stated denomination, such as the Louis d'or, periodically issuing royal edicts to manipulate their value in terms of money of account, i.e. the Livre tournois. The franc became the official currency of France in 1799. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795. Decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France led the world in adopting the metric system and it was the second country to convert from a non-decimal to a decimal currency, following Russia's conversion in 1704, the third country to adopt a decimal coinage following the United States in 1787. France's first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the coinage designs the United States had adopted in 1793.
The circulation of this metallic currency declined during the Republic: the old gold and silver coins were taken out of circulation and exchanged for printed assignats issued as bonds backed by the value of the confiscated goods of churches, but declared as legal tender currency. The withdrawn gold and silver coins were used to finance wars and to import food, in short supply; as during the "Mississippi Bubble" in 1715–1720, too many assignats were put in circulation, exceeding the value of the "national properties", the coins, due to military requisitioning and hoarding, rarefied to pay foreign suppliers. With national government debt remaining unpaid, a shortage of silver and brass to mint coins, confidence in the new currency declined, leading to hyperinflation, more food riots, severe political instability and termination of the First French Republic and the political fall of the French Convention. Followed the economic failure of the Directoire
Marco Lorenzo Sinnott Goldschmied is an architect best known as co-founder and managing director of Richard Rogers Partnership. He now runs the Marco Goldschmied Foundation and was a president of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1998 he founded The Stephen Lawrence Prize alongside Doreen Lawrence, in association with the RIBA; the annual award recognises the best architectural projects with a construction budget under £1 million. It was set up in memory of the teenager, setting out on the road to becoming an architect when he was murdered in 1993, is intended to encourage fresh talent working with smaller budgets. Son of British Elinor and Italian Guido Goldschmied, Marco was born in England in 1944 and moved to Trieste, Italy in 1946 during the Allied Military Government - Free territory of Triest. Following the death of his father in 1955, he returned to London with his mother in 1956. Goldschmied trained at the Architecture Association. In 1971 he was associate partner of the Piano + Rogers architecture practice, established to design the competition winning Centre Georges Pompidou.
He was co-founder of the Richard Rogers Partnership with Richard Rogers, Mike Davies and John Young in 1977 becoming managing director in 1984, was involved in many of the major projects undertaken by the practice. He left in 2004 and the practice became Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners in 2007, he set up the Marco Goldschmied Foundation, which established the RIBA Stephen Lawrence Prize in 1998 and rewards the best architecture projects with a construction budget of less than £1 million. Marco was President of the RIBA in 1999 to 2001, during which time he initiated the rebranding of the institute. By highlighting schemes up to a contract value of £1 million, The Stephen Lawrence Prize brings recognition to smaller projects and emerging architectural practices. Speaking at the RIBA Awards evening in 2017, Marco said, "This is what the Prize was intended to do and in twenty years a collection of projects carrying awards in Stephen’s memory, is, I hope a dignified and significant memorial to him.
Whilst the Stirling Prize celebrates the big and the bold, the capacity of The Stephen Lawrence Prize to celebrate the craft and invention of smaller schemes continues to inspire. I am tremendously proud to look back on the projects that have been given special recognition by the Prize. In its own way, it keeps the memory of Stephen present and reminds us of all the work that Doreen and the Stephen Lawrence Trust have achieved since its foundation." The Stephen Lawrence Prize
Palace of Europe
The Palace of Europe is a building located in Strasbourg, that has served as the seat of the Council of Europe since 1977 when it replaced the'House of Europe'. Between 1977 and 1999 it was the Strasbourg seat of the European Parliament; the first assemblies of the Council of Europe used to take place in the stately, 1880s main building of Strasbourg University, the former Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität. Between 1950 and 1977, they took place in a provisory concrete building of purely functional architecture, the House of Europe, that stood where there now is the lawn leading up to the Palace of Europe; the architect of this building was Bertrand Monnet. The first stone of the Palace of Europe was laid on 15 May 1972 by the Swiss politician Pierre Graber; the building, designed by architect Henry Bernard, was inaugurated on 28 January 1977. It was built on the site of a tennis court, inaugurated in the 1930s and used to serve as an ice rink in winter; the Palace of Europe is square in 106 metres on each side, with a height of 38 metres.
Its total working area is 64,000 square metres. It has a thousand offices for staff of the Council of Europe secretariat; the exterior of the building is red and brown. The Palace of Europe is located in the "European District" of Strasbourg, about two kilometres northeast of the Grande Île. From the outside, the Palace of Europe resembles a fortress, since the rows of windows are arranged like arrow slits; the Parliament chamber resembles an enormous shell. The Committee of Ministers represented by the Ministers Deputies, meets in a circular room projecting from a corner of the eastern wing of the building; the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe uses the large debating chamber in the centre of the building, called the Hemicycle, famous for its unusual architecture. The Congress of the Council of Europe holds its plenary sessions in the Hemicycle; the Palace of Europe accommodates the part of the Council of Europe Secretariat, including the Private Office of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Until 1999, the building hosted plenary sessions of the European Parliament. The European Parliament now has Immeuble Louise Weiss, across the Ill River. European Court of Human Rights building Lier, Martijn F. M. A. M.. A joint expression of buildings; the House of Europe and the Palace of Europe as a manifestation of ideals and aspirations for the Council of Europe, 1949-1977. Radboud University; the Council of Europe in Strasbourg Map of Strasbourg from the Council of Europe site Visits to the Council of Europe Photo gallery of the Palace of Europe from the Council of Europe site
The Canal de la Marne au Rhin is a canal in north-eastern France. It connects the river Marne and the Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne in Vitry-le-François with the port of Strasbourg on the Rhine; the original objective of the canal was to connect Paris and the north of France with Alsace and Lorraine, the Rhine, Germany. The 313 km long canal was the longest in France when it opened in 1853; the canal is suited for small barges, with a maximum size of 38.50 metres in length and 5.05 metres in width. It has 154 locks, including two in the Moselle River. There are four tunnels; the Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane is located between Arzviller and Saint-Louis and its construction replaced 17 locks. In 1979, a 23 kilometres section along the Moselle valley was closed following completion of the Moselle canalisation works between Frouard and Neuves-Maisons; the route is now made up as follows: Canal de la Marne au Rhin, western section, connecting with the Canal de la Meuse at Troussey, with a branch to Houdelaincourt, the navigable river Moselle from Toul to Pompey and the Frouard branch from Pompey to Frouard, the eastern section, from Frouard to Strasbourg.
The western section, 131.4 km has 97 locks, 70 rising to the summit level and 27 down to the Moselle at Toul. The Moselle section has three locks of high-capacity Rhine dimensions on the river and one on the Frouard branch, an additional Freycinet size lock connecting to the original canal in Frouard; the eastern section, 159 km, has 56 locks, 21 rising to the summit level crossing the Vosges watershed and 35 down to Strasbourg. Its course crosses the following départements and towns: Marne: Vitry-le-François Meuse: Bar-le-Duc, Ligny-en-Barrois, Void-Vacon Meurthe-et-Moselle: Toul, Nancy Moselle: Gondrexange, Sarrebourg Bas-Rhin: Saverne, Strasbourg List of canals in France Canal de la Marne au Rhin with maps and detailed information on places and moorings on the canal, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, ImrayNavigation details for 80 French rivers and canals