Professor Dines Bjørner is a Danish computer scientist. He specializes in research into requirements engineering and formal methods, he worked with others on the Vienna Development Method at IBM Laboratory Vienna. He was involved with producing the RAISE formal method with tool support. Bjørner was a professor at the Technical University of Denmark from 1965–1969 and 1976–2007, before he retired in March 2007, he was responsible for establishing the United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology, Macau, in 1992 and was its first director. His magnum opus on software engineering appeared in 2005/6. To support VDM, Bjørner co-founded VDM-Europe, which subsequently became Formal Methods Europe, an organization that supports conferences and related activities. In 2003, he instigated the associated ForTIA Formal Techniques Industry Association. Bjørner became a knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1985, he received a Dr.h.c. From the Masaryk University, Czech Republic in 2004.
He is a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM. He has been a member of the Academia Europaea since 1989. In 2007, a Symposium was held in Macau in honour of Zhou Chaochen. Bjørner is married with two children and five grandchildren. Software Engineering 1: Abstraction and Modelling, Bjørner, D. Texts in Theoretical Computer Science, An EATCS Series, Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-21149-7. Software Engineering 2: Specification of Systems and Languages, Bjørner, D. Texts in Theoretical Computer Science, An EATCS Series, Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-21150-0. Software Engineering 3: Domains and Software Design, Bjørner, D. Texts in Theoretical Computer Science, An EATCS Series, Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-21151-9. Formal Specification and Software Development, Bjørner, D. and Jones, C. B. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-329003-4; the Vienna Development Method: The Meta-Language, Bjørner, D. and Jones, C. B.. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 61, Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-08766-4.
International Journal of Software and Informatics Home page Biographical information RAISE information Dines Bjørner at DBLP Bibliography Server List of publications from Microsoft Academic
Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni was an Italian research center for Telecommunication based in Torino, the biggest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe. It played a big role internationally in the standardization of protocols and technologies in telecommunication: the most well known is the standardization of mp3, it was active from 1964 to 2001 as a part of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale-STET – Società Finanziaria Telefonica group, the major conglomerate of Italian public Industries in the 1960s and 1970s. In 2001 was renamed TILAB as part of Telecom Italia Group. CSELT became internationally known at the end of 1960s thanks to a cooperation with the US-based company COMSAT for a pilot project of TDMA satellite communication system. Furthermore, in 1971 it started a joint research with Corning Glass Works on optical fiber cables: as a result, in 1977 Torino was the first city having a metropolitan optic line, in collaboration with Sirti and Pirelli. An example of innovation in the fiber optics field, was the coupling techniques of the optic cables, named Springroove and patented in 1977 by CSELT, that allowed to build long paths of optic fibers suitable for a metropolitan network.
In 1971, CSELT built the "Gruppi Speciali", a time-division processing computer for telephone call switching. It was the second electronic switching system in Europe, but advanced in design: e.g. in 1975 was introduced for the first time an architecture-independent automatic bootstrap from ROM composed from semiconductors, pushing a single button and with the storage of the machine state of the switch, in order to have a quick automatic reboot of the switch in case of failure. In 1978, CSELT gained notoriety due to its 3D images of the Shroud of Turin, supervised by prof. Giovanni Tamburelli: those images, the highest-resolution ones available at that time, followed the first 3D images of the Shroud, provided by NASA earlier during the same year. Notably, that work made the native "3D structure" of the Shroud itself apparent for the first time. A second result from Tamburelli was the electronic removal from the image of what was term "blood" covering the man of the Shroud. 1975 saw the release of MUSA, the first Italian speech synthezer, one of the first in the world: the same group contributed to research in speech recognition: both technologies were used for auto-responder systems in telco services.
Since 1975 the group of Voice Technology, led by Giulio Modena, carried on the advanced researchers in the field, publishing for Springer the book in 1990: Pirani, Giancarlo, ed. Advanced architectures for speech understanding. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 1990; this work was transferred to the spin-off company Loquendo SpA. Starting from 1978, MUSA was able to sing Fra Martino Campanaro in Italian. At that time, the only speech synthesis system of commercial interest available on the market apart the one provided by AT&T and the only one able to speak and sing in Italian. At the end of the 1980s, Dr. Leonardo Chiariglione, Vice-President of the Media Group at CSELT, founded and chaired the international MPEG group, that released and test audio-video standards such as MPEG-1, MP3, MPEG-4 in cooperation with several companies worldwide: in March 1992 a working MPEG-1 system was demonstrated in CSELT. Work on image compression standards was undertaken. All these innovations had a strong impact on media technology on a worldwide scale.
