Super 2000 is an FIA powertrain specification used in the World Rally Championship, the British Touring Car Championship, the World Touring Car Championship, other touring car championships. The engines were 2 L aspirated, being allowed 1.6 L turbocharged units producing 280 bhp. The goal of the Super 2000 classification is to allow more manufacturers and privateers to race by reducing the cost of a competitive car. In order to cut costs and shorten development time, the Super 2000 rally cars used a common control gearbox and drivetrain made by a French company, Sadev; the FIA has since announced that Xtrac and Ricardo Consulting Engineers will be allowed to manufacture S2000 gearboxes to FIA specification. This is to further cut costs by introducing competition into gearbox supply; these new rules allowed Ford to build from scratch their S2000 Fiesta vehicles in Australia, in as little as 14 weeks, starting out with a Super 1600 chassis and rollcage. Until 2011, FIA specifications for Super 2000 engines were as follows: Derived from production model, of which at least 2500 have been produced in the past year Maximum of 2 litre displacement 8500 rpm maximum All wheel drive is permitted in rally cars, but not in touring cars.
6-speed sequential gearbox, or 5-speed MT gearbox retaining original gear ratios. Front and rear MacPherson suspension No electronic driver aidsIn 2011 the specifications were revised, allowing 1600 cc turbocharged engines, the use of 2000 cc normally-aspirated engines stopped as a result; these engines replaced the 2 litre engines. For the 2014 WTCC season, the TC1 regulations were introduced for touring cars. For the engine this included a larger air intake restrictor allowing power outputs of 380 bhp and more. For the 2017 WRC season, the engine intake restrictor diameter for rally cars was increased to 36 mm, allowing power output to rise to 380 bhp. New regulations for the FIA World Rally Car were introduced in 2011. WRC cars would use the Super 2000 specification, be powered by a 1600 cc turbo engine instead of the 2000 cc used previously; the WRC car would thus be based on the current 2011 model Super 2000 cars fitted with a supplementary kit for rallying. The kit must be able to be removed within a defined time limit.
Notes: The following cars were built under the TC1 regulations: Chevrolet RML Cruze TC1 Citroën C-Elysée Honda Civic WTCC Lada Granta WTCC Lada Vesta WTCC Volvo S60 Polestar TC1The following cars were built under the TC2 Turbo regulations: BMW 320 TC Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Ford Focus S2000 TC Honda Civic WTCC Lada Granta WTCC SEAT León WTCC Volvo C30 Drive Super 2000 spec cars are have run in: Rally Competitions: World Rally Championship World Rally Championship-2 European Rally Championship Asia-Pacific Rally Championship Australian Rally Championship Italian Rally Championship Codasur South American Rally Championship South African Rally ChampionshipTouring Car competitions: World Touring Car Championship European Touring Car Cup ADAC Procar Series Swedish Touring Car Championship Dominican Touring Series Russian Touring Car Championship Asian Touring Car SeriesSouth Africa was the first country in the world to run Super 2000 cars in rallying. Toyota South Africa and Volkswagen South Africa each built 2 cars to compete in the South African Rally Championship in 2005.
Diesel 2000, the related category for diesel powered touring cars Super 1600, a rally car formula, used in the Junior World Rally Championship Super 2000 World Rally Championship, a companion rally series to the World Rally Championship Rallying – Wikipedia book Touring car racing – Wikipedia book
Mallory Park is a motor racing circuit situated in the village of Kirkby Mallory, just off the A47, between Leicester and Hinckley, in central England. Used for grass-track until 1955, a new oval hard-surfaced course was constructed for 1956, with a extension forming a loop with a hairpin bend. With the car circuit measuring only 1.35 miles it is amongst the shortest permanent race circuits in the UK. However, chicanes introduced to reduce speeds in motorcycle events mean that the Superbike Circuit is now longer, at 1.41 miles. Shorter UK circuits are Lydden Hill, Brands Hatch Indy circuit, Scotland's Knockhill and Silverstone's diminutive Stowe circuit; the circuit has a number of formations, founded on a basic one-mile oval, with the majority of configurations including the northerly extension to the tight, 180° Shaw's Hairpin. At the other end of the circuit lies the long right-hand Gerard's Bend. Gerard's is about a third of a mile long and turns through nearly 200°, it was named after local racing hero Bob Gerard, who opened the newly reconstructed circuit on 25 April 1956.
