Richard E. Nugent
Richard Emmel Nugent was a lieutenant general in the United States Air Force who, among other positions, commanded the XXIX Tactical Air Command supporting the Ninth Army during World War II. His first five years of service as a second lieutenant were spent as a tank officer. In 1929 he transferred to the United States Army Air Corps during its five-year expansion program. Of Nugent's 22-year career in the Air Corps, Army Air Forces and USAF, three were spent in career training and 19 years were in duty positions: four in operational units and commands, 15 years in staff positions. 11 of those in staff positions were as a personnel specialist, nearly ten in the Office of Chief of the Air Corps, the General Staff Corps, or Headquarters USAF. While a major general in the Air Force Office of Personnel, Nugent was involved in the preparatory work, instrumental in the creation and implementation of the plan, in integrating the Air Force in 1949 and 1950. Born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, he graduated from the United States Military Academy on June 12, 1924, was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry.
After attending Tank School in 1925 he served in both the 17th Tank Battalion and on temporary duty with the school. From September 1, 1927, to February 25, 1929, he was stationed with the automotive division of the Ordnance Department at the Aberdeen Proving Ground was sent to Brooks Field, Texas, in March 1929 for primary flying school to obtain the rating required for permanent assignment to the Air Corps, he received his pilot's rating and commission of first lieutenant in the Air Corps on March 24, 1930. In the Air Corps, 1st Lt. Nugent was posted to France Field, Panama Canal Zone, for flying duties with the 25th Bombardment Squadron, 7th Observation Squadron, 44th Observation Squadron, all of the 6th Composite Group, between September 1930 and March 1932, he had post duties as adjutant or operations officer, first at France Field until October 1932 at Langley Field, Virginia, to August 1937. He served temporary duty as Adjutant, Eastern Zone of the Army Air Corps Mail Operation at Floyd Bennett and Mitchel Fields.
In September 1935 Nugent returned to Langley, where he was made a flight commander in the 96th Bombardment Squadron, 2nd Bombardment Group until July 1936. Nugent led a flight of three Martin B-10s on an instrument flight from Langley to Allegan, for which he and his crews won the 1936 Mackay Trophy. From 1936 to 1937 Nugent returned to staff positions as adjutant for the 2nd Wing, Langley Field, the 2nd Bomb Group, he entered the Air Corps Tactical School in September 1937. After completion of Command and General Staff College in 1939, he was assigned to the Personnel Division, Office of Chief of Air Corps, beginning in July 1939, where he remained until March 1942, he rose from captain to colonel in less than three years while with the Personnel Division. From January to April 1941 he served as a special observer at the American Embassy in London, with temporary duty as Assistant Military Attaché for Air. Nuget was assigned a staff officer to the War Department General Staff on March 10, 1942, serving in the Office of the Chief of Staff, until April 23, 1943.
He was assigned concurrently as Chief of Staff, Eastern Defense Command and First Air Force, promoted to brigadier general on June 30, 1943. Nugent commanded the Philadelphia Fighter Wing, from October 18 to November 1, 1943, when he was transferred to the headquarters of the Ninth Air Force in England. There he served as Assistant Deputy and Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations until September 12, 1944, with concurrent duty between July and September 1944 as head of the United States component of the Allied Expeditionary Air Force. On September 15, 1944, the XXIX Tactical Air Command was activated in France with Nugent in command, where he remained until the end of the war. Republic P-47 Thunderbolts of the six groups of his command provided air support to the United States Ninth Army From October 3, 1944 to May 8, 1945. After V-E Day, Nugent served at the Air Force Personnel Distribution Command at Louisville, Kentucky as military attaché to Brazil from December 1945 to July 1947. After the creation of the United States Air Force, Nugent served in several general officer positions in the Air Force Office of Personnel, Headquarters USAF, still in the temporary rank of brigadier general.
During this period he was promoted to permanent brigadier general in February 1948, appointed to temporary major general, with dates of rank retroactive to June 30, 1943, October 14, 1947, respectively. He received a permanent promotion to major general in January 1950, to the temporary rank of lieutenant general on April 11, 1951. Nugent held a number of positions in AFOP: Chief of the Civilian Personnel Division, Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Director of Personnel Planning, Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Acting Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, he retired August 31, 1951, in the grade of lieutenant general. In April 1948, while Director of Civilian Personnel, Nugent was tasked by his superior, DCS for Personnel Lt. Gen. Idwal H. Edwards, to chair a study group to re-examine the racial policies of the Air Force. At that time, black Americans were 7% of Air Force enlisted personnel and only.06% of Air Force officers, in segregated units, the new Air Force was under pressure from civil rights organizations to lead the way to integration.
