São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal. It operates four national television channels and three national radio channels, as well as several satellite and cable offerings; the company came into effect on 31 March 2004 with the merger of two separate companies Radiodifusão Portuguesa and Radiotelevisão Portuguesa. RTP is a state-owned corporation funded by television advertising revenues, government grants, the taxa de contribuição audiovisual, incorporated in electricity bills; the Emissora Nacional de Radiodifusão was established on 4 August 1935 as the public national radio broadcaster, inheriting the previous broadcasting operations of the national postal service, Telégrafos e Telefones. Five years ENR became independent of the CTT. ENR was one of the 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Following the Carnation Revolution, ENR was reorganised and in 1976 changed its name to Radiodifusão Portuguesa.
During this process, several private radio stations – such as Rádio Clube Português – were nationalised and integrated into RDP. In 1979, the RCP network was rebranded as Rádio Comercial, was privatised in 1993. At the same time, RDP launched the youth-oriented radio station Antena 3 and abolished advertising from all of its stations, so that the aforementioned broadcasting contribution tax became its sole source of funding. Radiotelevisão Portuguesa's television service was established on 15 December 1955. Experimental broadcasts began in September 1956 from the Feira Popular studios in Lisbon. Twenty monitors were installed in the park; the broadcast was received within a range of about 20 km. Around 1,000 TV sets are sold within a month. Regular broadcasting, did not start until 7 March 1957, by which time coverage had reached 65% of the Portuguese population. By the end of 1958 the total number of sets in Portugal was around 32,000. RTP was accepted as a full active member of the EBU in 1959.
By the mid-1960s, RTP had become available throughout the country. Robert Farnon's "Derby Day" was extensively used as RTP's fanfare to open the programming since the first day, over the decades it has become RTP's official anthem. 25 December 1968 saw the opening of a second television channel, RTP2. Two new regional channels were created in 1972 and 1975, for the Portuguese archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. Before the Carnation Revolution, RTP was a mouthpiece of the regime, famously opened the newscast of 20 July 1969 – the day of the first moon landing – with a segment showing president Américo Thomaz opening a concrete factory. However, like many other broadcasters, it did broadcast live the landing of the man on the moon during the night; the first colour broadcast was made in 1975, with the live coverage of the first parliamentary elections after the carnation revolution. But, due to the political turmoil and the economic situation of the country, the colour regular broadcast was delayed several times for nearly 5 years.
During that time RTP started to purchase some colour equipment and make the occasional colour recording. But the pressure kept going as the black and white equipment was getting old and hard to repair, so in 1978 and 1979 a massive investment supported by a foreign loan, gave RTP the opportunity to replace all the B/W to increase the current amount of equipment and to be updated with the most advanced broadcast technologies available at the time. Despite this, only in February 1980, the government authorised the regular colour broadcast and two weeks after, on the 7th of March RTP started the regular colour broadcast, with more than 70% of the programmes being in colour. RTP moved its headquarters to a brand new building; the building was built to be converted to a hotel, but the owner decided to leave it untouched and reached an agreement with RTP for the purchase and converted the interior for office use. RTP moved to more adequate headquarters and sold the building in 2003 and the new owner converted into what is today the VIP Grand Lisboa.
Until 1991, RTP owned its transmitter network, transferred to a state-owned enterprise which, through a series of mergers, became part of Portugal Telecom. RTP held the television monopoly until 1992, the year. Over the years, RTP's audience share has reduced in favour of the private channels. 2007 was an exception to this tendency, RTP1 became the second channel most watched in Portugal, only behind TVI, a rarity which occurred again in 2009 and 2010. In 2004, RTP and RDP merged and became part of a larger state-owned holding, named Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, inaugurated the new headquarters near Parque das Nações, in Lisbon. In the same year, the second channel was rebranded as'2:', promoting itself as the civil society service. In March 2007, 2: became'RTP2' again. Due to the current financial crisis Portugal is facing, RTP was to be restructured as part of the Portuguese government's austerity plan and would have included the sale of one of the free to air channel licenses. Pressure from the public and other organisations stopped the planned sales though the restructuring plans are expected to be in presented soon and include a redundancy plan, financing for new equipment.