Unusually, there are a number of large lakes occupying half of the circuit infield. Despite its short length and Shaw's Hairpin, the tightest corner of any UK track, Mallory is a fast circuit. To reduce speeds for motorcycle racing a pair of chicanes have been introduced, together with a revised exit to Gerard's. Edwina's was added toward the end of the straight following Gerard's, named after former managing director of the circuit Edwina Overend, the Bus Stop Chicane on the descent to the sweeping left kink, the Devil's Elbow, a blind, off camber left-hander before the start–finish line on Kirkby Straight. In 2003 a new complex was added toward the end of Gerard's curve; this sequence of bends was designed to reduce speeds on entry to Edwina's, to prevent motorcycles from colliding as they jockey for position into the chicane. Mallory Park does not have any true permanent garage facilities, although there are a handful of open garages in the pitlane; the estate at Mallory Park has many historical connections, the oldest being the unique Anglo-Saxons defended moat, now known as Kirkby Moats, while a Roman road passes through the estate.
Fast forward to the 18th century, when in 1762, Sir Cleoberry Noel became Viscount Wentworth, the title descended on the distaff side. Lord Byron married into the Wentworth family and it is said on his visits to Mallory, he wrote beneath the shade of the Lebanon cedar tree which still stands in the grounds of Kirkby Hall; the last occupant of Kirkby Hall was Herbert Clarkson. During the Second World War, the circuit started life Royal Air Force Station Kirkby Mallory, a standby landing ground during WWII and closed in 1947; the hall was a large house, demolished in 1952, leaving only the stable block and the coach house which now forms the circuit offices, hotel and restaurant. The estate of 300 acres was sold by auction in 1953 and was bought by a Mr. Moult of Derby who planned to have horse racing on the disused pony trotting track. Following the war, Mallory became a pony trotting circuit in the late 1940s, which defined the outline of the oval track still in use today. After the financial collapse of the equestrian club responsible for the circuit, the track was hired by various motorcycle clubs for grass track motorcycle and motorcycle sidecar racing.
For example, between September 1949 until 1954, the Leicester Query Motorcycle Club held grass track races. In 1955, the estate was purchased by Clive Wormleighton, under whose influence, the present tarmac was constructed at a cost of £60,000 in 1956. Upon completion of the building work, a circuit test was held on 26 April, when local Grand Prix driver Bob Gerard and Maurice Cann conducted a Cooper-Bristol Formula Two car and a Moto Guzzi motorcycle around the track, Gerald managing an 81 mph lap; the first race was held on 29 April, when the Leicester Query Club organised a motorcycle meeting. A large crowd in excess of 20,000 spectators attended the Grand Opening event on 13 May 1956. 248 riders arrived in Leicestershire for this meeting, which saw George Salter set the first lap record at a speed of 84.08 mph, riding a Norton bike. Cars first appeared at the Whit Monday meeting, in event being organised by Nottingham Sports Car Club; the first car race victory went to D. Rees in an Austin.
Many famous racing stars have raced at Mallory over the years, indeed a young John Surtees raced against his father, Jack Surtees. While Jack was a grass track racer at Mallory, John went on to be only World Champion on both two and four wheels. Famous competitors who have raced at Mallory, include John Surtees who won the first ‘Race of the Year’ in 1958. While, the 1960 race, saw Mike Hailwood set a new lap record of 89 mph. Both Hailwood and Surtees, along with Jim Clark and Colin Chapman are commemorated with Statues at the front gate. Around this time, Clive Wormleighton added the lakes, which were formed by adding the sluice gate across the Brook. Clive Wormleighton continued to run the circuit successfully until 1962 when ownership passed to Grovewood Securities in July, the previous owner remaining in a consultancy capacity until the end of September. Before this, on 11 June 1962 Mallory Park saw it first non-championship Formula One race, won by John Surtees aboard a Lola Mk4 from the entered Lotuses of Jack Brabham and Graham Hill.