Several researches were carried on years in the field of optics circuits, microprocessor and all the fields of telecommunication as member of international standard group, such as W3C. In 1999 was experimented the first UMTS call in a European city and in 1996 was released the first GSM pre-paid card in the world. In 2001 CSELT was renamed in TILab, a new SpA 100% owned by Telecom Italia, when the successful speech and voice reserarch group was spined-off in the newco Loquendo sold to Nuance Co. Pirani, Giancarlo, ed. Advanced architectures for speech understanding. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. Llerena and Mireille Matt, eds. Innovation policy in a knowledge-based economy: theory and practice. Springer Science & Business Media, 2006. Saracco, Robert Weihmayer, Jeffrey R. Harrow; the disappearance of telecommunications. IEEE Press, 2000. Luigi Bonavoglia, CSELT trent'anni, Ed. CSELT, 1994 CSELT trent'anni Cristiano Antonelli, Bruno Lamborghini, Impresa pubblica e tecnologie avanzate: il caso della STET nell'elettronica, Il Mulino, Bologna 1978.
Bottiglieri, Bruno, STET. Strategie e struttura delle telecomunicazioni, Franco Angeli, Milano 1987. Bottiglieri, Bruno, SIP. Impresa, tecnologia e Stato nelle telecomunicazioni italiane, Franco Angeli, Milano 1990. Virginio Cantoni, Gabriele Falciasecca, Giuseppe Pelosi, Storia delle Telecomunicazioni, vol.1, Firenze: Firenze university press, 2011. Andrea Piccaluga, "La valorizzazione della ricerca scientifica. Come cambia la ricerca pubblica e quella industriale", Ed. Franco Angeli, 2002. ISBN 978-88-464-3153-0
Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau. After World War II its headquarters moved to Frankfurt am Main. In 1967 AEG joined with its subsidiary Telefunken AG creating Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken. In 1985 Daimler-Benz purchased the AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft, renamed to AEG Aktiengesellschaft and wholly integrated the company in 1996 into Daimler-Benz AG; the remains of AEG became part of Deutsche Aerospace. After acquiring the AEG household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH in 1994, in 2005 Electrolux obtained the rights to the brand name AEG, which it now uses on some of its products; the AEG name is licensed to various brand partners under the Electrolux Global Brand Licensing program. In 1883 Emil Rathenau founded Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in Berlin, which became Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft in 1887.
Producing electrical equipment, the company soon became involved in AC electric transmission systems. In 1907 Peter Behrens was appointed as artistic consultant to AEG; this led to the creation of the company's initial corporate identity, with products and advertising sharing common design features. The company expanded in the first half of the 20th century, is credited with a number of firsts and inventions in electrical engineering. During the same period it entered the airplane markets. Electrical equipment for railways was produced during this time, beginning a long history of supplying the German railways with electrical equipment. After WWII, the company lost its businesses in the eastern part of Germany. After a merger in 1967 the company was renamed Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken; the company experienced financial difficulties during the 1970s, resulting in the sale of some assets. In 1983 the consumer electronics division Telefunken Fernsehn und Rundfunk GmbH was sold.
In 1985 the company re-took the name AEG and the remainder of the company was acquired by Daimler-Benz. Under Daimler-Benz ownership, the former AEG companies become part of the newly named Adtranz in 1995 and the AEG name was no longer used. Electrolux, which had acquired the household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH of AEG in 1994, now own the rights to use and license the brand; the company originated in 1882, when Emil Rathenau acquired licences to use some of Thomas Edison's lamp patents in Germany. The Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft was founded in 1883 with the financial backing of banks and private individuals, with Emil Rathenau as company director. In 1884, Munich-born engineer Oskar von Miller joined the executive board; the same year, the company entered negotiations with the Berlin Magistrat to supply a large area from a central supply, which resulted in the formation of the Städtischen Elektricitätswerke on 8 May 1884. The original factory was located near Stettiner Bahnhof. In 1887 the Company acquired land in the Berlin-Gesundbrunnen area on which the Weddingsche Maschinenfabrik was located.
