The European People's Party group is a centre-right political group of the European Parliament consisting of deputies from the member parties of the European People's Party. It sometimes includes independent MEPs and/or deputies from unaffiliated national parties.. The EPP Group comprises politicians of Christian-democratic and liberal-conservative orientation; the European People's Party was founded as a European political party in 1976. However, the European People's Party group in the European Parliament has existed in one form or another since June 1953, from the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, making it one of the oldest European level political groups, it has been the largest political group in the European Parliament since 1999. The Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community first met on 10 September 1952 and the first Christian Democratic group was unofficially formed the next day, with Maan Sassen as President; the group held 38 of the 78 seats, two short of an absolute majority.
On 16 June 1953 the Common Assembly passed a resolution enabling the official formation of political groups, on 23 June 1953 the constituent declaration of the group was published and the group was formed. The Christian Democrat group was the biggest group at formation, but as time wore on it lost support and was the second-biggest group by the time of the 1979 elections; as the European Community expanded into the European Union, the dominant centre-right parties in the new member states were not Christian democratic, the EPP feared being sidelined. To counter this, the EPP expanded its remit to cover the centre-right regardless of tradition and pursued a policy of integrating liberal-conservative parties; this policy led to Greek New Democracy and Spanish People's Party MEPs joining the EPP Group. The British Conservative Party and Danish Conservative People's Party tried to maintain a group of their own called the European Democrats, but lack of support and the problems inherent in maintaining a small group forced ED's collapse in the 1990s, its members crossed the floor to join the EPP Group.
The parties of these MEPs became full members of the EPP and this consolidation process of the European centre-right throughout the 1990s with the acquisition of members from the Italian party Forza Italia. However, the consolidation was not unalloyed and a split emerged with the Eurosceptic MEPs who congregated in a subgroup within the group called the European Democrats; the consolidation held through the 1990s, assisted by the group being renamed to the European People's Party – European Democrats group, after the 1999 European elections the EPP-ED reclaimed its position as the largest group in the Parliament from the Party of European Socialists group. Size was not enough, however: the group did not have a majority, it continued therefore to engage in the Grand Coalition to generate the majorities required by the cooperation procedure under the Single European Act. This coalition has held, although the group adopts a government-opposition dynamic with the other groups, notably during the budget crisis when it opposed the PES and brought about the resignation of the Santer Commission.
Meanwhile, the parties in the European Democrats subgroup were growing restless and left following the 2009 elections, when the Czech Civic Democratic Party and British Conservative party formed their own right-wing European Conservatives and Reformists group on 22 June 2009, abolishing the European Democrats subgroup from that date. The EPP-ED Group reverted to its original name – the EPP Group – immediately. In the 7th European Parliament the EPP Group remains the largest parliamentary group with 275 MEPs, it is the only political group in the European parliament to represent its corresponding European political party, i.e. the European People's Party. The United Kingdom was the only member to not be represented in the group until 28 February 2018, when two MEPs suspended from the Conservative Party left the European Conservatives and Reformists and joined the EPP; the two MEPs joined a breakaway political party in the UK, The Independent Group. After 12 member parties in the EPP called for Fidesz's expulsion or suspension, Fidesz's membership was suspended on 20 March 2019.
The suspension applies only to the EPP but not to its group in the Parliament. The 38 members in the group on 11 September 1952 were as follows: The EPP Group is governed by a collective that allocates tasks; the Presidency consists of the Group Chair and a maximum of ten Vice-Chairs, including the Treasurer. The day-to-day running of the EPP Group is performed by its secretariat in the European Parliament, led by its Secretary-General; the Group runs its own think-tank, the European Ideas Network, which brings together opinion-formers from across Europe to discuss issues facing the European Union from a centre-right perspective. The EPP Group Presidency includes: The chairs of the group and its predecessors from 1952 to 2020 are as follows: The national parties that have Members of the EPP Group are as follows: Activities performed by the group in the period between June 2004 and June 2008 include monitoring elections in Palestine and the Ukraine.
The Cheyenne River Indian Reservation was created by the United States in 1889 by breaking up the Great Sioux Reservation, following the attrition of the Lakota in a series of wars in the 1870s. The reservation covers all of Dewey and Ziebach counties in South Dakota. In addition, many small parcels of off-reservation trust land are located in Stanley and Meade counties; the total land area is 4,266.987 sq mi, making it the fourth-largest Indian reservation in land area in the United States. Its largest community is unincorporated North Eagle Butte, while adjacent Eagle Butte is its largest incorporated city; the original Cheyenne River Reservation covered over 5,000 sq. mi. The Reservation has subsequently decreased in size; the original northern boundary was the Grand River. However, in the early 20th century, land south of the Grand River was ceded to the Standing Rock Reservation; the land was opened up to non-Native settlement 1909. When the Land Acts took effect, the northern part of the Cheyenne River Reservation was lost.