Surtees was now a major race winner at Mallory on both 4 wheels. Over the next two years, a considerable amount of money was spent on Mallory with the building
The Ford Capri is a fastback coupé built by Ford Motor Company between 1968 and 1986, designed by American Philip T. Clark, involved in the design of the Ford Mustang, it used the mechanical components from the Mk2 Ford Cortina and was intended as the European equivalent of the Ford Mustang. The Capri went on to be a successful car for Ford, selling nearly 1.9 million units in its lifetime. A wide variety of engines was used in the Capri throughout its production lifespan, which included the Essex and Cologne V6 at the top of the range, whilst the Kent straight-four and Taunus V4 engines were used in lower specification models. Although the Capri was not replaced, the second-generation Probe was its replacement after the car's introduction to the European market in 1992. While Ford marketed the car as "Ford Capri – The Car You Always Promised Yourself", the English magazine "Car" described the Capri as a "Cortina in drag". Production of the Capri began in November, 1968, according to Jeremy Walton's 1987 book,'Capri - The Development & Competition History of Ford's European GT Car' and the FIA, Recognition No.
5301, at Ford's Halewood plant in the UK and on 16 December 1968 at the Cologne plant in West Germany. It was unveiled in January 1969 with sales starting the following month; the intention was to reproduce in Europe the success Ford had had with the North American Ford Mustang. It was mechanically based on the Cortina and built in Europe at the Halewood plant in the United Kingdom, the Genk plant in Belgium, the Saarlouis and Cologne plants in Germany; the car was named Colt during its development stage, but Ford was unable to use the name, as it was trademarked by Mitsubishi. Although a fastback coupé, Ford wanted the Capri Mk I to be affordable for a broad spectrum of potential buyers. To help achieve that, it was available with a variety of engines; the British and German factories produced different line-ups. The continental model used the Ford Taunus V4 engine in 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 L engine displacements, while the British versions were powered by the Ford Kent straight-four in 1.3 and 1.6 L form.
The Ford Essex V4 engine 2.0 L and Cologne V6 2.0 L served as initial range-toppers. At the end of the year, new sports versions were added: the 2300 GT in Germany, using a double-barrel carburettor with 125 PS, in September 1969 the 3000 GT in the UK, with the Essex V6, capable of 138 hp. Under the new body, the running gear was similar to the 1966 Cortina; the rear suspension employed a live axle supported on leaf springs with short radius rods. MacPherson struts were featured at the front in combination with rack and pinion steering which employed a steering column that would collapse in response to a collision; the initial reception of the car was broadly favourable. In the June 1970 edition of the Monthly Driver's Gazette, tester Archie Vicar wrote of the gearchange that it was "...in Ford fashion easy to operate but not jolly". In the same review Vicar summed up the car as follows: "Perhaps with a bit of work it can be given road-holding and performance less like an American car and more like a European one".
The range continued to be broadened, with another 3.0 variant, the Capri 3000E introduced from the British plant in March 1970, offering "more luxurious interior trim". Ford began selling the Capri in the Australian market in May 1969 and in April 1970 it was released in the North American and South African markets; these versions all used the underpowered Kent 1.6 engine although a Pinto straight-four 2.0 L replaced it in some markets in 1971. An exception, was the Perana manufactured by Basil Green Motors near Johannesburg, powered by a 302ci V8 Ford Windsor engine. All North American versions featured the "power dome" hood and four round 53⁄4" U. S.-spec headlights. They carried no "Ford" badging, as the Capri was sold by only Lincoln-Mercury dealers and promoted to U. S. drivers as "the sexy European". The Capri was sold in Japan with both the 1.6 L and 2.0 L engines in GT trim, sales were helped by the fact that this generation was compliant with Japanese government dimension regulations.