Nugent, Evans and Lt. Col. Jack F. Marr were instrumental in creating the
Victory in Europe Day
Victory in Europe Day known as VE Day or V-E Day, was celebrated on Tuesday, 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. The formal surrender of the German forces occupying the Channel Islands did not occur until the following day, 9 May 1945, it thus marked the end of World War II in Europe. The term VE Day existed as early in anticipation of victory. On 30 April 1945, the Nazi leader, committed suicide during the Battle of Berlin. Germany's surrender, was authorised by his successor, Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz; the administration headed by Dönitz was known as the Flensburg Government. The preliminary act of military surrender was signed at 02:41 on 7 May in SHAEF HQ at Reims, the final document was signed on 8 May in Berlin; the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries have celebrated the end of World War II on 9 May. In Ukraine since 2015, 8 May is designated as a day of Remembrance and Reconciliation, but it is not a public holiday.
Upon the defeat of Germany, celebrations erupted throughout the western world in Great Britain and North America. More than one million people celebrated in the streets throughout Great Britain to mark the end of the European part of the war. In London, crowds massed in Trafalgar Square and up the Mall to Buckingham Palace, where King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, accompanied by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, appeared on the balcony of the palace before the cheering crowds. Princess Elizabeth and her sister Princess Margaret were allowed to wander incognito among the crowds and take part in the celebrations. In the United States, the victory happened on President Harry Truman's 61st birthday, he dedicated the victory to the memory of his predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had died of a cerebral hemorrhage less than a month earlier, on 12 April. Flags remained at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period. Truman said of dedicating the victory to Roosevelt's memory and keeping the flags at half-staff that his only wish was "that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day".
That day, Truman said that the victory made it his most enjoyable birthday. Massive celebrations took place in many American cities in New York's Times Square. Tempering the jubilation somewhat, both Churchill and Truman pointed out that the war against Japan had not yet been won. In his radio broadcast at 15:00 on the 8th, Churchill told the British people that: "We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing remains unsubdued". In America, Truman broadcast at 09:00 and said it was "a victory only half won"; the instrument of surrender stipulated that all hostilities had to stop at 23:01, 8th of May, just an hour before midnight. Since it was 9th of May in the European part of the USSR, most post-Soviet states, including Russia, as well as Israel commemorate Victory Day on 9 May instead of 8 May. Italy "Festa della Liberazione". Denmark as "Befrielsen" Netherlands as "Bevrijdingsdag" United Kingdom: In 1995 the May Day bank holiday was moved from the first Monday in May, 1 May, to Monday 8 May, for that year only, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the ending of the Second World War.
East Germany as Tag der Befreiung, a public holiday from 1950 to 1966 and in 1985. Between 1975 and 1990, as Tag des Sieges. France as Victoire 1945. Orléans celebrates both V-E Day and the anniversary of the Siege of Orléans being lifted by French forces led by Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years War on this date. Slovakia as Deň víťazstva nad fašizmom Czech Republic as Den vítězství or Den osvobození Poland as "Narodowy Dzień Zwycięstwa" – National Victory Day. Norway as "Frigjøringsdagen" "offisiell flaggdag" not "helligdager" Ukraine "День пам'яті та примирення" Ukraine "День перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні" — from 2015. Georgia "ფაშიზმზე გამარჯვების დღე" Belarus "Дзень Перамогі" Bosnia and Herzegovina "Дан побједе", "Dan pobjede" Russia "День Победы" Israel Victory in Europe Day Ex-Yugoslavia "Дан победе", "Dan pobede", "Dan pobjede", "Dan zmage" Serbia "Дан победе", "Dan pobede" Kazakhstan as "Жеңіс күні" or "День победы" British Channel Islands Liberation Days: Jersey and Guernsey and Alderney.
