Higher education in Portugal
Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education. It is provided in autonomous public and private universities, university institutes, polytechnic institutes and higher education institutions of other types; the higher education institutions of Portugal grant the licentiate and doctor academic degrees, with the last one being reserved to be granted only by the university institutions. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions. In addition, every higher education institution offers a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants, international students, foreign students from the Lusosphere, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions, former students, course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest such institution, the University of Coimbra, was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. Within the scope of the now defunct Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded in 1792 the oldest engineering school of the Americas, as well as the oldest medical college of Asia in 1842. In Portugal, the university system has a strong theoretical basis and is research-oriented while the polytechnical system provides a more practical training and is profession-oriented. Degrees in fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, natural sciences, psychology or veterinary medicine are taught only in university institutions. Other fields like engineering, management, agriculture, sports, or humanities are taught both in university and polytechnic institutions. Vocationally oriented degrees such as, health care technician, accounting technician and primary school teaching, are only offered by the polytechnic institutions; the oldest university is the University of Coimbra founded in 1290.
The largest university, by number of enrolled students, is the University of Porto - with 28,000 students. The Catholic University of Portugal, the oldest non-state-run university, was instituted by decree of the Holy See and has been recognized by the State of Portugal since 1971. A few polytechnical higher education institutions, though formed as such in the 1980s, have their origin in 19th century educational institutions - this is the case of the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, the Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto and the Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra. Public or private higher education institutions or courses cannot operate, or are not accredited, if they are not recognized by the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior; the two systems of higher education - university and polytechnic - are linked, it is possible to transfer from one to the other through extraordinary effort. It is possible to transfer from a private institution to a public one on the same basis.
Many universities are organized by faculty. Institute and school are common designations for autonomous units of Portuguese higher learning institutions, are always used in the polytechnical system, though several universities use these systems. Access to public higher education institutions is subject to enrollment restrictions, students must compete for admission. Students who hold a diploma of secondary education or the equivalent, who meet all legal requirements exams in specific subjects in which minimum marks must be obtained, may apply. Any citizen over 23 years old who does not have the secondary education diploma can attempt to gain admission to a limited number of vacant places available, through special examination which includes an interview. Public university's tuition fees are greater than polytechnics', polytechnic weekend and evening classes are organized. For a large number of academic fields and graduate admission criteria and student evaluation in most public university institutions are more selective and demanding than in many private institutions or polytechnic institutions.
Access to private higher education institutions is regulated by each institution. After 2006, with the approval of new legislation on the frame of the Bologna Process, any polytechnic or university institution of Portugal is able to award a first cycle of study, known as licenciatura plus a second cycle which confers a mestrado. Before only university institutions awarded master's degrees. All institutions award master's degrees after a second cycle of study, some universities award integrated master's degrees through a longer single cycle of study, with fields such as medicine having an initial 6-year study cycle needed for a master's degree. Doutoramentos are only awarded by university institutions. Only university institutions carry out fundamental research in addition to development. However, since after the Bologna Process an large number of polytechnical institutions have established to some extent their own research and development units. There are special higher education institutions linked with the military and t
Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina has a long history, the first classifiable higher-education institution having been established a school of Sufi philosophy by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531, with numerous other religious schools following suit over time. In 1887, under de facto Austro-Hungarian Empire control, a Sharia Law School began a five-year program. In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city's first secular higher education institute. In the 1950s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available. Damaged during the war, it was rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are various other institutions of higher education, including: University of Banja Luka, University of Mostar, University of Tuzla, University of Zenica, University of East Sarajevo, University "Džemal Bijedić" of Mostar, University of Bihać, American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in high regard as one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region.
