International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Education Resources Information Center
The Education Resources Information Center is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences of the United States Department of Education; the mission of ERIC is to provide a comprehensive, easy-to-use, Internet-based bibliographic and full-text database of education research and information for educators and the general public. Education research and information are essential to improving teaching and educational decision-making. ERIC provides access to 1.5 million bibliographic records of journal articles and other education-related materials, with hundreds of new records added every week. A key component of ERIC is its collection of grey literature in education, available in full text in Adobe PDF format. One quarter of the complete ERIC Collection is available in full text. Materials with no full text available can be accessed using links to publisher websites and/or library holdings. ERIC includes education related articles in its database.
Sample articles include "The Economic and Administrative Pharmacy Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy", "Aesthetics in Young Children's Lives: From Music Technology Curriculum Perspective ", "Digital Game's Impacts on Students' Learning Effectiveness of Correct Medication ". The ERIC Collection, begun in 1966, contains records for a variety of publication types, including: journal articles books research syntheses conference papers technical reports dissertations policy papers, other education-related materialsERIC provides the public with a centralized Web site for searching the ERIC collection and submitting materials to be considered for inclusion in the collection. Users can access the collection through commercial database vendors and institutional networks, Internet search engines. To help users find the information they are seeking, ERIC produces a controlled vocabulary, the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors; this is a selected list of education-related words and phrases used to tag materials by subject and make them easier to retrieve through a search.
Prior to January 2004, the ERIC network consisted of sixteen subject-specific clearinghouses, various adjunct and affiliate clearinghouses, three support components. The program was consolidated into a single entity, with upgraded systems, paper-based processes converted to electronic, thus streamlining operations and speeding delivery of content. ERIC website ERIC Digests, a repository for materials produced by the former ERIC Clearinghouse system up to 2003
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1870 by the Jesuits, today Loyola is one of the largest Catholic universities in the United States. Loyola's professional schools have educated generations of local business and civic leaders, distinguished programs in medicine and health sciences are anchored by the nationally recognized Loyola University Medical Center. Comprising eleven colleges and schools, Loyola offers over 80 undergraduate and 140 graduate/professional programs and enrolls 16,000 students. Loyola has six campuses across the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as a campus in Rome and guest programs in Beijing and Ho Chi Minh City; the flagship Lake Shore Campus is on the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Loyola's athletic teams, nicknamed the Ramblers, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. Loyola won the 1963 NCAA men's basketball championship, remains the only school from Illinois to do so.
The Ramblers are two-time NCAA champions in men's volleyball. Among the more than 150,000 Loyola alumni, there are executives of major Chicago-based corporations such as McDonald's and Baxter International, as well as dozens of local and national political leaders including the current Illinois Attorney General and Speaker of the House. Loyola alumni have won Emmy, Grammy and Pulitzer awards, as well as Guggenheim and MacArthur fellowships. Loyola was established as St. Ignatius College on June 30, 1870, by Jesuit educator Fr. Arnold Damen. At that time Chicago was a much smaller, but growing, city just shy of 300,000 people, as a result the original campus was much closer to the city center along Roosevelt Road. In 1909 the school was renamed Loyola University, in 1912 it began to move to the current Lake Shore Campus. To meet the growing needs of Chicago, Loyola established professional schools in law, medicine and nursing; the Chicago College of Dental Surgery became part of the university in 1923, was closed 70 years later.
A downtown campus was founded in 1914, with it the School of Sociology. As the predecessor to the School of Social Work, it enrolled Loyola's first female students, though the school would not become coeducational until 1966. Loyola Academy, a college prep high school, occupied Dumbach Hall on the Lake Shore Campus until it was relocated to north suburban Wilmette in 1957; the current Water Tower Campus opened in 1949. In 1962, Loyola opened a campus in Rome near the site of the 1960 Summer Olympics. In 1969, Loyola established the School of Education and consolidated medical programs at the Loyola University Medical Center, a hospital and health care complex located in Maywood, an immediate suburb of Chicago; the university separated from the Jesuits in 1970, today is under lay control and governed by a board of trustees. Loyola purchased neighboring Mundelein College in 1991. Major capital campaigns since the turn of the century have enhanced Loyola's academic profile and campuses. In 2005 the Loyola University Museum of Art was established on the Water Tower Campus, the Rome campus was renamed in honor of Director Emeritus John P. Felice.