Sales were handled in Japan by Kintetsu Motors an exclusive importer of Ford products to Japan. The 2.0 litre engine required Japanese owners to pay more annual road tax in comparison to the 1.6 litre engine, which affected sales. A new 2637 cc version of the Cologne V6 engine assembled by Weslake and featuring their special all alloy cylinder heads appeared in September 1971, powering the Capri RS2600; this model used Kugelfischer fuel injection to raise power to 150 PS and was the basis for the Group 2 RS2600 used in the European Touring Car Championship. The RS2600 received modified suspension, a close ratio gearbox, lightened bodywork panels, ventilated disc brakes and aluminium wheels, it could hit 100 km/h from a standstill in 7.7 seconds. The 2.6 L engine was detuned in September for the deluxe version 2600 GT, with 2550 cc and a double-barrel Solex carburettor. Germany's Dieter Glemser won the drivers' title in the 1971 European Touring Car Championship at the wheel of a Ford Köln entered RS2600 and fellow German Jochen Mass did in 1972.
The first Ford Special, was the Capri Vista Orange Special. The Capri Special was launched in November 1971 and was based on the 1600 GT, 2000 GT models, it was only available in vista orange and was optional dealer fitted with a Ford Rally Sport boot mounted spoiler and rear window slats – a direct link to the Mustang. The Special had some additional standard extras such as a push-button radio, fabric seat upholstery, inertia reel seat
The BMW M3 is a high-performance version of the 3 Series, developed by BMW's in-house motorsport division, BMW M GmbH. M3 models have been derived from the corresponding generations of the BMW 3 Series; the initial model was available in a coupé body style. At times the M3 has been available in saloon and convertible body styles. Due to the coupé and convertible models no longer being part of the 3 Series range from 2015, the F82/F83 coupe and convertible models are now called the M4 based on the newly introduced 4 Series; the M3 name remains in use for the saloon version. Upgrades over the standard 3 Series automobiles include more powerful and responsive engines, improved handling/suspension/braking systems, aerodynamic body enhancements, lightweight components and interior/exterior accents with the tri-colour "M" emblem; the first BMW M3 was based on the E30 3 Series and was produced from 1986 to 1992. The majority of E30 M3s were produced in the coupe body style, however limited volumes of convertibles were produced.
The E30 M3 differed from the regular E30 models in several areas. The same basic body shell was used, however 12 of the body panels were unique to the M3, for the purposes of improving aerodynamics. Box-flared wheelarches were used to accommodate larger wheels/tyres; the only exterior body panels the standard 3 Series and the M3 shared were the bonnet, roof panel and door panels. The brake calipers and master cylinder were unique to the M3 model; the transmission was a Getrag 265 5-speed manual. European models were outfitted with a dogleg version with close ratios and a 1:1 ratio for fifth gear. North American models used a standard shift pattern and had wider gear spacing with an overdriven fifth gear. A clutch-type limited-slip differential was standard equipment. In 2004, Sports Car International named the E30 M3 car number six on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s. In 2007, Automobile Magazine included the E30 M3 in their "5 greatest drivers cars of all time" under their 25 Greatest Cars of All Time.
The E30 M3 used the BMW S14 four-cylinder engine, a high-revving DOHC design based on the BMW M88 six-cylinder engine. In countries where the M3 was sold with a catalytic converter, the initial versions produced 143 kW and had a top speed of 235 km/h. In countries where a catalytic convertor was not required, the engine produced 149 kW. In September 1989, European M3s were upgraded to the 158 kW. Differences to the standard E30 models included: 5-stud wheel hubs offset control arm bushings in the front suspension, for increased caster angle aluminium control arms revised front strut tubes with bolt on kingpins and swaybar mounted to strut tube, similar to the E28 5 Series front wheel bearings and brake calliper bolt spacing from the E28 5 Series The sportier "Evolution" model introduced in 1988 produced 162 kW. Other changes included larger wheels, thinner rear and side window glass, a lighter bootlid, a deeper front splitter and additional rear spoiler. A more powerful and lighter "Sport Evolution" model with a limited production run of 600 units was produced with an upgraded 2,467 cc engine producing 175 kW at 7,000 rpm and 240 N⋅m at 4,750 rpm.