The education system is made of up of three levels: Primary school Secondary levels University education Primary education in Bosnia and Herzegovina is compulsory and free for all children from ages 6 through 15 and lasts for nine years in three three-year cycles. This system was firstly adopted in 2004, as a replacement for the old eight-year primary education system, offered to children from ages 6 through 14 in two four-year cycles, however still valid for children who began education before 2004 and in some regions after that date. Secondary education in Bosnia and Herzegovina is free, it is provided by general and technical secondary schools, where studies begin at the age of 15 and last for three or four years. Most children in Bosnia start school when they are six years old and finish high school when they are eighteen or nineteen. Students who have graduated from general secondary schools get the Matura and opt to enroll in any faculty or college after passing a qualification examination given by the institution while students who graduated from technical schools get a diploma.
Bosnia Herzegovina's higher education system comprises nine universities with some 90 faculties, which are treated as higher education establishments, art academies. University degrees are acquired at the arts academies. There are 22 private higher education institutions and the law on higher education treats private and public higher education institutions equally. Under the new law, university education is organized according to the system of transferable points and has three levels: The undergraduate courses last for three to four years and bring 180 to 240 ECTS points. Upon the completion of the undergraduate courses, students are awarded the title of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Postgraduate courses, which last for two years, carry 120 ECTS points and award the degree of Master of Art or Science. PhD courses can be taken after completing a postgraduate university course, they last three years, the academic title of Doctor of Science or Doctor of Arts is awarded upon completion. The university can offer postgraduate specialist courses which last for one to two years, by which one can acquire the title of a specialist in a certain specialist field such as medicine.
In accordance with laws and regulations, higher education institutions are funded by the corresponding RS or FBIH authorities. Higher education activities are thus governed by either RS or FBIH legislation, with the state level Ministry of Civil Affairs assuming the task of coordinating the higher education activities of the two entities. One of the main prerequisites for reform was the adoption of the higher education law in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Following its adoption, many challenges such as the establishment of ENIC institutions and a financing council will need to be addressed. Reforms within universities themselves will represent a challenge — for example, the introduction and implementation of the ECTS and diploma supplements, as well as other Bologna process initiatives. Two schools under one roof Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Academic grading in Bosnia and Herzegovina University of Zenica
Education in Belgium
Education in Belgium is regulated and for the most part financed by one of the three communities: Flemish and German-speaking. Each community has its own school system, with small differences among them; the federal government plays a small role: it decides directly the age for mandatory schooling and indirectly the financing of the communities. The schools can be divided in three groups: Schools owned by the communities Subsidized public schools, organized by provinces and municipalities Subsidized free schools organized by an organization affiliated to the Catholic churchThe latter is the largest group, both in number of schools and in number of pupils. Education in Belgium is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 18 or until one graduates from secondary school. In the past there were conflicts between state schools and Catholic schools, disputes regarding whether the latter should be funded by the government; the 1958 School Pact was an agreement by the three large political parties to end these conflicts.
The 1981 state reform transferred some matters from the federal Belgian level to the communities. In 1988, the majority of educational matters were transferred. Nowadays few general matters are regulated on a national level; the current ministries for education are the Flemish Government, the Government of the French Community and the Government of the German-speaking Community for each community respectively. Brussels, being bilingual French-Dutch, has schools provided by both the Flemish and French-speaking community. Municipalities with language facilities have schools provided by two communities as well; the different stages of education are the same in all communities: Basic education, consisting of Preschool education: -6 years Primary school: 6–12 years Secondary education: 12–18 years Higher education University Polytechnic/Vocational university Free pre-primary schooling is provided to every child from the age of 2 years 6 months. In most schools the child can start in school as soon as they reach this age, so class size for the youngest children grows during the year.
In the Flemish region, start dates are limited to 6 per year, after a school holiday period and the first school day in February. The aim of pre-school is to develop, in a playful way, children's cognitive skills, their capacity to express themselves and communicate, their creativity and independence. There are no formal lessons or assessments, everything is taught through a framework of play. Although it is not compulsory, more than 90% of all children in the age category attend pre-school. Most pre-schools are attached to a particular primary school. Preschools and primary schools share buildings and other facilities; some schools offer special pre-primary education for children with disabilities or other special needs. Primary school consists of six years and the subjects taught are the same at all schools. Primary schooling is free and age is the only entrance requirement. Primary education is divided into three cycles: First cycle Second cycle Third cycle Education in primary schools is rather traditional: it concentrates on reading and basic mathematics, but touches a broad range of topics.