In 2009, the Cuneo Foundation presented the university with the Cuneo Mansion and Gardens, a 100-acre estate with an Italianate mansion and extensive collections of art and furnishings located in suburban Vernon Hills. The $50 million gift is the largest in Loyola history. In 2010, Loyola purchased the Resurrection Retreat Center in Woodstock, which became the school's fifth campus for retreat and ecological study. In 2012, Loyola alumnus Michael R. Quinlan donated $40 million to the business school, renamed in his honor. During this time over 200,000 square-feet of LEED-certified sustainable spaces have been built on the Lake Shore Campus alone, along with significant mixed-use developments on the Water Tower Campus. Today, Loyola ranks among the top 89 universities in the nation, is in the midst of over $800 million in capital construction projects. In 2015, the university established Arrupe College, a uniquely structured two-year college designed to give low-income students access to a Loyola education.
On May 23, 2016, Loyola named Jo Ann Rooney its 24th president. She is the first female president in the history of the university. Loyola's flagship Lake Shore Campus is along the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods on the north side of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Founded in 1912, it is the primary residential campus for the school, is the home of the College of Arts and Sciences, a variety of graduate programs. A collection of over forty buildings, the campus offers ample green space and lakeshore access, as well as several landmarks: The Madonna della Strada Chapel, a striking Art Deco masterpiece completed in 1939, is the center of Loyola's religious life; the Mundelein Center, a 200-foot tall Art Deco skyscraper completed in 1930, is the home of Loyola's fine and performing arts programs and a National Historical Landmark. The Joseph J. Gentile Arena, which holds 5,500 for basketball and campus events, was expanded to include the Norville Center, a student-athlete academic center and home of Rambler athletics.
One of the largest events held annually in Gentile Arena is Colossus, which features a musical artist and comedian. Artists including Jason Derulo and John Mulaney have performed for Colossus; the Halas Recreation Center was remodeled and incorp
EBSCO Information Services
EBSCO Information Services, headquartered in Ipswich, Massachusetts, is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc. the third largest private company in Birmingham, with annual sales of nearly $2 billion according to the BBJ's 2013 Book of Lists. EBSCO offers library resources to customers in academic, medical, K–12, public library, law and government markets, its products include EBSCONET, a complete e-resource management system, EBSCOhost, which supplies a fee-based online research service with 375 full-text databases, a collection of 600,000-plus ebooks, subject indexes, point-of-care medical references, an array of historical digital archives. In 2010, EBSCO introduced its EBSCO Discovery Service to institutions, which allows searches of a portfolio of journals and magazines. EBSCO Information Services is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc. a family owned company since 1944. "EBSCO" is an acronym for Elton B. Stephens Co. According to Forbes Magazine, EBSCO is one of the largest held companies in Alabama and one of the top 200 in the United States, based on revenues and employee numbers.
Sales surpassed $1 billion in 1997 and exceeded $2 billion in 2006. EBSCO Industries is a diverse company. EBSCO Publishing was established in 1984 as a print publication called Popular Magazine Review, featuring article abstracts from more than 300 magazines. In 1987 the company was purchased by EBSCO Industries and its name was changed to EBSCO Publishing, it employed around 750 people by 2007. In 2003 it acquired another database provider. In 2010 EBSCO purchased NetLibrary and in 2011, EBSCO Publishing took over H. W. Wilson Company, it merged with EBSCO Information Services on July 1, 2013. The merged business operates as EBSCO Information Services. In 2015 EBSCO acquired YBP Library Services from Baker & Taylor, renamed it GOBI Library Solutions; as of 2017, the President is Tim Collins. Databases: EBSCO provides a range of library database services. Many of the databases, such as MEDLINE and EconLit, are licensed from content vendors. Others, such as Academic Search, America: History & Life, Art Index, Art Abstracts, Art Full Text, Business Source, Clinical Reference Systems, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Education Abstracts, Environment Complete, Health Source, Historical Abstracts, History Reference Center, MasterFILE, NetLibrary, Primary Search, Professional Development Collection, USP DI are compiled by EBSCO itself.
Discovery: This product is used to create a unified, customized index of an institution's information resources, a means of accessing all the content from a single search box. The system works by harvesting metadata from both internal and external sources, creating a preindexed service. EBooks: EBSCO provides ebooks and audiobooks across a wide range of subject matter. EBSCO reports that their database includes over a million ebooks and 90,000 audiobooks from over 1500 publishers. DynaMed Plus is a clinical reference tool for physicians and other health care professionals for use at the point-of-care. DynaMed Plus ranked highest among 10 online clinical resources in a study in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology and had the highest overall performance in the disease reference product category in two successive reports on clinical decision support resources by KLAS, a research firm that specializes in monitoring and reporting the performance of healthcare vendors, it provides DRM-protected audio and DRM-protected audiobooks through its subsidiary NetLibrary, purchased in 2010 from Online Computer Library Center.