The top speed was increased to 249 km/h. Sport Evolution models have enlarged front bumper openings and an adjustable multi-position front splitter and rear wing. Brake cooling ducts were installed in place of front foglights. In April 1989, the Ravaglia and Cecotto limited editions were released, both named after Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft racing drivers. Power was increased to 158 kW with a catalytic converter. In 1986, BMW produced an "M3 Pickup" prototype pickup truck, based on the convertible model; the M3 Pickup used the narrower body of regular E30 models and was powered by the 2.0 litre version of the S14 engine from the Italian-specification M3. It was used as a transporter for 26 years before it was retired in 2012. Production of the original E30 M3 ended with a total of 16,202 cars produced; the E30 M3 competed in many forms of motorsport and was successful in touring car racing. The E30 M3 road car was homologated for Group A racing, to compete against models such as the Mercedes-Benz W201 190E.
In full race trim, the 1988 M3's 2.3 L aspirated 2.3 L engine produced 224 kW. The E30 M3 won the 24 Hours Nürburgring five times and the Spa 24 Hours four times, other competing against cars with larger or turbocharged engines. To keep the car competitive in racing following year-to-year homologation rules changes, homologation specials were produced and sold in limited volumes; these include the Evo 1, Evo 2, Sport Evolution, with upgrades including weight reduction, improved aerodynamics, taller front wheel arches, bigger brake ducts and more power. With the introduction of the 2.5 L evolution engine into racing in 1990, power increased to 283 kW. The M3 competed as a rally car, with Prodrive-prepared examples contesting several national championships and selected rounds of the World Rally Championship between 1987 and 1989. By the latter year, the cars, based on the standard M3, were equipped with six-speed gearboxes and produced 220 kW; the M3 was not competitive with the four-wheel-drive cars on loose surfaces, but a effective car on asphalt.
Its most notable success was victory on t
Alfa Romeo 156
The Alfa Romeo 156 is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Alfa Romeo. This range of vehicles were manufactured between 1996 and 2007 while the 156 saloon was discontinued in Europe late in 2005, leaving the Q4 Crosswagon to continue in production until the end of 2007. Introduced at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show as the replacement for the Alfa Romeo 155 the 156 was well accepted and in the following year went on to win the 1998 European Car of the Year awardCars were assembled at the Fiat Group factory in Pomigliano d'Arco, Italy and at a General Motors facility in Rayong, Thailand. Production in Thailand began in March 2002 and ran for only a couple of years and vehicles produced there were targeted for the Asia Pacific markets). Between 1997 and 2005 680,000 vehicles designated 156s were produced; the 156 was available in saloon, Sportwagon estate and Crosswagon crossover bodystyles with seven engine configurations. The Sportwagon advertising campaign was made with actress Catherine Zeta-Jones.
In 2007 the 159 became the replacement for the 156. This replacement vehicle went on to spawn the Brera, the three-door coupe that replaces the Alfa Romeo GTV along with its convertible sister the new Spider. From the beginning various four cylinder engine configurations were available and included the Alfa Romeo Twin Spark engine 16 valve models with variable valve timing, along with the straight-4 1.9 litre 8-valve 105 PS. The range included a straight-5 2.4 litre 10-valve 136 PS JTD common rail turbodiesel engine. Until January 2002, the range-topping engine was the venerable double overhead camshaft 2.5 litre 24-valve Alfa Romeo V6 engine rated at 190 PS. The 156 range was available with different options like a sport pack that could include either Blitz clothing, Momo leather interior or Recaro seats, it included 16-inch wheels, lowered suspension and leather steering wheel and gear knob. There was available Lusso pack with Momo's mahogany steering wheel and gear knob and for Nordic countries special winter pack consisting of fog lights, headlight washers and heated seats.
