European Institute of Innovation and Technology
The European Institute of Innovation and Technology is an independent EU Body, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary. It was established on 11 March 2008; the idea of a European Institute of Innovation and Technology was developed within the framework of the Lisbon Strategy. The initial concept for a European Institute of Technology was based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, renowned for its combination of world-class education and research. In its proposal for an EIT, the European Commission put forward a two-level structure that combines a bottom-up and top-down approach as a governance structure; the proposal of the Commission was based on the results of a wide public consultation taking more than 700 contributions by experts and the general public, various stakeholder position papers into account. The Commission identified five specific areas of concern: Translating R&D results into commercial opportunities Reaching a critical mass in certain fields Fragmentation of the EU's research and higher education system Lack of innovation and entrepreneurial culture in research and higher education Lack of a critical mass in small- and medium-sized enterprises The answer to these issues would focus on integrating the three sides of the so‑called "Knowledge Triangle": higher education and business sectors.
The concept of the EIT has been controversial since the proposal of EC president José Manuel Barroso and considered challenging. A unique feature of the EIT is the Knowledge and Innovation Communities set up to integrate education and innovation in one common organisation; the EIT finances the Innovation Communities with a maximum of 25% of the total budget. While the EIT's Headquarters are situated in Budapest, the EIT is not concentrated in one campus as a traditional institute, instead operating through the Innovation Communities; each of the Innovation Communities operates across a number of hubs called ‘Innovation Hubs’ and there are around 40 Innovation Hubs spread across Europe. Before, the European Commission had sponsored some pilot projects embracing the Knowledge triangle; the task of aligning different partners and the complexity of building common ground and common rules however proved difficult. Evaluation indicated a high level of trust among the partners, well-designed organizational structures and lean management structures with intelligent performance indicator systems were necessary to make the Innovation Communities successful.
As of 21 January 2008, it appeared that the EIT project would operate by building networks of business, pre-existing universities and research organisations, without building any new education or research Institution and without granting EU diplomas. The EIT was established on 11 March 2008 following the adoption of the EIT Regulation by the European Parliament and Council; the EIT Governing Board designated the first three Innovation Communities in December 2009. Since the EIT Community has grown to 6 Innovation Communities; these Innovation Communities have the objective of integrating education and innovation in one common organisation. The EIT finances the Innovation Communities with a maximum of 25% of the total budget. While the EIT's Headquarters are situated in Budapest, the EIT is not concentrated in one campus as a traditional institute, instead operating through the Innovation Communities; each of the Innovation Communities operates across a number of hubs called ‘Innovaiton Hubs’ and there are around 40 Innovation Hubs spread across Europe.
An initial budget of €308.7 million has helped launch and will continue to support the EIT network during the 2008–2013 period. The annual grant to the Knowledge and Innovation Communities is allocated on a competitive basis and may not exceed 25% of the global expenditure of the Innovation Communities; the remainder of the Innovation Communities' budget must be raised from other sources of financing. In addition to public funding via the EU budget, the EIT set up the EIT Foundation to attract private sector funds including philanthropic contributions such as donations or bequests; the EIT Foundation no longer operates. The EIT Governing Board has 15 members - 12 appointed members and 3 representative members as well as one independent observer from the European Commission; the management team is based at the EIT Headquarters in Budapest. It is in charge of monitoring the activities of the Innovation Communities and strengthening relationships with key stakeholders both in Europe and beyond, disseminating Innovation Community results, sharing knowledge, maintaining close links with other EU bodies with a view to ensuring and developing the EIT's strategy.