School starts about 8:30 and finishes around 15:30. A lunch time break is provided from 12:00 to 13:30. Wednesday afternoon and Sunday are free. While morning lessons concentrate on reading and basic mathematics, lessons in the afternoon are about other topics like biology, religion, history or "do it yourself" activities. Flemish schools in Brussels and some municipalities near the language border, must offer French lessons starting from the first or the second year. Most other Flemish schools offer French education in the third cycle; some of the latter schools offer non-mandatory French lessons in the second cycle. Primary schools in the French Community must teach another language, Dutch or English, depending on the school. Primary schools in the German Community have obligatory French lessons. There are some private schools set up to serve various international communities in Belgium around the larger cities; some schools offer special primary education for children with other special needs.
When graduating from primary school around the age of 12, students enter secondary education. Here they have to choose a course that they want to follow, depending on their skill level and interests. Secondary education consists of three cycles: First cycle Second cycle Third cycle The Belgian secondary education grants the pupils more choice as they enter a higher cycle; the first cycle provides a broad general basis, with only a few options to choose from. This should enable students to orient themse
Education in Italy
Education in Italy is compulsory from 6 to 16 years of age, is divided into five stages: kindergarten, primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school and university. Education is free in Italy and free education is available to children of all nationalities who are residents in Italy. Italy has both a public education system. However, the quality of the public schools is higher compared to the private schools, in terms of "educational and labour market outcomes". In Italy a state school system or Education System has existed since 1859, when the Legge Casati mandated educational responsibilities for the forthcoming Italian state; the Casati Act made primary education compulsory, had the goal of increasing literacy. This law gave control of primary education to the single towns, of secondary education to the provinces, the universities were managed by the State. With the Casati Act and compulsory education, in rural areas children were not sent to school and the illiteracy rate took more than 50 years to halve.
The next important law concerning the Italian education system was the Legge Gentile. This act was issued in 1923, thus when Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party were in power. In fact, Giovanni Gentile was appointed the task of creating an education system deemed fit for the fascist system; the compulsory age of education was raised to 14 years, was somewhat based on a ladder system: after the first five years of primary education, one could choose the'Scuola media', which would give further access to the "liceo" and other secondary education, or the'avviamento al lavoro', intended to give a quick entry into the low strates of the workforce. The reform enhanced the role of the Liceo Classico, created by the Casati Act in 1859, created the Technical and Industrial institutes and the Liceo Scientifico; the Liceo Classico was the only secondary school that gave access to all types of higher education until 1968. The influence of Gentile's Idealism was great, he considered the Catholic religion to be the "fundament and crowning" of education.
In 1962 the'avviamento al lavoro' was abolished, all children until 14 years had to follow a single program, encompassing primary education and middle school. From 1962 to the present day, the main structure of Italian primary education remained unchanged if some modifications were made: a narrowing of the gap between males and females, a change in the structure of secondary school and the creation of new licei,'istituti tecnici' and'istituti professionali', giving the student more choices in their paths. In 1999, in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Bologna Process, the Italian university system switched from the old system, to the new system; the nuovo ordinamento split the former Laurea into two tracks: the Laurea triennale, followed by the 2-year Laurea specialistica, the latter renamed Laurea Magistrale in 2007. A credit system was established to quantify the amount of work needed by each course and exam, as well as enhance the possibility to change course of studies and facilitate the transfer of credits for further studies or go on exchange in another country.
However, it is now established that there is just a five-year degree "Laurea Magistrale a Ciclo Unico" for programmes such as Law and a six-year degree for Medicine. Scuola primaria known as scuola elementare, is preceded by three years of non-compulsory nursery school. Scuola elementare lasts five years; until middle school, the educational curriculum is the same for all pupils: although one can attend a private or state-funded school, the subjects studied are the same. The students are given a basic education in Italian, mathematics, natural sciences, geography, social studies, physical education; some schools have Spanish or French, musical arts and visual arts. Until 2004, pupils had to pass an exam to access Scuola secondaria di primo grado, comprising the composition of a short essay in Italian, a written math test, an oral test on the other subjects; the exam has been discontinued and pupils can now enter Scuola secondaria di Primo Grado directly. Students start Primary School at the age of 6, but students who are born between January and March and are still 5 years old can access primary school early.