Starting from 1999 a five-speed Selespeed sequential transmission came as an option to the 2.0 litre Twin Spark version and four-speed automatic Q-System to the 2.5 litre V6 version, the Q-system provided the option of using the car as a normal automatic or being able to shift manually with H-pattern, it has three automatic modes: city and ice. A significant addition to the 156 range came in 2000 with the introduction of the Sportwagon Station wagon or estate car, a first attempt at this configuration and size for the company; the Sportwagon was available with Boge-Nivomat self-levelling hydropneumatic rear suspension. The Sportwagon was marketed as lifestyle estate without large carrying capacity; the Sportwagon bodystyle filled a gap in the market that Alfa Romeo had distanced themselves from since the 33 SportWagon of the 1980s. In 2001 engines were upgraded to comply with the Euro3 standards and outputed 120 PS, 140 PS, 150 PS and 192 PS. Designed by Alfa Centro Stile under the guidance of head designer Walter de'Silva the 156s shape was distinctly Alfa Romeo.
Its style included high curved flanks, retro styled front door handles, recessed rear door handles, a dramatic deep grille, which necessitated a unusual off-centre licence plate holder. The car was one of the first saloons, wagons, to feature hidden rear door handles and prominent front door handles to give it a coupé look; the design was influenced by three historical Alfa Romeo models: the 1900, the Giulietta and the Giulia. The 156 achieved a drag coefficient of 0.31. The original interior builds on a scalloped upper dashboard and simple centre console. All of the main controls and displays are angled towards the driver in typical Italian sports car style, although this can sometimes be awkward for passengers who will struggle to see the interior clock. Despite being a family car, the interior design lacks cup holders, which come standard in saloons. For a smaller executive car, there is ample room up front for the driver and passenger to sit comfortably, with comfortable seats. However, rear seat passengers may find the design restrictive in overall room.
The 156 Sportwagon features the addition of fold down rear seats which increases the luggage area covered by a privacy screen. Ideally the 156 is a car for four people, rather than five, although models did add a full centre seatbelt in place of the lap belt in earlier models. 2002 saw an update to both the interior and exterior of the 156. 2002 saw the arrival of a facelifted interior with different matte-finish surfacing and chrome highlights. This new version featured the 147's dual-zone digital climate controller while the interior climate could be controlled via an air quality sensor. A different choice of colours were available for the interior, with the option of a two-tone interior much like that on offer from its European rivals. A wider range of options including xenon lighting, tele-informatics and a Bose stereo system were available, the stereo system could now be operated via buttons on the steering wheel; the Selespeed gearbox control system was updated, buttons on the steering wheel were replaced by paddle shifters, as seen on the earlier Alfa Romeo 147.
In the center console the designers added a multifunctional display with trip computer and service monitor. The upgrade included electronic stability control VDC (Vehi
Jaguar Mark 2
The Jaguar Mark 2 is a medium-sized saloon car built from late 1959 to 1967 by Jaguar in Coventry, England. The outmoded Jaguar 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre models made between 1955 and 1959 are identified as Mark 1 Jaguars. The Mark 2 was a fast and capable saloon in line with Sir William Lyons' 1950s advertising slogan: Grace... Space... Pace. Production of the 3.8 ended in the autumn of 1967. At the same time the smaller Mark 2 cars were replaced by run-out versions named 240 and 340 sold at reduced prices; the 340 was built until the new XJ6 was available in September 1968. The 240 remained available until April 1969; the new car came with a 120 bhp 2,483 cubic centimetres, 210 bhp 3,442 cubic centimetres or 220 bhp 3,781 cubic centimetres Jaguar XK engine. The 3.8 is similar to the unit used in the 3.8 E-Type, having the same block, connecting rods and pistons but different inlet manifold and carburation and therefore 30 bhp less. The head of the six-cylinder engine in the Mark 2 had curved ports compared to the straight ports of the E-Type configuration.