Time of remembrance and reconciliation Victory over Japan Day Stunde Null Victory in Europe Day WWII: VE Day, May 8, 1945 – slideshow by Life magazine Rare audio speeches of the famous historical persons of the USSR, etc. 50th Anniversary Celebration of VE Day in Moscow on YouTube by Leon Charney on The Leon Charney Report
Leonard T. Gerow
General Leonard Townsend Gerow was a decorated senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II. Gerow was born in Virginia; the name Gerow is derived from the French name "Giraud". Gerow attended high school in Petersburg and attended the Virginia Military Institute, he was three times elected class president. He graduated as recipient of the "Honor Appointment" which, at the time, permitted one man in each VMI graduating class to become a Regular Army second lieutenant without further examination, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Infantry Branch of the United States Army on 29 September 1911. Prior to World War I, Gerow served in a series of assignments as a company grade officer in the Infantry. In 1915 he won commendation for his work in the 1915 Galveston Hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, he served in Vera Cruz in the Mexican Campaign. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 1 July 1916 and to captain on 15 May 1917, shortly after the American entry into World War I on 6 April 1917.
From 16 January 1918 to 30 June 1920 he served on the Signal Corps staff on the Western Front. He was promoted to the rank of temporary colonel, in charge of purchasing all the radio equipment for the American Expeditionary Force in Belgium and France. For his services during the war he earned the Army Distinguished Service Medal and the French Legion of Honour. After returning to the United States, he was promoted to the permanent rank of major on 1 July 1920, he was ordered to attend the advanced course at the U. S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the fall of 1924, he graduated first in the class in 1925 from the Advanced Course at the Infantry School. Omar Bradley graduated second. Gerow attended the U. S. Army Command and General Staff School, where Dwight D. Eisenhower was his study partner, graduated in 1926, ranking 11th in the class of 245. In 1931 he completed the Field Officer's Course in Chemical Warfare and Tanks and took a course at U. S. Army War College. Gerow served in China in 1932 in the Shanghai sector.
On 1 August 1935 he was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant colonel. On 1 September 1940, prior to the American entry into World War II, he became a colonel in the permanent grade and a month on 1 October 1940 became a temporary brigadier general. Gerow was promoted to major general on 14 February 1942, over two months after the United States entered World War II, became Commanding General of the 29th Infantry Division, an Army National Guard formation, on 16 February 1942, he received the Legion of Merit on 27 September 1943 for his work as a division commander and as Assistant Chief of Staff of the War Plans Division. He continued as commander of the 29th Division until 17 July 1943, he became commander of V Corps on 17 July 1943. This was the largest unit of troops in the European Theater of Operations, he played a major part in the planning of the invasion of continental Europe. He was the first corps commander ashore on D-Day, June 6, 1944 and continued in command through the Battle of Normandy, which saw his divisions sustain heavy casualties.
V Corps was composed of two infantry divisions: the veteran 1st and the green 29th, his old division, now commanded by Major General Charles H. Gerhardt, he commanded V Corps was from 17 July 1943 to 17 September 1944 and again from 5 October 1944 to 14 January 1945. Gerow kept close to his advancing troops in V Corps, he was the first American officer of the rank of major general to enter Paris after its liberation by the French 2nd Armored Division and the U. S. 4th Infantry Division. For his part in this campaign he was awarded the Silver Star. Both General Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander on the Western Front, Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, the U. S. 12th Army Group commander, held Gerow in high regard and ranked him as one of the top American field commanders of World War II. In a February 1945 memo General Eisenhower listed the principal American commanders in order of merit based on the value of their service during the war. Gerow was listed 8 of 32. In a letter to General George Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff, on April 26, 1945, regarding commanders who might go on to serve in the Pacific, Eisenhower commended Bradley most and said: "In Europe there are other men who have been tested as high combat commanders, including Simpson, Patton, Collins and others.
Any one of these can lead an Army in combat in the toughest kind of conditions.". Gerow was given command of the newly formed Fifteenth Army on 15 January 1945, he was promoted to lieutenant general on 6 February 1945, with the promotion being effective 1 January 1945. After the war Lieutenant General Gerow was appointed Commandant of the U. S. Army Command and General Staff School, he was placed in charge of a board which studied and proposed how army colleges ought to be organized, post war. In February 1946 the Gerow Board recommended five separate colleges. In January 1948, he was appointed Commanding General of the Second Army; this was his last post. Gerow was appointed a full general on July 1954 by a special Act of Congress. Gerow's brother, Lee S. Gerow graduated from the VMI in 1913 and rose to the rank of brigadier general. "Leonard T. Gerow". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-15
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Military mail, as opposed to civilian mail, refers to the postal services provided by armed forces that allow serving members to send and receive mail. Military mail systems are subsidized to ensure that military mail does not cost the sender any more than normal domestic mail. In some cases, military personnel in a combat zone may post letters and packages to their home country for free. Modern military mail services are provided by most armed forces around the world. In some nations, individual service branches may run their own military mail program. Early forms of military mail may go back to the dawn of civilization. There is some evidence of it dating back to Ancient Egypt of the 2nd millennium BC; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle make mention of messengers being sent by King Edward the Elder to recall members of the Kent fyrd, but it is regarded that the origins of the postal services stem from the King's Messengers of medieval times, in particular, the Royal Post established in the reign of King Edward IV to support his troops engaged in a war against Scotland.