The EIT Headquarters are located in Hungary, in the 11th district's Neumann Janos utca. On 18 June 2008, Hungary, was chosen by the EU nations to host the headquarters of the institute; the Hungarian government said it was a great success for the country. Five bidders entered the race for the EIT seat, including Budapest. According to president Barroso, these applications were evidence of "the strategic and economic interest attached...to this ambitious project". When the EU research ministers came together at the end of May, the decision had to be postponed because Poland vetoed the otherwise unanimously backed city of Budapest as the EIT seat. Yet, the ministers had agreed on the selection criteria, namely that the seat should be in one of the new Member States and it should be in a Member State that does not current
Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge. Examples include programmers, pharmacists, engineers, design thinkers, public accountants and academics, any other white-collar workers, whose line of work requires the one to "think for a living". Knowledge work can be differentiated from other forms of work by its emphasis on "non-routine" problem solving that requires a combination of convergent and divergent thinking, but despite the amount of research and literature on knowledge work, there is no succinct definition of the term. Mosco and McKercher outline various viewpoints on the matter, they first point to the most narrow and defined definition of knowledge work, such as Florida's view of it as "the direct manipulation of symbols to create an original knowledge product, or to add obvious value to an existing one", which limits the definition of knowledge work to creative work. They contrast this view of knowledge work with the notably broader view which includes the handling and distribution of information, arguing that workers who play a role in the handling and distribution of information add real value to the field, despite not contributing a creative element.
Thirdly, one might consider a definition of knowledge work which includes, "all workers involved in the chain of producing and distributing knowledge products", which allows for a broad and inclusive categorization of knowledge workers. It should thus be acknowledged that the term "knowledge worker" can be quite broad in its meaning, is not always definitive in who it refers to. Knowledge workers spend 38% of their time searching for information, they are often displaced from their bosses, working in various departments and time zones or from remote sites such as home offices and airport lounges. As businesses increase their dependence on information technology, the number of fields in which knowledge workers must operate has expanded dramatically. Though they sometimes are called "gold collars", because of their high salaries, as well as because of their relative independence in controlling the process of their own work, current research shows that they are more prone to burnout, close normative control from organizations they work for, unlike regular workers.
Managing knowledge workers can be a difficult task. Most knowledge workers prefer some level of autonomy, do not like being overseen or managed; those who manage knowledge workers are knowledge workers themselves, or have been in the past. Projects must be considered before assigning to a knowledge worker, as their interest and goals will affect the quality of the completed project. Knowledge workers must be treated as individuals. Loo using empirical findings from knowledge workers of two sectors – advertising and IT software sectors – and from three developed countries – England and Singapore – investigated a specific type of knowledge workers – the creative knowledge workers - as opposed to the generic ones as indicated above; the findings from the analysed empirical data offer a complex picture of this type of work in the knowledge economy where workers use a combination of creativity, talents and knowledge towards the eventual production of products and services. This investigation identified a definition of creative knowledge work from four specific roles of copywriting, creative directing, software programming, systems programme managing in advertising and IT software.
The manner in which each of the creative applications is applied is dependent on the role of the creative workers. This type of work includes a complex combination of skill sets or ‘creative knowledge work capacities.’ "Creative knowledge workers use a combination of creative applications to perform their functions/roles in the knowledge economy including anticipatory imagination, problem solving, problem seeking, generating ideas and aesthetic sensibilities". Taking aesthetic sensibility as an example, for a creative director, it is a visual imagery whether still or moving via a camera lens and for a software programmer, it is the innovative technical expertise in which the software is written. Other sector-related creative applications include an emotional connection in the advertising sector and the power of expression and sensitivity in the IT software sector. Terms such as ‘general sponge,’ ‘social chameleon,’ and ‘in tune with the zeitgeist’ were identified which the creative knowledge workers used to identify with their potential audience in ad making.
From the IT software perspective, creative knowledge workers used a ‘sensitivity’ creative application to ascertain business intelligence and as a measurement of information, the software worker might obtain from various parties. Creative workers require abilities and aptitudes. Passion for one's job was generic to the roles investigated in the two sectors and for copywriters, this passion was identified with fun and happiness in carrying out the role alongside attributes such as honesty and patience in finding the appropriate copy; as with the other roles, a creative worker in software programming requires team working and interpersonal skills in order to communicate with those from other disciplinary backgrounds and training. As regards the managerial roles of creative directing and systems programme managing, the abilities to create a vision for the job in hand, to convince, strategize and plan towards the eventual completion of the given task are necessary capacities. Linking these abilities and capacities are collaborative ways of working, which t
Treaties of the European Union
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis. They establish the various EU institutions together with their remit and objectives; the EU can only act within the competences granted to it through these treaties and amendment to the treaties requires the agreement and ratification of every single signatory. Two core functional treaties, the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, lay out how the EU operates, there are a number of satellite treaties which are interconnected with them; the treaties have been amended by other treaties over the 65 years since they were first signed. The consolidated version of the two core treaties is published by the European Commission; the two principal treaties on which the EU is based are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. These main treaties have been altered by amending treaties at least once a decade since they each came into force, the latest being the Treaty of Lisbon which came into force in 2009.