The 3.4 Litre and 3.8 Litre cars were fitted with twin SU HD6 carburettors and the 2.4 Litre with twin Solex carburettors. Aware of the importance of the quotable numbers to the US market Jaguar continued to use claimed gross bhp figures throughout the production period of the Mk II and 240/340 models. A direct conversion into DIN bhp is not possible, but the 3.8 Mk II engine developed about 190 bhp by modern DIN standards. This compares with the 4.2 XJ6 engine which gave around 190 bhp DIN, or 245 gross bhp according to Jaguar. The explanation was; the camshaft timing and inlet and exhaust valve sizes were the same for the 2.4,3.4,3.8 Mk II and XJ6 4.2 engines, so the engines throttled themselves sooner in the bigger engine sizes. 4.2 XJ6 engines had special induction pipes, to reduce exhaust emissions, that crossed over between the inlet and exhaust sides of the engine. These reduced bhp to around 170 bhp on production; the new car's appearance was transformed by an increase of 18% in cabin glass area improving vision.
It was re-engineered above the waistline. Slender front pillars allowed a wider windscreen, the rear window wrapped around to the enlarged side windows, now with the familiar Jaguar D-shape above the back door and chromed frames for all the side windows; the radiator grille was changed and larger side and fog lamps repositioned. Inside a new heating system was ducted to the rear compartment. There was an improved instrument layout that became standard for all Jaguar cars until the XJ series II of 1973; the front suspension geometry was rearranged to raise the roll centre and the rear track widened. Four-wheel disc brakes were now standard. Power steering, overdrive or automatic transmissions could be fitted at extra cost; the 3.8 Litre was supplied fitted with a limited-slip differential. The Mark 2 was over 100 kg heavier than the 2.4 / 3.4 cars. The car continued to use a live axle at the rear. A popular luxury derivative was fitted with Daimler's own 142 bhp 2½-litre V8, it sold well from 1962 to 1967 as a Daimler 2.5 V8.
In late 1967, it was re-labelled V8-250 to match the Jaguar 240. As well as being more powerful than the 2.4-litre XK6, the more modern Daimler engine was lighter by about 150 lb and shorter which reduced the mass over the front wheels and so reduced understeer during hard cornering. These cars were recognisable by the characteristic Daimler wavy fluting incorporated in the chrome radiator grille and rear number plate lamp cover, their smoothness and the sound of their V8 engine, they were given distinctive luxury interior fittings. Sometime on or about September 1967 the 2.4 litre and 3.4 litre Mark 2 cars were rebadged as the 240 and 340 respectively. However, there exists documentation of at least one Mark 2 car manufactured in May 1967 and rebadged as "340." According to Anders Ditlev Clausager, Jaguar Chief Archivist, in a letter dated 9 October 2009, he stated "...he theory that some of these 1967 Mark II lite cars sold in the USA were rebadged here, to fall into line with the new model nomenclature introduced by Jaguar in late 1967."
The 3.8 litre model was discontinued. The 240 and 340 were interim models intended to fill the gap until the introduction of the XJ6 in September 1968; the 340 was discontinued on the introduction of the XJ6 but the 240 continued as a budget priced model until April 1969. Output of the 240 engine was increased from 120 bhp at 5,750 rpm. to 133 bhp at 5,500 rpm. and torque was increased. It now had a straight-port type cylinder head and twin HS6 SU carburettors with a new inlet manifold; the automatic transmission was upgraded to a Borg-Warner 35 dual drive range. Power steering by Marles Varamatic was now available on the 340. Servicing intervals were increased from 2,000 miles to 3,000 miles. There was a slight reshaping of the rear body and slimmer bumpers and over-riders were fitted. For the first time the 2.4 litre model could exceed 100 mph, resulting in a slight sales resurgence. The economies of the new 240 and 340 models came at a cost – the leather upholstery was replaced by Ambla leather-like material and tufted carpet was used on the floor—though both had been introduced on the Mark 2 a year earlier.
