Sarajevo City Hall, known as Vijećnica, is located in the city of Sarajevo. It was designed in 1891 by the Czech architect Karel Pařík, but criticisms by the minister, Baron Benjamin Kallay, caused him to stop working on the project, it was the largest and most representative building of the Austro-Hungarian period in Sarajevo and served as the city hall. The building was reopened on May 9, 2014. Alexander Wittek, who worked on the project in 1892 and 1893, fell ill and died in 1894 in Graz, the work was completed by Ćiril Iveković; the edifice was built in a stylistic blend of historical eclecticism, predominantly in the pseudo-Moorish expression, for which the stylistic sources were found in the Islamic art of Spain and North Africa. Building works began in 1892 and were completed in 1894, at a cost of 984,000 crowns, with 32,000 crowns provided for fixtures and fittings, it was formally opened 20 April 1896, handed over to the City Authority, which occupied the property until 1949, when it was handed over to the National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 25 August 1992, Serbian shelling during the Siege of Sarajevo caused the complete destruction of the library. Before the attack, the library held over 155,000 rare books and manuscripts; some citizens and librarians tried to save some books while they were under sniper fire, at least one person died. The majority of the books could not be saved from the flames; the structural repair of the building was planned to be carried out in four stages: 1996-1997, 2000-2004, the city of Barcelona among others. The third stage ended in September 2012, with an estimated cost of KM 4.6 million and will return the city hall to its former grace. The fourth stage began following the completion of the third stage and lasted about 20 months, finishing at the end of 2013 and cost of KM 14 million which are secured through the IPA. In this stage the whole interior was built and reconstructed, meaning the building is brought back to function. Everything, possible to restore has been done so, while those things that were not possible to save have been made anew through special molds.
The whole reconstruction and restore process was predicted to cost about KM 25 million. After it is repaired, the building, now a national monument, will be used for variety of events, its space will be used for various protocol events for all levels of government and exhibitions. After years of restoration, the building was reopened on May 9, 2014, with the performance of Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra and Vedran Smailović. Gimnazija Mostar built in Moorish Revival style Destruction of libraries National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina Hartmann, Kristen M.. "Fragmentation and forgetting: Sarajevo's Vijećnica". International Journal of Heritage Studies. 22: 312–324. Doi:10.1080/13527258.2016.1138317. Riedlmayer, András. "Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina". Middle East Studies Association Bulletin. 29: 7–11. JSTOR 23061201. Sarić, Šamija. "DESTRUCTION OF ARCHIVAL RECORDS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA". - UDK 930.25:355.4]"1992/1995" - god. 42, str. 223-230
National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg, is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but the first national library in the country. The NLR is ranked among the world’s major libraries, it has the second richest library collection in the Russian Federation, a treasury of national heritage, is the All-Russian Information and Cultural Center. Over the course of its history, the Library has aimed for comprehensive acquisition of the national printed output and has provided free access to its collections, it should not be confused with the Russian State Library, located in Moscow. The Imperial Public Library was established in 1795 by Catherine the Great, it was based on the Załuski Library, the famous Polish national library built by Bishop Załuski in Warsaw, seized by the Russians in 1794 after the Partitions of Poland. The idea of a public library in Russia emerged in the early 18th century but did not take shape until the arrival of the Russian Enlightenment; the plan of a Russian public library was submitted to Catherine in 1766 but the Empress did not approve the project for the imperial library until 27 May 1795, eighteen months before her death.
A site for the building was found at the corner of Nevsky Avenue and Sadovaya Street, right in the center of the Russian Imperial capital. The construction work began and lasted for fifteen years; the building was designed in a Neoclassical style by architect Yegor Sokolov. The cornerstone of the foreign-language department came from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the form of Załuski's Library, seized in part by the Russian government at the time of the partitions, though many volumes were lost en route to theft by Russian soldiers who sold them for profit; the Polish-language books from the library were returned to Poland by the Russian SFSR in 1921. For five years after its foundation, the library was run by Comte Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier; the stocks were arranged according to a specially compiled manual of library classification. In 1810, Emperor Alexander I approved Russia’s first library law stipulating, among other things, that two legal copies of all printed matter in Russia be deposited in the Library.
