Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union. It is made up of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas designated under the Habitats Directive and Birds Directive; the network includes both marine sites. In May 1992, the governments of the European Communities adopted legislation designed to protect the most threatened habitats and species across Europe; the Habitats Directive complements the Birds Directive adopted earlier in 1979 and together they make up the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. The Birds Directive requires the establishment of Special Protection Areas for birds; the Habitats Directive requires Sites of Community Importance which upon the agreement of the European Commission become Special Areas of Conservation to be designated for species other than birds, for habitat types. Together, SPAs and SACs form the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Furthermore, the Natura 2000 network is the EU contribution to the "Emerald network" of Areas of Special Conservation Interest set up under the Bern Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats.
Natura 2000 is a key contribution to the Program of Work of Protected Areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As prerequisite for becoming EU Member, accession states have to submit proposals for Natura 2000 sites meeting the same criteria as EU Member States; some new member states have large areas which qualify to be protected under the directives and implementation has not always been simple. The Natura 2000 sites are selected by Member States and the European Commission following scientific criteria according to the two directives mentioned above; the SPAs are designated directly by each EU Member State, while the SACs follow a more elaborated process: each EU Member State must compile a list of the best wildlife areas containing the habitats and species listed in the Habitats Directive. The Habitats Directive divides the EU territory into nine biogeographic regions each with its own ecological coherence. Natura 2000 sites are selected according to the conditions in each biogeographical region, thus selected sites represent species and habitat types under similar natural conditions across a suite of countries.
Each Natura 2000 site has a unique identification form called Standard Data Form. This form is used as a legal reference when assessing the management of the species and habitats through the concept of favourable conservation status; the Natura 2000 Viewer is a tool to explore the network and gives access to every SDF. Natura 2000 protects 27,312 sites with terrestrial area 787,606 km2 and marine area 360,350 km2 in 2017, is considered complete in the EU terrestrial environment; the process of designation has not always been smooth as the infringement procedures against Member States show. While designation of sites may be near complete, the management and enforcement of protection on sites is less advanced and many sites lack management plans. Natura 2000 faced criticism from developers and politicians who fear that the conservation of habitats and species places a brake on development.251,564 km squared had been designated as Natura 2000 in the marine environment in 2013. The network in marine areas is not considered complete and acknowledged by the Commission as a “key challenge for EU biodiversity policy in the coming years”.
Natura 2000 sites can vary in character. They are not protected in terms of how they are allowed to be used by people. Many sites are farmed and some are in urban areas. Other areas are much wilder; the European Commission developed guidelines on the relation between Natura 2000 and wild areas which are thought to make up around 13% of the network. This was in response to a report by Members of the European Parliament in 2009 which called for further protection of Europe's wilderness; the Natura 2000 network is not well known among European Union citizens. As part of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, the European Commission committed to raise awareness about the network and biodiversity in general with the public. In general, Natura 2000 Sites are seen like an interdiction for developing for most of the citizens. Since appeared in some area, the citizens saw only limitations and interdictions without any local advantages for the specific area; the confusion is greater since in the designation process as a Natura 2000 Site, the local communities were not involved.
The documentations for different areas were done by different NGO not belonging to specific areas without out knowing the areas, with limited studies and ignoring the local communities interests. Due to this lack of awareness, most citizens do not know the consequence of belonging to a Natura 2000 Site. In order to raise awareness about the Natura 2000 network, 21 May has been designated “Natura 2000 Day”; this precedes “International Day for Biological Diversity” on 22 May. The initiative came from SEO/BirdLife who sought and received funding from the EU LIFE+ programme in order to improve the knowledge of this network. In 2013, the first Natura 2000 day took place with the aim to raise awareness of citizens about the importance of Natura 2000 network in their lives. Since every May 21 and the weeks before, awareness actions take place all over Europe. For example, in 2014, school children and pol
European Environment Agency
The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. ĐỊT ĐỊT ĐỊT The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. Its goal is to help those involved in developing and evaluating environmental policy, to inform the general public; the EEA was established by the European Economic Community Regulation 1210/1990 and became operational in 1994, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. The agency is governed by a management board composed of representatives of the governments of its 33 member states, a European Commission representative and two scientists appointed by the European Parliament, assisted by a committee of scientists; the current Executive Director of the agency is Professor Hans Bruyninckx, appointed for a five-year term. He is the successor of Professor Jacqueline McGlade; the member states of the union are members. It was the first EU body to open its membership to the 13 candidate countries.
The EEA has six cooperating countries. The 33 member countries include the 28 EU Member States together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. These cooperation activities are integrated into Eionet and are supported by the EU under the "Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance"; the EEA is an active member of the EPA Network. The 33 member countries include the 28 European Union member states together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Western Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. The European Environment Agency reported in 2017 that climate-related extreme events accounted ca €400 billion of economic losses in EEA area from 1980 to 2013, were responsible for 85,000 deaths during 1980-2013; the European environment information and observation network is a partnership network of the EEA and the countries.
The EEA is responsible for coordinating its activities. To do so, the EEA works together with national focal points national environment agencies or environment ministries which are responsible for coordinating national networksof the National Reference Centres involving many institutions. Apart from the NFPs and NRCs, Eionet covers six European Topic Centres in the areas of air and climate change, biological diversity, climate change impacts and adaptation, land use and spatial information and analysis and sustainable consumption and production. In February 2012, the European Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control published a draft report, identifying areas of concern in the use of funds and its influence for the 2010 budget such as a 26% budget increase from 2009 to 2010 to €50 600 000. and questioned that maximum competition and value-for-money principles were honored in hiring possible fictitious employees. The EEA's Executive Director refuted allegations of irregularities in a public hearing.
On 27 March 2012 Members of the European Parliament voted on the report and commended the cooperation between the Agency and NGOs working in the environmental area. On 23 October 2012, the European Parliament voted and granted the discharge to the European Environment Agency for its 2010 budget. In April 2013, the MEPs granted the discharge to the EEA for its 2011 budget. In addition to its 33 members and six Balkan cooperating countries, the EEA cooperates and fosters partnerships with its neighbours and other countries and regions in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy: EaP states: Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Georgia UfM states: Algeria, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Tunisia other ENPI states: Russia Central Asia states: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, UzbekistanAdditionally the EEA cooperates with multiple international organizations and the corresponding agencies of the following countries: United States of America Canada PR China The 26 official languages used by the EEA are: Bulgarian, Croatian, German, English, Estonian, French, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Malti, Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene and Turkish.
Agencies of the European Union EU environmental policy List of atmospheric dispersion models List of environmental organizations Confederation of European Environmental Engineering Societies Coordination of Information on the Environment European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Environment Agency European Environment Agency website European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity Model Documentation System The European Environment Agency's near real-time ozone map The European Climate Adaptation Platform Climate-ADAPT EnviroWindows