For example, a student born in February 2002 can attend primary school with students born in 2001. Secondary education in Italy lasts 8 years and is divided in two stages: Scuola secondaria di primo grado broadly known as Scuola media, which corresponds to the Middle School grades, Scuola secondaria di secondo grado broadly known as S
Education in Ukraine
Starting in September 2018, 12-year secondary education will replace 11-year, mandatory before that. As a rule, schooling begins at the age of 6, unless your birthday is on or after September 1. In 2016/17 the number of students in primary and secondary school reached 3,846,000, in vocational school 285,800, in higher education 1,586,700 students. According to 2017 EduConf speech of the Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine, Liliya Hrynevych, the amount of budget financing for the sphere of education will reach about UAH 53 billion in 2017; the Ukrainian educational system is organized into five levels: preschool, secondary, upper secondary and postgraduate education. In 2010 a total of 56% of children aged one to six years old had the opportunity to attend preschool education, the Education and Science Ministry of Ukraine reported in August 2010. Schools receive 50% of their funding from the city budget and 50% from the national Government budget; the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine intends to give general education schools the option to independently manage the financial resources assigned from the state budget starting from January 1, 2010.
In Ukraine, school in its prime meaning is designated for children and teenagers who attend it between ages 6 through 17. There are several types of institutions of General Education; some schools may be named school-internat or lyceum-internat. Middle School of General Education or Middle School Lyceum Grammar schoolThe institution is called Middle School of General Education or Middle School and combines primary and secondary levels of education; the system was first introduced in 1958 and included a 12-grade system, while in 1965 it was a 10-grade system. Most of the middle schools have all three level of accreditation for the General Education; some remote schools may be of two levels, a minimum requirement for all the middle school. Primary and secondary education is divided into three levels of accreditation of general education: I - "younger", II - "middle", III - "senior". I level of accreditation comprises grades 1 to 4. Grades 5-9 are considered a II level of accreditation or a base secondary education, while 10-12 are a III level.
Despite the names, students study in the same school institution throughout their primary and secondary education. Primary schooling lasts 4 years and middle school 5. There are 2 profile years; the objective of general schooling is to give younger students knowledge of the arts and sciences, teach them how to use it practically. The middle school curriculum includes classes in the Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Literature, a foreign language, world literature, Ukrainian History, world history, algebra, biology, physics, physical education and art. At some schools, students take environment and civics classes. Students attend each class only twice a week, however. Part of the school day is spent in activities such as chess, putting on plays, learning folktales and folk songs and band. After school, students might have music lessons, hockey, or tennis. During grades 9 and 12, around the age of 15 and 17, students take various exams; the current examination system is undergoing change. At grades 9 and 12 students take IGTs, which allow eleventh graders to enter university without taking separate entrance exams.
In 2008 entrance exams were abolished and the IGTs became the standard for determining entrance eligibility. But in 2010 the system was changed again. In school year 2009-2010 potential graduates are scheduled to undergo external independent testing after the final state examination, in the following subjects: Ukrainian language and literature, history of Ukraine, biology, chemistry and one foreign language in either English, French, or Spanish; the results of the testing will have the same status as entrance examinations to institutions of higher education. But some universities can convert points in the external independent test certificate according to their own rating system. Educating children at home is legal in Ukraine and expressly allowed for in Articles 59 and 60 of Ukraine’s Education Law. Meridian International School, Kiev Kiev International School British International School, Ukraine Pechersk School International Higher education is either state funded or private. Students who study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test is at least 4.