It competes in this market with OverDrive’s Digital Library Reserve. EBSCO has two large solar electric arrays, is converting its corporate fleet of cars to hybrids, has established a "Green Team" at its headquarters, has released GreenFILE, a free database designed to help people research the impact humans have on the environment. EBSCO was awarded a 2008 Environmental Merit Award Award from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's New England Office and was honored by the Special Library Association as "Green Champions" as part of the association's "Knowledge to Go Green" initiative on Earth Day 2009. EBSCO philanthropic initiatives include efforts to bridge the digital divide and work with the Open Society Foundations to provide essential research databases for universities in 39 developing countries. In 2012, the Stephens were recognized for their philanthropic work. In 2017, an anti-pornography organization, the National Center on Sexual Exploitation criticized EBSCO because its databases used in schools in the United States, "could be used to search for information about sexual terms."
The group said that some articles from Men's Health and other publications indexed by EBSCO included articles with sexual content and asserted that other articles in the database linked to websites that included pornography. EBSCO responded by saying that it took the complaint but was unaware of any case "of students using its databases to access pornography or other explicit materials" and that "the searches NCOSE was concerned about had been conducted by adults searching for graphic materials on home computers that don't have the kinds of controls and filters common on school computers." "Interview with Sam Brooks, Senior VP for Sales and Marketing with EBSCO Publishing, About H. W. Wilson"; the Charleston Advisor. Denver. 2011. Official website
Lehigh University is a private research university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer, its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2019, the university had 1,942 graduate students. Lehigh has four colleges: the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Education; the College of Arts and Sciences is the largest, which consists of 35% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering, Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy. Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, National Medal of Science winners. On April 5, 1986, a 19-year-old Lehigh freshman was murdered in her dorm room.
The backlash against unreported crimes on numerous campuses across the country led to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires that colleges reveal information regarding crime on their campuses.20 years after the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act took effect, thought leaders on campus safety came to Lehigh to discuss critical safety issues for colleges and universities. The event, "Proceeding in Partnership: The Future of Campus Safety," was held on the Lehigh campus in September 2011, was co-sponsored by Security on Campus, founded by Connie and Howard Clery following the death of their daughter, Jeanne Clery; the conference represented the first cooperative effort between Lehigh and the organization since Jeanne Clery's death. Located in the Lehigh Valley, the university is a 70-mile drive from Philadelphia, an 85-mile drive from New York City. Lehigh encompasses 2,350 acres, including 180 acres of recreational and playing fields and 150 buildings comprising four million square feet of floor space.
It is organized into three contiguous campuses on and around South Mountain, including: the Asa Packer Campus, built into the northern slope of the mountain, is Lehigh's original and predominant campus. In May 2012, Lehigh became the recipient of a gift of 755 acres of property in nearby Upper Saucon Township from the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation; the gift from the estate of the long-time benefactor allowed the university to expand its footprint to now comprise 2,350 acres across all its campuses, to consider its long-term potential uses. U. S. News & World Report ranked Lehigh tied for 53rd among national universities in its 2019 edition of "Best Colleges"; the Economist ranked Lehigh 7th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of non-vocational U. S. colleges ranked by alumni earnings above expectation. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012; the Wall Street Journal in June 2010 ranked Lehigh as number 12 in the nation for return on investment when comparing the average career earnings of a graduate to the cost of an education.
Lehigh has appeared in several international university rankings. The university ranked 301–350 overall in the 2013–2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 401–500 overall in the 2012 edition of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 551-600 overall in the 2013 QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report classifies Lehigh's selectivity as "Most Selective." For the Class of 2022, Lehigh received 15,623 applications and accepted 3,418. Per Lehigh's school newspaper, 2022 marked the most selective year with a 19% acceptance rate for regular decision applicants. Lehigh's average class size is 27 students; the undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. Lehigh University offers undergraduate enrollment in all colleges but the College of Education: the P. C. Rossin School of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are able to take courses or major/minor in a subject outside of their respective college.
The university operates on a semester system. Graduates of Lehigh's engineering programs invented the escalator and founded Packard Motor Car Company and the companies that built the locks and lockgates of the Panama Canal. Other notable alumni include Lee Iacocca. Tau Beta Pi, the renowned engineering honor society, was founded at Lehigh. In 2012, BusinessWeek ranked Lehigh's College of Business and Economics 31st in the nation among undergraduate business programs. Lehigh's finance program is strong, ranked as 7th overall undergraduate finance program in the nation by BusinessWeek; the accounting program is strong, ranked as the 21st best undergraduate program in the nation by BusinessWeek. Additionally, US News & World Report ranked Lehigh's part-time MBA 20th in the nation in 2018 rankings. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012. Based in Maginnes Hall, Lehigh offers a variety of visual arts programs. In particular, it has many music programs, including a marching ba
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article