The Lisbon Treaty made the Charter of Fundamental Rights binding, though it remains a separate document. Following the preamble the treaty text is divided into six parts. Title 1, Common ProvisionsThe first deals with common provisions. Article 1 establishes the European Union on the basis of the European Community and lays out the legal value of the treaties; the second article states that the EU is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities". The member states share a "society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, justice and equality between women and men prevail". Article 3 states the aims of the EU in six points; the first is to promote peace, European values and its citizens' well-being. The second relates to free movement with external border controls are in place. Point 3 deals with the internal market. Point 4 establishes the euro. Point 5 states the EU shall promote its values, contribute to eradicating poverty, observe human rights and respect the charter of the United Nations.
The final sixth point states that the EU shall pursue these objectives by "appropriate means" according with its competences given in the treaties. Article 4 relates to member states' sovereignty and obligations. Article 5 sets out the principles of conferral and proportionality with respect to the limits of its powers. Article 6 binds the EU to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 7 deals with the suspension of a member state and article 8 deals with establishing close relations with neighbouring states. Title 2, Provisions on democratic principlesArticle 9 establishes the equality of national citizens and citizenship of the European Union. Article 10 declares that the EU is founded in representative democracy and that decisions must be taken as as possible to citizens, it makes reference to European political parties and how citizens are represented: directly in the Parliament and by their governments in the Council and European Council – accountable to national parliaments.
Article 11 establishes government transparency, declares that broad consultations must be made and introduces provision for a petition where at least 1 million citizens may petition the Commission to legislate on a matter. Article 12 gives national parliaments limited involvement in the legislative process. Title 3, Provisions on the institutionsArticle 13 establishes the institutions in the following order and under the following names: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the Court of Auditors, it obliges co-operation between these and limits their competencies to the powers within the treaties. Article 14 deals with the workings of Parliament and its election, article 15 with the European Council and its president, article 16 with the Council and its configurations and article 17 with the Commission and its appointment. Article 18 establishes the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and article 19 establishes the Court of Justice.
Title 4, Provisions on enhanced cooperationsTitle 4 has only one article which allows a limited number of member states to co-operate within the EU if others are blocking integration in that field. Title 5, General provisions on the Union's external action and specific provisions on the Common Foreign and Security PolicyChapter 1 of this title includes articles 21 and 22. Article 21 deals with the principles. Article 22 gives the European Council, acting unanimously, control over defining the EU's foreign policy. Chapter 2 is further divided into sections; the first, common provisions, details the guidelines and functioning of the EU's foreign policy, including establishment of the European External Action Service and member state's responsibilities. Section 2, articles 42 to 46, deal with military cooperation. Title 6, Final p
Member state of the European Union
The European Union consists of 28 member states. Each member state is party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership. Unlike members of most international organisations, the member states of the EU are subjected to binding laws in exchange for representation within the common legislative and judicial institutions. Member states must agree unanimously for the EU to adopt policies concerning defence and foreign policy. Subsidiarity is a founding principle of the EU. In 1957, six core states founded the European Economic Community; the remaining states have acceded in subsequent enlargements. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the newest member state of the EU. To accede, a state must fulfill the economic and political requirements known as the Copenhagen criteria, which require a candidate to have a democratic, free-market government together with the corresponding freedoms and institutions, respect for the rule of law. Enlargement of the Union is contingent upon the consent of all existing members and the candidate's adoption of the existing body of EU law, known as the acquis communautaire.