In the case of all grades being the highest, the scholarship is increased by 25%. For most students the level of government subsidy is not sufficient to cover their basic living expenses. Most universities provide subsidized housing for out-of-city students, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students. There are two degrees conferred by Ukrainian universities: the bachelor's degree and the master's degree; these degrees are introduced in accordance with Bologna process. Specialist's Degree is still granted. All major universities are located in oblast centers. Upon obtaining a master's degree or Specialist, a student may enter a university or a scientific institute to pursue postgraduate education; the first level of postgraduate education is aspirantura t
Education in Romania
Education in Romania is based on a free-tuition, egalitarian system. Access to free education is guaranteed by Article 32 in the Constitution of Romania. Education is enforced by the Ministry of National Education; each step is subject to different laws and directives. Since the downfall of the communist regime, the Romanian educational system has been through several reforms. Kindergarten is optional under the age of six. Compulsory schooling starts at age 6, with the "preparatory school year", mandatory in order to enter the first grade. Schooling is compulsory until the tenth grade; the school educational cycle ends in the twelfth grade. Higher education is aligned onto the European Higher Education Area. In addition to the formal system of education, to, added the equivalent private system, there is a system of tutoring, semi-legal and informal. Romania ranks 5th in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper for gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, doing it all three times he participated in the IMO.
Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China and Russia, right after the United States and Hungary. Romania ranks 6th in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989. Education in Romania is compulsory for 11 years. With the exception of kindergarten and tertiary education, the private sector has a low presence in the Romanian education system. Education became compulsory in Romania in the 19th century, in 1864, under ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza, when four years of primary school became free and compulsory for all children, regardless of social class and sex. Despite this, the law was not enforced, mass illiteracy persisted well into the 20th century: in the 1930s, 43% of adults were illiterate; the Romanian literacy campaigns started in 1948 eradicated illiteracy in the 1950s. The education system of Romania resembles the French education system. During the communist era, it was influenced by the Soviet education system, it included political propaganda, as well as hours of compulsory physical work by school children.
As of April 2013, there were about 7,200 opened schools in Romania, a sharp drop from nearly 30,000 units in 1996. This is because many schools were brought together in order to form bigger schools and eliminate paperwork. In the same year, 3.2 million students and preschoolers were enrolled in the educational system, 500,000 more than in 2012. Throughout the 20th century, compulsory education has oscillated between 4 years, 7 years, again 4 years, 7 years, 8 years, 10 years, again 8 years. In the 21st century, it was raised to 10 years and to 11 years; when the communists came into power in 1947, compulsory education was 7 years, but this was not enforced. The communist regime lowered compulsory education to 4 years, but with a strong enforcement. Next they increased it to 7, 8 and 10 years. After the 1989 revolution, compulsory education was lowered again to 8 years; the new government cited as reasons the poor quality of education, high strain on the state budget, inflation of diplomas. In 2003, compulsory education was raised again through Law nr.
268/2003, modifying Article 6 of Law nr. 84/1995. During the 1990–2003 period, there was little concern for education in Romania, the generation who studied in this period is quite poorly trained, with illiteracy being higher than the previous generation among the Roma population in rural areas. A new law come into force in 2011; this law came into force after years of political debate regarding not only the number of years in compulsory education, but how they should be structured. The original form of the law, which would have moved the 9th grade to middle school, was never implemented. With the adding of the preparatory school year as part of compulsory primary education in 2012, compulsory education consists of 5 years of primary school, 4 of middle school/gymnasium and 2 of high school/vocation school. There are 2 more optional high school years. Kindergartens are optional. Kindergarten lasts for 3 forms – "small group" for children aged 3–4, "middle group", for children aged 4–5, "big group" for children aged 5–6.