However, the southern section of the Cheyenne River Reservation still remains. It covers 2,366 sq. mi. A small number of White River Utes were resettled on the Reservation in 1906 and 1907, being allocated 4 townships totalling 92,160 acres; that land remains in the former northern part of the Cheyenne River Reservation. Their communities are Thunder Butte. Four Bear Creek, tributary of the Missouri River, is located in the Cheyenne River Reservation; the Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1868 created the Great Sioux Reservation, a single reservation covering parts of six states, including both of the Dakotas. Subsequent treaties in the 1870s and 1880s broke this reservation up into several smaller reservations; the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation was created in 1889. Chief Sitting Bull lived on the Cheyenne River Reservation, he was fond of the Grand River area, which in the 1880s was the boundary between the Cheyenne River Reservation and the Standing Rock Reservation. In 1890, the United States became concerned about Chief Sitting Bull who they learned was going to lead an exodus off the Reservation.
Several hundred Indians gathered near the Grand River on the Cheyenne River Reservation in December 1890, preparing to flee the reservation. A force of 39 Indian policemen and four volunteers were sent to chief Sitting Bull's residence near the Grand River on December 16, 1890, to arrest him. Sitting Bull cooperated but became angry once led out of his residence and noticed around 50 of his soldiers were there to support him. During some point while outside of chief Sitting Bulls residence, a battle commenced in which the legendary leader was killed. A total of 18 casualties occurred in the battle. Among the killed were Sitting Bull and his son. Sitting Bull's half brother, Spotted Elk, led an exodus of 350 people off the Cheyenne River Reservation to the south, they were captured on December 28, 1890 on the Pine Ridge Reservation, about 30 miles to the east of the settlement of Pine Ridge. Next day they were attacked by over 500 US Army soldiers, event known as the Wounded Knee Massacre. 250 to 300 Natives were killed, including many women and children, the massacre halted the exodus.
Survivors returned to the Cheyenne River Reservation. Since the Cheyenne River Reservation's northern border has changed, it is no longer the Grand River. The 60th United States Congress authorized the sale of unallotted land on the reservation in 1908, in 1909 William Howard Taft issued a presidential proclamation which opened up the Cheyenne River Reservation to white settlement. However, the present day settlements located along the Grand River are predominantly Algonquian. Beginning in 1948, the US government dammed the Missouri River for electrical power and flood control; the dam project submerged 8% of reservation land. On August 15, 2018, at 9:06 a.m. MDT, the tribe signed KIPI on the air; the station will serve as an economic opportunity for residents of the reservation. The CRIR is the home of the federally recognized Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe or Cheyenne River Lakota Nation; the members include representatives from four of the traditional seven bands of the Lakota known as Teton Sioux: the Minnecoujou, Two Kettle, Sans Arc and Blackfoot.
The CRIR is bordered on the north by the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, on the west by Meade and Perkins Counties. Much of the land inside the boundaries is owned; the CRST headquarters and BIA agency are located at South Dakota. The reservation is reached via US-212; the 2010 census reported a population of 8,090 persons. Many of the 13 small communities on the Cheyenne River Reservation do not have water systems, making it difficult for people to live in sanitary conditions. In recent years, water systems have been constructed that tap the Missouri Main Stem reservoirs, such as Lake Oahe, which forms the eastern edge of the Reservation. With few jobs available on the reservation or in nearby towns, many tribal members are unemployed. Two-thirds of the population survives on much less than one-third of the American average income; such dismal living conditions have contributed to feelings of hopelessness and despair among the youth. Indian Country Today reports than one in five girls on the Cheyenne River Reservation has contemplated suicide and more than one in ten has attempted it.