The Library was to be opened for the public in 1812 but, as the more valuable collections had to be evacuated because of Napoleon’s invasion, the inauguration was postponed for two years. Under Count Alexander Stroganov, who managed the library during the first decade of the 19th century, the Rossica project was inaugurated, a vast collection of foreign books touching on Russia, it was Stroganov who secured for the library some of its most invaluable treasures, namely the Ostromir Gospel, the earliest book written in the Old East Slavic dialect of Church Slavonic, the Hypatian Codex of the Russian Primary Chronicle. He, along with other bibliophiles reviewed the collection of manuscripts and letters brought by Peter P. Dubrowsky who had stayed in the diplomatic service for more than 20 years outside the fatherland. Based on the review, Stroganov recommended to Alexander I the creation of a manuscript depot. Alexander decreed the creation of such a department on February 27, 1805, named Dubrowsky as the first keeper of the depot of manuscripts.
The Imperial Public Library was inaugurated on 14 January 1814 in the presence of Gavrila Derzhavin and Ivan Krylov. Over 100 thousand titles were issued to the visitors in the first three decades, the second Library building facing the Catherine Garden was erected between 1832-1835 to accommodate the growing collections; the library's third, arguably most famous, director was Aleksey Olenin. His 32-year tenure at the helm, with Sergey Uvarov serving as his deputy, raised the profile of the library among Russian intellectuals; the library staff included prominent men of letters and scholars like Ivan Krylov, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Gnedich, Anton Delvig, Mikhail Zagoskin, Alexander Vostokov, Father Ioakinf, to name but a few. Librarianship progressed to a new level in the 1850s; the reader community grew several times. At the same time, many gifts of books were offered to the library. Collection growth rates in the 1850s were five times higher than the annual growth rate of five thousand new acquired during the first part of the century.
In 1859, Vasily Sobolshchikov prepared the first national manual of library science for the library entitled Public Library Facilities and Cataloguing. By 1864, the Public Library held 90 per cent of all Russian printed output; the influx of new visitors required a larger reading room in the new building closing the library court along the perimeter. The visitors were offered such novelties as continuous reading room service by library staff members, a reference desk, printed catalogues and guide books, lists of new acquisitions, longer hours of service in the reading room. An avalanche-like growth of attendance persisted in the second part of the 19th century. Library cards and attendance grew tenfold between 1860 and 1913; the public principle triumphed when the class barriers maintained until the mid-19th century were abolished and the petty bourgeois and women were seen among the visitors. Women were employed by the Library but only as volunteer members rather than formal staf
National Library of Poland
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland, as well as Polonica published abroad, it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a research facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries; the National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit. The Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. There are three general sections: The Library The Bibliographic Institute of the National Library The Book and Readership Institute The National Library's history has origins in the 18th century including items from the collections of John III Sobieski which were obtained from his grand daughter Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess of Bouillon.
However, the Załuski collection was confiscated by troops of Russian tsarina Catherine II in the aftermath of the second Partition of Poland and sent to Saint Petersburg, where the books formed the mass of the Imperial Public Library on its formation in 1795. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, many were stolen. According to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis' books, "could be bought at Grodno by the basket"; because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, there was no central institution to serve in the capacity of a national library. On 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form, it was opened in 1930 and had 200 thousand volumes. Its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński; the collections of the library were extended. For instance, in 1932 president Mościcki donated all of the books and manuscripts from the Wilanów Palace Museum to the library, some 40 thousand volumes and 20 thousand pictures from the collection of Stanisław Kostka Potocki.
The National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places; the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections. A new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental "Government District". However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II. Before World War II, the library collections consisted of: 6.5 million books and journals from 19th and 20th centuries 3,000 early prints 2,200 incunables 52,000 manuscripts maps and musicIn 1940 the Nazi occupants changed the National Library into Municipal Library of Warsaw and divided it as follows: Department of Books for Germans Restricted Department, containing books that were not available to readers All special collections from various Warsaw offices and institutions In 1944 the special collections were set ablaze by the Nazi occupants as a part of repressions after the Warsaw Uprising.
80,000 early printed books, including priceless 16th-18th century Polonica, 26,000 manuscripts, 2,500 incunables, 100,000 drawings and engravings, 50,000 pieces of sheet music and theatre materials were destroyed. It is estimated that out of over 6 million volumes in Warsaw's major libraries in 1939, 3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, a large part of them belonging to the National Library. Today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country. Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, over 114,000 music prints and 400,000 drawings; the library collections include photographs and other iconographic documents, more than 101,000 atlases and maps, over 2,000,000 ephemera, as well as over 2,000,000 books and about 800,000 copies of journals from 19th to 21st centuries. Notable items in the collection include 151 leaves of the Codex Suprasliensis, inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2007 in recognition for its supranational and supraregional significance.