In 1795 Parliament granted the penny postage concession to soldiers and sailors of the British Army and Royal Navy. Four years in 1799, the Duke of York appointed Henry Darlot, an ‘intelligent clerk’ from the General Post Office as the Army Postmaster to accompany his expedition to Helder. Thomas Reynolds, as the British Post Office Agent in Lisbon, Portugal was made responsible for coordinating the exchange of the British Army’s mails at the port during the Peninsular War. Two Sergeant Postmasters were appointed to work with Reynolds; the sergeants reported to the Duke of Wellington’s the Superintendent of Military Communications, Major Scovell and Lieutenant Colonel Sturgeon. After complaints about the mail services to the British troops fighting in the Crimean War the Postmaster General authorised the secondment of GPO staff to organise and distribute mail in the theatre of war. A Base Army Post Office was established in Constantinople and a field post Office with the Army Headquarters at Balaklava.
A regular seaborne mail service was established between Constantinople. In response to demands made by Florence Nightingale, a method of transmitting money was devised to allow troops to transfer monies back to their families at home in the United Kingdom; this was designed to prevent drunkenness and became the world's first International Money Order Service. In its first month of operation £7,000 was remitted by the British troops; the military postal experience of the Crimea and the lessons learnt from the Indian Army encouraged the British Army to review the arrangements for the provision of a postal service to the troops in the field. There were two opinions. Secondly, that civilians from the Post Office be responsible for the service as in the Crimean and Indian Army example; the provision of a mail service to soldiers remained an ad hoc affair until 1882. In 1881 a rebellion broke out in Egypt. In response a British Expeditionary Force was sent to Egypt in the same year under the command of Sir Garnet Wolseley.
This gave Lieutenant Colonel du Plat Taylor the opportunity to raise the matter of the postal corps again and it was agreed that an Army Post Office Corps should be formed. Mails from Britain were despatched three times a week via the'overland route' through France to Alexandria; the Army Post Offices sold stamps and postal orders. In addition to the mail services, a free parcel service from the naval docks at Deptford was set up; these parcels transports. This service was the forerunner of the Military Forwarding Office service; the Expedition was a success and set the basis for the institution of military mail, both in England and around the world. The unit received high praise from the commander-in-chief, who wrote: At the end of World War I, the Royal Engineers along with the Royal Air Force helped to pioneer international airmail services, by setting up airmail routes between Folkestone and Cologne, Germany to service the British Army of the Rhine; the British Forces Post Office provides a postal service to HM Forces, separate from that provided by Royal Mail in the United Kingdom.
BFPO addresses are used for the delivery of mail around the world. BFPO is based at RAF Northolt in North West London; the mission of BFPO is to "...provide an efficient and effective Postal and Courier Service to sustain the fighting power of UK Armed Forces Worldwide." When sending mail from the UK to a member of HM Forces serving overseas, the sender must address it to the appropriate BFPO number, not to the country in which that person is based. In 2012, in collaboration with Royal Mail, the BFPO introduced UK-style postcodes, to help ordering items online, owing to problems with websites not recognising the BFPO addressing format; the addresses are assigned to the notional post town "BFPO" and, as of 2012, the postcodes all begin with "BF1". The Bundeswehr's military mail system is known in German as Feldpost; these include Kosovo and Afghanistan. Feldpost addresses consist of the word "Feldpost" and a four-digit number beginning with "64" followed by two additional digits denoting the specific mission.