As of 2009, a modern medical center was under construction in Eagle Butte to replace an outdated facility. Beginning on January 22, 2010, a blizzard and ice storm swept acr
Malachy Coney is a comics writer and cartoonist from Belfast, Northern Ireland. He grew up in Ardoyne in the north of the city. Coney's first notable comics work was a two-episode instalment of Third World War, "A Symphony of Splintered Wood", co-written with Pat Mills and painted by Sean Phillips, in issues 22 and 23 of Fleetway's anthology Crisis in 1989. Mills had taken on various co-writers for episodes dealing with specific geopolitical situations, Coney's episodes concerned Northern Ireland's "Troubles". In 1993–94 he wrote the three issue series Holy Cross, each issue a self-contained story set in the same district of north Belfast, published by Fantagraphics Books; the first issue was drawn by Davy Francis, the second by Chris Hogg, the third by P. J. Holden. Coney and Holden collaborated on the Holy Cross graphic novel The Moon Looked Down and Laughed, published by Fantagraphics in 1997, he self-published a number of small press comics during the early 1990s, including the religious satire Catholic Lad, The Good Father, a story of family and sexuality, a gay-themed parody superhero comic, Major Power and Spunky, drawn by Sean Doran, which appeared in the anthologies Gay Comics and Buddies, in a one-shot published by Fantagraphics' Eros Comix imprint in 1994.
Eros published Coney and Holden's The Dandy Lion in 1997. A third gay superhero parody, The Simply Incredible Hunk, was self-published by Holden. In 1997 he contributed to the Belfast anthology DNA Swamp, writing the Irish mythological superhero series "Keltor", illustrated by Christian Kotey, the one-off strip "Life Dreams of a Homo Pacedermus", drawn by Doran. In 1998–1999 he had a run on Marc Silvestri's The Darkness from Top Cow/Image co-written with Garth Ennis; the "Spear of Destiny" story arc introduced a new character, the Magdalena, who has since appeared in her own comic. He plotted and co-wrote, with Steven Grant, the "Hell on Earth" storyline for Harris Comics' Vampirella Monthly in 1998; the same year he co-wrote a short animated film, Second Helpings, with director Joel Simon, about a chubby 8-year-old girl and her dreams of being model-slim. From 2003 to 2005 he wrote and drew "Ouija Board, Ouija Board", a full-page comic strip based on his observations of Belfast life and events, for the Northern Irish political and cultural magazine Fortnight, to which he contributed articles and illustrations, self-published one issue of Good Craic Comics in 2003.
A second issue will see publication Spring 2011. He contributed to the Belfast anthology Small Axe. Malachy Coney's independent works are of a colloquial nature, dealing with individuals in an urban setting trying to gain a sense of self amidst an irrational and psychologically violent environment, his self-illustrated works recall some of the works of the American underground comic artists. Comics work includes: Third World War: "A Symphony of Splintered Wood", Crisis #22–23, co-written by Pat Mills, art by Sean Phillips, 1989 "The Geek", Crisis No. 22, art by Jim McCarthy, 1989 Third World War Book III, co-written with Pat Mills, art by Glynn Dillon and Rob Blackwell, Crisis #40-41, 43-48, 1990 Third World War: "The Final Problem", co-written with Pat Mills, art by John Hicklenton, Crisis #53, 1990 "Wyrmwood", Toxic! No. 24, art by John McCrea, 1991 Holy Cross, 3 issue series, art by Davy Francis, Chris Hogg and P. J. Holden, Fantagraphics Books, 1993–1995 The Good Father, self-published, 1993 Major Power and Spunky, art by Sean Doran, self-published, 1992 "Major Power and Spunky", Gay Comics No.
20, art by Sean Doran, 1993 Major Power and Spunky, art by Sean Doran, Fantagraphics/Eros, 1994 "Major Power and Spunky", Buddies #4–5, art by Sean Doran, 1995 The Moon Looked Down and Laughed, graphic novel, art by P. J. Holden, Fantagraphics Books, 1997 The Dandy Lion, art by P. J. Holden, Fantagraphics/Eros, 1997 The Simply Incredible Hunk, art by P. J. Holden, self-published by Holden, 1997 "Keltor", DNA Swamp #1–3, art by Christian Kotey, 1997 "Life Dreams of a Homo Pacedermus", DNA Swamp No. 1, art by Sean Doran, 1997 "Wake Up", Gay Comics No. 25, art by Sean Doran, 1998 The Darkness #11–22, art by Joe Benitez and others, Top Cow/Image, 1998–1999 Spririt of the Tao #1–5, co-written by D-Tron and Billy Tan, art by Billy Tan, Top Cow/Image, 1998 Tales of the Darkness #1–4, 1/2, drawn by various artists, Top Cow/Image, 1998–1999 Vampirella Monthly #10–11, art by Louis Small Jnr. Harris Comics, 1998 "Ouija Board, Ouija Board", Fortnight, 2003–2005 Good Craic Comics No. 1, Self-Published/Arts Council NI, 2003 The Colour of Love, painted art by Sean Hamilton, Tales of the... 2010