In 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. List of libraries damaged during the World War II Digital Library of the National Library of Poland National Library website Polona - National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The Vatican Apostolic Library, more known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts, it has 75,000 codices from throughout history, as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. The Vatican Library is a research library for history, philosophy and theology; the Vatican Library is open to anyone who can document research needs. Photocopies for private study of pages from books published between 1801 and 1990 can be requested in person or by mail. Pope Nicholas V envisioned a new Rome with extensive public works to lure pilgrims and scholars alike to the city to begin its transformation. Nicolas decided that he wanted to create a'public library' for Rome, meant to be seen as an institution for humanist scholarship, his death prevented him from carrying out his plan of a public library, but his idea lived on with his successor Pope Sixtus IV who established what is now known as the Vatican Library.
In March 2014, the Vatican Library began an initial four-year project of digitising its collection of manuscripts, to be made available online. The Vatican Secret Archives were separated from the library at the beginning of the 17th century. Scholars have traditionally divided the history of the library into five periods, Pre-Lateran, Avignon, Pre-Vatican and Vatican; the Pre-Lateran period, comprising the initial days of the library, dated from the earliest days of the Church. Only a handful of volumes survive from this period, though some are significant; the Lateran era began when the library moved to the Lateran Palace and lasted until the end of the 13th century and the reign of Pope Boniface VIII, who died in 1303, by which time he possessed one of the most notable collections of illuminated manuscripts in Europe. However, in that year, the Lateran Palace was burnt and the collection plundered by Philip IV of France; the Avignon period was during the Avignon Papacy, when seven successive popes resided in Avignon, France.
This period saw a great growth in book collection and record keeping by the popes in Avignon, between the death of Boniface and the 1370s when the Papacy returned to Rome. The Pre-Vatican period ranged from about 1370 to 1446; the library was scattered during this time, with parts in Rome and elsewhere. In 1451, bibliophile Pope Nicholas V sought to establish a public library at the Vatican, in part to re-establish Rome as a destination for scholarship. Nicholas combined some 350 Greek and Hebrew codices inherited from his predecessors with his own collection and extensive acquisitions, among them manuscripts from the imperial Library of Constantinople. Pope Nicholas expanded his collection by employing Italian and Byzantine scholars to translate the Greek classics into Latin for his library; the knowledgeable Pope encouraged the inclusion of pagan classics. Nicolas was important in saving many of the Greek works and writings during this time period that he had collected while traveling and acquired from others.
In 1455, the collection had grown to 1200 books. Nicholas' death in 1455 prevented the completion of his vision of a public library, but it was finished in 1475 by his successor Pope Sixtus IV, named the Palatine Library. During the papacy of Sixtus IV, acquisitions were made in "theology and atristic literature"; the number of manuscripts is variously counted as 3,500 in 1475 or 2,527 in 1481, when librarian Bartolomeo Platina produced a signed listing. At the time it was the largest collection of books in the Western world. During his reign, Pope Julius II commissioned the expansion of the building. Around 1587, Pope Sixtus V commissioned the architect Domenico Fontana to construct a new building for the library, still used today, it was after this. During the Counter-Reformation, access to the library's collections was limited following the introduction of the Index of banned books. Scholars' access to the library was restricted Protestant scholars. Restrictions were lifted during the course of the 17th century, Pope Leo XIII formally reopened the library to scholars in 1883.
In 1756, Abbot Piaggio conserver of ancient manuscripts in the Vatican Library used a machine he invented, to unroll the first Herculaneum papyri, which took him months. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte arrested Pope Pius VII, removed the contents of the library to Paris; the contents were returned in three years after the defeat of Napoleon. In 1992 the library had 2 million catalogued items. In 1995 art history teacher Anthony Melnikas from Ohio State University stole three leaves from a medieval manuscript once owned by Francesco Petrarch. One of the stolen leaves contains an exquisite miniature of a farmer threshing grain. A fourth leaf from an unknown source was discovered in his possession by the U. S. Customs agents. Melnikas was trying to sell the pages to an art dealer, who alerted Father Leonard E. Boyle, the librarian director; the Library is located inside the Vatican Palace, the entrance is through the Belvedere Courtyard. When Pope Sixtus V commissioned the expansion and the new building of the Vatican Library, he had a three-story wing built right across Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere, thus bisecting it and changing Bramante's work significantly.