RTP has 16 regional offices spread all over the country, as well as international bureaus in Washington D. C. Brussels, Moscow and several other locations. RT
Guinean Portuguese is the variety of Portuguese spoken in Guinea-Bissau, where it is the official language. Guinea-Bissau is unique among the African member states of the CPLP in that it is both diverse linguistically, like Angola and Mozambique, it is a creole society, like Cape Verde and São Tomé e Príncipe. Rather than Portuguese, it is Guinea-Bissau Creole which serves as the lingua franca and the vehicle of national identity spoken as both a first and second language, thus Portuguese, for those who speak it, is a third language. The native Portuguese speakers in Guinea-Bissau are white Guineans; the reduction of native Portuguese speakers is caused by leave of most white Guineans to Portugal or Brazil and by civil war that affected education. The majority of the 15% of Guineans who speak Portuguese are concentrated in an area of the capital city, known as'a Praça'; the variety of Guinea Bissau Creole spoken in the capital, Kriol di Bissau, is known for being more Lusitanized, borrowing words more from Portuguese.
The standard phonology is European Portuguese. But for second- and third-language speakers, it is affected by phonologies of native languages and resembles Indian Portuguese. Portuguese was used as a communication between Portuguese settlers and different black tribes before the nation became a permanent Portuguese overseas territory; the number of Portuguese speakers was large during Portuguese rule, although mestiços and most blacks speak a Portuguese Creole called Guinea-Bissau Creole, a more spoken lingua franca of the nation. After independence, when most Portuguese left, Portuguese speakers were reduced to less than 10% because of civil war that affected education, although it remained the official language of the country; when the CPLP was founded in 1996, it helped Guinea-Bissau in education aside from peace talks there. Many Portuguese, PALOP teachers entered to increase Portuguese fluency among blacks. In 2005, in order to increase Portuguese fluency, there was an agreement between Guinean officials and Instituto Camões, which had a center in Bissau, to open centers in other towns of the country: Canchungo, Ongoré, Mansôa, Bafatá, Gabú, Catió, Bolama and Quinhamel.
The percentage of Portuguese speakers increased to 14%. Guinea-Bissau Creole RTP África Mozambican Portuguese ECOWAS Bibliography on Guinean Portuguese O Português na África – Guiné-Bissau
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Douro Litoral Province
Douro Litoral is a historical province of Portugal. It is centered on the city of Porto, now the capital of the Norte Region. Other important cities in the province are Vila Nova de Gaia, Maia, Póvoa de Varzim, the important Penafiel, Feira, Vila do Conde; the province was abolished in an administrative reform in 1976. Nowaday Douro Litoral is divided between Greater Porto Subregion, Tâmega Subregion, parts of Ave Subregion and Entre Douro e Vouga Subregion; the coast is part of the Costa Verde tourist area
Minho was a former province of Portugal, established in 1936 and dissolved in 1976. It consisted with its capital in the city of Braga. Today, the area would include the districts of Viana do Castelo. Minho has substantial Celtic influences and shares many cultural traits with neighbouring Galicia in Northwestern Spain; the region was part of the Roman Province and early Germanic medieval Kingdom of Gallaecia. Historical remains of Celtic Minho include Briteiros Iron Age Hillfort, the largest Gallaecian native stronghold in the Entre Douro e Minho region, in North Portugal; the University of Minho, founded in 1973, takes its name from the former province. Minho is famous as being the wine Vinho Verde. Braga Guimarães. Viana do Castelo Viana do Lima. Barcelos Fafe Minho River Gallaecia Ave Subregion Peneda-Gerês National Park
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa and Europe, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania. It is used in the context of, contrasts with, the New World. In the context of archaeology and world history, the term "Old World" includes those parts of the world which were in cultural contact from the Bronze Age onwards, resulting in the parallel development of the early civilizations in the temperate zone between the 45th and 25th parallels, in the area of the Mediterranean, Persian plateau, Indian subcontinent and China; these regions were connected via the Silk Road trade route, they have a pronounced Iron Age period following the Bronze Age. In cultural terms, the Iron Age was accompanied by the so-called Axial Age, referring to cultural and religious developments leading to the emergence of the historical Western, Near Eastern and Far Eastern cultural spheres; the concept of the three continents in the Old World, viz. Asia and Europe, goes back to classical antiquity.
Their boundaries as defined by Ptolemy and other geographers of antiquity were drawn along the Nile and Don rivers. This definition remained influential throughout the Early Modern period; the mainland of Afro-Eurasia has been referred to as the "World Island". The term may have been coined by Sir Halford John Mackinder in The Geographical Pivot of History; the equivalent of the Old World had names in some of its ancient cultures, including Midgard in Germanic cosmology, Oikoumene among the Greeks. Eurocentrism Afro-Eurasia