In the same year, in addition to a restructuring and expansion of the production range, the AEG name was adopted. In 1887 Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrowolsky joined the company as chief engineer becoming vice-director, his work on polyphase electric power led him to become the world's leading engineer in three-phase electric power systems at the end of the 1880s. In 1891 Miller and Dobrovolski demonstrated the transmission of electrical power over a distance of 175 km from a hydro electric power plant in Lauffen am Neckar to Frankfurt, where it lit 1000 light bulbs and drove an artificial waterfall at the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in Frankfurt am Main; this success marked one of beginnings of the general use of alternating current for electrification in Germany, showed that distance transmission of electric power could be economically useful. In the same year the Stadtbahn Halle/Saale opened, the first electric tram system in GermanyTropp Paul began his work for the AEG 1889/90 until 1893, Franz Schwechten designed the facades of the Acker- und Hussitenstraße in 1894–95.
In 1894 the site of the former Berlin Viehmarktgasse was purchased. This had a railroad siding connecting to the Berlin rail network, but there was no rail connection between the two plants. In 1895 an underground railway link between the two plots was built in a tunnel 270 meters long; the tunnel was built by Siemens & Halske under the direction of C. Schwebel and Wilhelm Lauter, is now the Spree tunnel Stralau, used by public transport. In 1903 the competing radio companies AEG and Siemens & Halske merged, forming a joint subsidiary named Telefunken. In 1907 architect Peter Behrens became an artistic adviser. Responsible for the design of all products and architecture, he has since become considered as the world's first corporate designer. Behren's philosophy was to create a building, solid and simple in its structure, it is perfect for doing its job of producing heavy machinery. The dimensions of the building were chosen to allow turbines to be transported above other machinery. In t
The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hypertext, are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, he wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public in August 1991; the World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language; such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources.
In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On March 12, 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.
With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. At this point HTML and HTTP had been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test; this proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University.
The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser and the first web server; the first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a 1991 visit to UNC. Jones stored it on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext.
This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. branded as Wiley in recent years, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services, training materials, educational materials for undergraduate and continuing education students. Founded in 1807, Wiley is known for publishing the For Dummies book series. In 2017, the company had a revenue of $1.7 billion. Wiley was established in 1807; the company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal and other non-fiction titles. Wiley worked in partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, George Long, George Palmer Putnam, Robert Halsted; the firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley shifted its focus to scientific and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests. Charles Wiley's son John took over the business when his father died in 1826.
The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co. Wiley & Putnam, John Wiley; the company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business. Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, higher education. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize in 1901, Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel Laureates, in every category in which the prize is awarded. One of the world's oldest independent publishing companies, Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007 with a year-long celebration, hosting festivities that spanned four continents and ten countries and included such highlights as ringing the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange on May 1. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's pivotal role in the evolution of publishing against a social and economic backdrop.
Wiley has created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes. In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai; the company has had an office in Beijing, since 2001, China is now its sixth-largest market for STEM content. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006, has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia and Egypt. On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, effective May 1, 2012. Wiley's scientific and medical business was expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007; the combined business, named Scientific, Technical and Scholarly, publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, major reference works and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences and allied health, the humanities, the social sciences.
Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies. Other major journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, International Finance and Liver Transplantation. Launched commercially in 1999, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, major reference works, books, including backfile content. Journals from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. On February 17, 2012, Wiley announced the acquisition of Inscape Holdings Inc. which provides DISC assessments and training for interpersonal business skills. Wiley described the acquisition as complementary to the workplace learning products published under its Pfeiffer imprint, one that would help Wiley advance its digital delivery strategy and extend its global reach through Inscape's international distributor network.
On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel, general interest, nautical and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research and professional practices, on lifelong learning through digital technology". On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc. On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks and study guides. In 2013, Wiley sold its pets and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books. H
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19