At the bottom of a grand staircase a large statue of Hippolytus de
Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
The Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal is the Portuguese national library, fulfilling the function of legal deposit and copyright. The library was created by Decree of 29 February 1796, under the name of Royal Public Library of the Court; the library's objective was to allow the general public access to the court's collections, thus bucking the trend of the time only available to scholars and sages could access the treasures, manuscripts and books of the royal court. In the dawn of the victory of the Liberals and the abolition of the religious orders, the institution was renamed the National Library of Lisbon and was entrusted with all or part of the libraries of numerous monasteries and convents; the arrival of these large collections made it necessary to move to larger premises, the choice fell on the Convento de São Francisco. Over the more than 130 years in which it operated in the Chiado area of the city, the BNL experienced periods of modernisation and enrichment and times of greyness and lethargy.
We should note the efforts that were made in the 19th century to absorb the collections of the abolished religious establishments, organise bibliographic exhibitions and publish catalogues of a variety of collections. The proclamation of the Republic was followed by the incorporation of a new wave of libraries from another round of abolitions of religious institutions. Between 1920 and 1926 the BNL enjoyed a phase in which it took a major step forward in the field of library and information science and benefited from a flourishing cultural life, all of, promoted by the so-called “Library Group”; the growth of the collections and the need for conditions suited to the conservation of the Library’s rich holdings made it indispensable to construct a purpose-designed building that would provide the largest Portuguese bibliographic collection with a proper home. Work began in 1958, to a design by the architect Porfírio Pardal Monteiro, the Library was transferred to the new building in the Campo Grande area in 1969.
The process of computerising the Library began in the 1980s, alongside a broader project intended to support all of Portugal’s libraries in this respect, which resulted in the creation of the National Bibliographic Database – PORBASE. At the same time as it adapted to the process of technological evolution, the Library continued to enrich its collections. Of particular significance was the creation of an Archive of Writers’ Personal Papers, but a number of major initiatives were undertaken with regard to the standardisation of library and information techniques and conservation, cultural activities. At the beginning of this century the Library has been accompanying the international trend towards the digitisation of bibliographic collections, with the creation of the Biblioteca Nacional Digital, growing and works with other European institutions. More than 200 years old, in 2007 the Institution was renamed the National Library of Portugal and began a restructuring process, seeking to help both enrich and publicise the nation’s bibliographic heritage, to modernise and improve its own operations in such a way as to serve the public, the professional community, publishers and booksellers.
The BNP’s mission is to collect and preserve the Portuguese documentary heritage, including documents in Portuguese and about Portugal, whatever their format or carrier. It is charged with studying and disseminating that heritage and ensuring the conditions which people need in order to be able to enjoy it, as well as classifying and inventorying the nation’s bibliographic heritage assets. Under this definition, set out in the Organic Law governing the BNP, the Library continues to pursue the essence of the fundamental purposes and objectives for which it was created in 1796, but is responsible for the provision of a more varied range of services to both Portuguese culture and the public in general – among other ways, via the Online Catalogue of our collections and the Digital National Library – and the professionals in the publishing and information and documentation sectors. To this end the BNP acts as the National Bibliographic Agency, responsible for the mandatory legal deposit of publications and the country’s ISSN, ISMN and CIP services, the recording and dissemination of the Portuguese National Bibliography, the coordination and management of PORBASE – the National Bibliographic Database.
In this respect it has undertaken a variety of actions that help to promote the professional development of libraries, in conjunction with its role as the body with responsibility for national standards concerning documentation and information in Portugal. Protecting and enhancing the country’s bibliographic heritage are another two fundamental aspects of the BNP’s mission, in its dual role as the entity, responsible for preserving and controlling that heritage and the keeper of Portugal’s largest collection of bibliographic treasures, it is charged with studying and publicising the latter in Portugal and abroad, accomplished by means of a range of projects involving inter-institutional cooperation, research activities and publications. The National Library of Portugal is the largest library in the country and a prestigious institution on the cultural scene, it collects and preserves the nation’s bibliographic heritage and makes it available to the intellectual and scientific community. The National Library of Portugal has a wide variety of collections that encompass documentation from every era, of every type and on every subject.
A combination of t
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con