There is disparity in the size and political system of member states, but all have de jure equal rights. In practice, certain states are more influential than others. While in some areas majority voting takes place where larger states have more votes than smaller ones, smaller states have disproportional representation compared to their population. No member state has withdrawn or been suspended from the EU, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left. In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on membership of the EU, resulting in 51.89% of votes cast, being in favour of leaving. The United Kingdom government invoked Article 50 on 29 March 2017 to formally initiate the withdrawal process. Notes According to the Copenhagen criteria, membership of the European Union is open to any European country, a stable, free-market liberal democracy that respects the rule of law and human rights. Furthermore, it has to be willing to accept all the obligations of membership, such as adopting all agreed law and switching to the euro.
To join the European Union, it is required for all member states to agree. In addition to enlargement by adding new countries, the EU can expand by having territories of member states, which are outside the EU, integrate more or by a territory of a member state which had seceded and rejoined. Enlargement is, has been, a principal feature of the Union's political landscape; the EU's predecessors were founded by the "Inner Six", those countries willing to forge ahead with the Community while others remained skeptical. It was only a decade before the first countries changed their policy and attempted to join the Union, which led to the first skepticism of enlargement. French President Charles de Gaulle feared British membership would be an American Trojan horse and vetoed its application, it was only after de Gaulle left office and a 12-hour talk by British Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President Georges Pompidou took place that the United Kingdom's third application succeeded in 1970.
Applying in 1969 were the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway. Norway, declined to accept the invitation to become a member when the electorate voted against it, leaving just the UK, Denmark to join, but despite the setbacks, the withdrawal of Greenland from Denmark's membership in 1985, three more countries joined the Communities before the end of the Cold War. In 1987, the geographical extent of the project was tested when Morocco applied, was rejected as it was not considered a European country; the year 1990 saw the Cold War drawing to a close, East Germany was welcomed into the Community as part of a reunited Germany. Shortly thereafter, the neutral countries of Austria and Sweden acceded to the newly renamed European Union, though Switzerland, which applied in 1992, froze its application due to opposition from voters while Norway, which had applied once more, had its voters reject membership again in 1994. Meanwhile, the members of the former Eastern Bloc and Yugoslavia were all starting to move towards EU membership.
Eight of these, plus Cyprus and Malta, joined in a major enlargement on 1 May 2004 symbolising the unification of Eastern and Western Europe in the EU. They were followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Croatia in 2013; the EU has prioritised membership for the rest of the Western Balkans. Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey are all formally acknowledged as candidates, while Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are potential candidates. Turkish membership, pending since the 1980s, is a more contentious issue. Aside from the Cyprus dispute being a long-standing hurdle, relations between the EU and Turkey have become strained after several incidents concerning the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the Turkish referendum, the resulting 2016–17 purges in Turkey; this has led to the European Parliament calling for a suspension of membership talks. Each state has representation in the institutions of the European Union. Full membership gives the government of a member state a seat in the Council of the European Union and European Council.
When decisions are not being taken by consensus, votes are weighted so that a country with a greater population has more votes within the Coun
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
European Higher Education Area
The European Higher Education Area was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference. As the main objective of the Bologna Process since its inception in 1999, the EHEA was meant to ensure more comparable and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. Between 1999–2010, all the efforts of the Bologna Process members were targeted to creating the European Higher Education Area, which became reality with the Budapest-Vienna Declaration of March 2010. In order to join the EHEA, a country must ratify the European Cultural Convention treaty. Denmark was the first country to introduce the 3+2+3 system at the universities outside GB and the USA. See Bologna Process. Participating member states of the European Higher Education Area include: Countries eligible to join: Monaco San Marino Lisbon Recognition Convention Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights Article 10 of the European Social Charter Main documents League of European Research Universities Directorate-General for Education and Culture Bologna process Diploma Supplement Erasmus programme European Credit Transfer System Homologation Category:Lists of universities and colleges European Research Area TEMPUS Lisbon Recognition Convention The Official European Higher Education Area website 2010-2020 The Bologna Declaration European Cultural Convention EUNIS
European Research Council
The European Research Council is a public body for funding of scientific and technological research conducted within the European Union. Established by the European Commission in 2007, the ERC is composed of an independent Scientific Council, its governing body consisting of distinguished researchers, an Executive Agency, in charge of the implementation, it forms part of the framework programme of the union dedicated to research and innovation, Horizon 2020, preceded by the Seventh Research Framework Programme. The ERC budget is over €13 billion from 2014 – 2020 and comes from the Horizon 2020 programme, a part of the European Union's budget. Under Horizon 2020 it is estimated that around 7,000 ERC grantees will be funded and 42,000 team members supported, including 11,000 doctoral students and 16,000 post-doctoral researchers. Researchers from any field can compete for the grants; the ERC competitions are open to top researchers from outside the union. The average success rate is about 12%. Five ERC grantees have won Nobel Prizes.