Postal rates f
Walter Bedell Smith
General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 during World War II, he was Eisenhower's chief of staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in the campaign in Western Europe from 1944 through 1945. Smith enlisted as a private in the Indiana Army National Guard in 1911. In 1917, during World War I, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant, he was wounded in the Aisne-Marne Offensive in 1918. After World War I, he was a staff officer and instructor at the U. S. Army Infantry School. In 1941, he became Secretary of the General Staff, in 1942 he became the Secretary to the Combined Chiefs of Staff, his duties involved taking part in discussions of war plans at the highest level, Smith briefed President Franklin D. Roosevelt on strategic matters. Smith became chief of staff to Eisenhower at AFHQ in September 1942.
He acquired a reputation as Eisenhower's "hatchet man" for his brusque and demanding manner. However, he was capable of representing Eisenhower in sensitive missions requiring diplomatic skill. Smith was involved in negotiating the armistice between Italy and the Allies, which he signed on behalf of Eisenhower. In 1944, he became the Chief of Staff of SHAEF, again under Eisenhower. In this position, Smith negotiated for food and fuel aid to be sent through German lines for the cold and starving Dutch civilian population, opened discussions for the peaceful and complete German capitulation to the First Canadian Army in the Netherlands. In May 1945, Smith met representatives of the German High Command in Reims, France, to conduct the surrender of the German Armed Forces, he signed the German Instrument of Surrender on behalf of General Eisenhower. After World War II, he served as the U. S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1948. In 1950, Smith became the Director of Central Intelligence, the head of the Central Intelligence Agency and other intelligence agencies in the United States.
Smith reorganized the CIA, redefined its structure and its mission, he gave it a new sense of purpose. He made the CIA the arm of government responsible for covert operations, he left the CIA in 1953 to become an Under Secretary of State. After retiring from the State Department in 1954, Smith continued to serve the Eisenhower Administration in various posts for several years, until his retirement and his death in 1961. Walter Bedell Smith was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 5 October 1895, the elder of two sons of William Long Smith, a silk buyer for the Pettis Dry Goods Company, his wife, Ida Francis née Bedell, who worked for the same company. Smith was called Bedell from his boyhood. From an early age he was nicknamed "Beetle", or "Beedle" or "Boodle", he was educated at St. Peter and Paul School, public schools #10 and #29, Oliver Perry Morton School, Emmerich Manual High School, where he studied to be a machinist. While still there, he took a job at the National Motor Vehicle Company, left high school without graduating.
Smith enrolled at Butler University, but his father developed serious health problems, Smith left university to return to his job and support his family. In 1911, at the age of 16, Smith enlisted as a private in Company D of the 2nd Indiana Infantry of the Indiana National Guard; the Indiana National Guard was called out twice in 1913, for the Ohio River flood and during the Indianapolis streetcar strike. Smith was promoted to corporal and sergeant. During the Pancho Villa Expedition he served on the staff of the Indiana National Guard. In 1913, Smith met Mary Eleanor Cline, born in 1893 and died in 1963, they were married in a traditional Roman Catholic wedding ceremony on 1 July 1917, their marriage childless. Smith's work during the Ohio River flood of 1913 led to his nomination for officer training in 1917, he was sent to the Officer Candidate Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana for officer indoctrination. Upon his graduation on 27 November 1917, he was directly commissioned as a second lieutenant.
He was assigned to the newly formed Company A, 1st Battalion, 39th Infantry, part of the 4th Infantry Division at Camp Greene, North Carolina. The 4th Infantry Division embarked for Europe embroiled in World War I, from Hoboken, New Jersey, on 9 May 1918, reaching Brest, France, on the 23rd of May. After training with the British and French Armies, the 4th Division entered the front lines in June 1918, joining the Aisne-Marne Offensive on 18 July 1918. Smith was wounded by shell fragments during an attack two days later; because of his wounds, Smith was returned to the United States for service with the U. S. Department of War's General Staff, he was assigned to the Military Intelligence Division. In September 1918, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the regular army of the United States. Smith was next sent to the newly formed 379th Infantry Regiment as its intelligence officer; this regiment was part of the 95th Infantry Division, based at Ohio. The 95th Infantry Division was disbanded following the signing of the Armistice with Germany on 11 November 1918.
In February 1919 Smith was assigned to Camp Dodge, where he was involved with the disposal of surplus equipment and supplies. In March 1919 he was transferred to the 2nd Infantry Regiment, a regular unit based at Camp Dodge, remaining there until November 1919, when it moved to Camp Sherman; the staff of the 2nd Infantry moved to Fort Sheridan, Illinois, in 1921. In 1922, Smith became aide de camp to Brigadier General George Van Horn Moseley, the c