The "preparatory school year" is for children aged 6–7, since it became compulsory in 2012, it takes place at school. The preparatory school year is a requirement in order to enter the first grade, being part of the primary education stage, according to Article 23 of the Education law no 1/2011. During the transition period after the new law was enacted transfers of teachers occurred in order to fill in the educational needs of this year. Kindergarten services differ from one kindergarten to another, from public to private ones, may include initiation in foreign languages, introduction in computer studies, swimming, etc. All kindergartens provide at least one meal or one snack, some having their own kitchens and their own cooks, others opting for dedicated catering services. Many kindergartens
Member state of the European Union
The European Union consists of 28 member states. Each member state is party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership. Unlike members of most international organisations, the member states of the EU are subjected to binding laws in exchange for representation within the common legislative and judicial institutions. Member states must agree unanimously for the EU to adopt policies concerning defence and foreign policy. Subsidiarity is a founding principle of the EU. In 1957, six core states founded the European Economic Community; the remaining states have acceded in subsequent enlargements. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the newest member state of the EU. To accede, a state must fulfill the economic and political requirements known as the Copenhagen criteria, which require a candidate to have a democratic, free-market government together with the corresponding freedoms and institutions, respect for the rule of law. Enlargement of the Union is contingent upon the consent of all existing members and the candidate's adoption of the existing body of EU law, known as the acquis communautaire.
There is disparity in the size and political system of member states, but all have de jure equal rights. In practice, certain states are more influential than others. While in some areas majority voting takes place where larger states have more votes than smaller ones, smaller states have disproportional representation compared to their population. No member state has withdrawn or been suspended from the EU, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left. In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on membership of the EU, resulting in 51.89% of votes cast, being in favour of leaving. The United Kingdom government invoked Article 50 on 29 March 2017 to formally initiate the withdrawal process. Notes According to the Copenhagen criteria, membership of the European Union is open to any European country, a stable, free-market liberal democracy that respects the rule of law and human rights. Furthermore, it has to be willing to accept all the obligations of membership, such as adopting all agreed law and switching to the euro.
To join the European Union, it is required for all member states to agree. In addition to enlargement by adding new countries, the EU can expand by having territories of member states, which are outside the EU, integrate more or by a territory of a member state which had seceded and rejoined. Enlargement is, has been, a principal feature of the Union's political landscape; the EU's predecessors were founded by the "Inner Six", those countries willing to forge ahead with the Community while others remained skeptical. It was only a decade before the first countries changed their policy and attempted to join the Union, which led to the first skepticism of enlargement. French President Charles de Gaulle feared British membership would be an American Trojan horse and vetoed its application, it was only after de Gaulle left office and a 12-hour talk by British Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President Georges Pompidou took place that the United Kingdom's third application succeeded in 1970.
Applying in 1969 were the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway. Norway, declined to accept the invitation to become a member when the electorate voted against it, leaving just the UK, Denmark to join, but despite the setbacks, the withdrawal of Greenland from Denmark's membership in 1985, three more countries joined the Communities before the end of the Cold War. In 1987, the geographical extent of the project was tested when Morocco applied, was rejected as it was not considered a European country; the year 1990 saw the Cold War drawing to a close, East Germany was welcomed into the Community as part of a reunited Germany. Shortly thereafter, the neutral countries of Austria and Sweden acceded to the newly renamed European Union, though Switzerland, which applied in 1992, froze its application due to opposition from voters while Norway, which had applied once more, had its voters reject membership again in 1994. Meanwhile, the members of the former Eastern Bloc and Yugoslavia were all starting to move towards EU membership.
Eight of these, plus Cyprus and Malta, joined in a major enlargement on 1 May 2004 symbolising the unification of Eastern and Western Europe in the EU. They were followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Croatia in 2013; the EU has prioritised membership for the rest of the Western Balkans. Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey are all formally acknowledged as candidates, while Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are potential candidates. Turkish membership, pending since the 1980s, is a more contentious issue. Aside from the Cyprus dispute being a long-standing hurdle, relations between the EU and Turkey have become strained after several incidents concerning the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the Turkish referendum, the resulting 2016–17 purges in Turkey; this has led to the European Parliament calling for a suspension of membership talks. Each state has representation in the institutions of the European Union. Full membership gives the government of a member state a seat in the Council of the European Union and European Council.
When decisions are not being taken by consensus, votes are weighted so that a country with a greater population has more votes within the Coun