Grant applications are assessed by qualified experts. Excellence is the sole criterion for selection; the aim is to recognise the best ideas, confer status and visibility to the best research in Europe, while attracting talent from abroad. Along with national funding bodies, the ERC aims to improve the climate for European frontier research; the Scientific Council has been keen to learn from the ERC’s peers in national research councils and to engage in dialogue and appropriate collaboration. Some countries – such as Poland – have used the ERC model to establish national basic research funding bodies; the idea of having a pan-European funding mechanism for basic research has been discussed and supported for a long time. However, its realisation was held back at the political level because the founding treaties of the European Union was interpreted as allowing union funding only to strengthen the scientific and technological base of European industry – that is, only funding for applied research rather than basic research.
In conjunction with the Lisbon declaration in 2000, leaders of the EU, in particular the European Commissioner for Research at the time, Philippe Busquin, realised that the European Treaty had to be reinterpreted. In 2003, a report from the ERC Expert Group, chaired by Professor Federico Mayor, described how the ERC could take shape. In 2004, a high-level expert group was commissioned to further explore the possibilities of creating a European Research Council; this group concluded. A number of other expert groups, such as one commissioned by the European Science Foundation, another charged with the task of analysing the economic implications of the Lisbon declaration and a high level group commissioned by the European Commission arrived at a similar conclusion and boosted the idea. With the ice broken and politicians have since supported the establishment of an ERC. In 2006, the European Parliament and EU Council of Ministers accepted the Seventh Framework Programme for the European Union's support for research, of which the ERC was a flagship component.
In the ERC kick-off conference in Berlin, various speakers talked of'an idea whose time has come','a European factory of ideas','a champions' league’,'a great day for Europe and a great day for science', the beginning of a'snowball effect'. The ERC is governed by the Scientific Council, consisting of 22 eminent European scientists and scholars, supported operationally by the European Research Council Executive Agency, based in Brussels; the ScC acts on behalf of the scientific community in Europe to promote creativity and innovative research. It is responsible for setting the ERC's scientific strategy, including establishing the annual Work Programmes, designing the peer review systems, identifying the peer review experts, communicating with the scientific community; the first Scientific Council members were nominated by Commissioner Potočnik in July 2005 and worked intensively to define the key principles and scientific operating practices of the ERC in preparation for the start-up. The members of the Scientific Council are selected by an Identification Committee, consisting of respected personalities in European research, appointed by the European Commission.
The ScC members term of office lasts four years. Following its formal establishment, the Scientific Council reaffirmed the election of its Chair and ERC president, Professor Fotis Kafatos, the two Vice-Chairs and ERC Vice-Presidents, Professor Helga Nowotny and Dr. Daniel Estève. After the successful Presidency of Fotis Kafatos, Helga Nowotny took over as President in March 2010 with Prof. Carl-Henrik Heldin and Prof. Pavel Exner as Vice-Presidents. In January 2014, after the end of Helga Nowotny's term of office, Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon became ERC President. Since the ERC has a third Vice-President, Professor Nuria Sebastian Galles, alongside the two vice-presidents in office; the ERC Scientific Council has established two Standing Committees: one deals with conflict of interest issues, the other oversees the selection of reviewers and panel lists. The Scientific Council is supported operationally by the European Research Council Executive Agen