Other changes included the replacement of the front fog lamps with circular vents and optional fog lamps for the UK market. The sales price was reduced to compete with the Ro
The Volvo S60 is a compact luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by Volvo since 2000 and is now in its third generation. The first generation was launched in autumn of 2000 in order to replace the S70 and was based on the P2 platform, it had a similar designed estate version called Volvo V70 and a sports version called S60 R. Styling clues were taken from the ECC concept car and the S80; the second generation was released in 2010 for the 2011 model year and has its own estate version, known as the Volvo V60. The third generation will join the Volvo line-up in 2018 or 2019, it will be built on a shortened version of the Scalable Product Architecture platform, in America's first Volvo factory in Ridgeville, South Carolina. The U. S. will become the sole global source of the S60 sedan when production in China is phased out in early 2019. The S60 was built on Volvo's P2 platform, shared with other Volvo models like the S80, V70, XC70 and the XC90; the Volvo S60 was released in 2000 being the company's new generation sports sedan.
The S60 is aimed to compete with the BMW 3 Series and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class. Unlike its rivals, the Volvo S60 continued production for 9 years with multiple facelifts; the S60 was refreshed in 2005. The exterior was updated with body-colored side moldings and bumpers with chrome linings, as well as new headlamps replacing the original with black housing; the interior received some updates as well, with new seats, an updated center console. The S60 went through a final facelift in 2008 with full body-colored bumper and door inserts and larger emblem in the front and larger spaced out "V-O-L-V-O" letters in the rear; the interior featured a new pattern upholstery. The S60 came standard with the HU-650 and an optional extra HU-850 unit; the HU-850 unit features a 225 or 335-watt power output with three presets: 2CH, 3CH and Dolby Digital Pro Logic II Surround Sound. The Four-C chassis from the S60 R became an option on some S60s. In 2004 the T5 engine was reengineered from 2.3 to 2.4 litres and received an increase of 10 bhp, a modified turbo in the D5 model increased the D5 bhp from 163 PS to 185 PS.
Police specification models came about through Volvo's extensive work alongside the users of the vehicles and Police Fleet Management departments. As a result, the Police specification vehicles have a striking difference from original showroom model that sometimes the Volvo S60 is used as police cars. Firstly the suspension was up-rated to deal with the demands of Police work. Nivomat self-levelling suspension was fitted to the rear to ensure correct geometry of the vehicle, regardless of the weight carried. On early models, the clutch was replaced with the stronger D5 unit. A larger specification battery and 110A alternator was fitted to run all the extra equipment, along with a dedicated Police fuse box in the boot. Extra wiring looms are fitted specially for the Police radios and other equipment, including CCTV cameras. Additional electrical noise suppression has been added so as not to interfere with the sensitive electronics the police use; the speedometers in the vehicles are calibrated from the factory and do not require recalibration unless the wheel and overall rolling diameters are changed.
305 mm vented front disc brakes were fitted alongside special brake pads specially designed to cope with high-speed pursuits. During 2001–2004 the 2.3 litre T5 engine was used and in 2005-2009 the 2.4 litre T5 engine was used. Beyond common speculation and myths, the engines are not chipped or modified specially for police use: they are complete factory spec but in'exceptional cases' the speed limiter may have been removed. First introduced in 2004, Volvo's S60 R used a Haldex all-wheel-drive system mated to a 300 PS / 400 N⋅m inline-5; the 2004–2005 models came with a 6-speed manual transmission, or an available 5-speed automatic which allowed only 258 lb⋅ft torque in 1st and 2nd gears. The 2006–2007 models came with a 6-speed manual or 6-speed automatic transmission. Other aspects which set the R apart from standard S60s were the large Brembo front and rear four-piston brakes, 18-inch 5-spoke "Pegasus" wheels, blue faced "R" gauges, standard HID headlights, as well as the Four-C suspension system.
Semi-active suspension with Four-C allows the user to select from three modes: Comfort and Advanced. "Comfort" attempts to soften the car over bumps, while "Advanced" firms the suspension and gives more aggressive throttle response - a setting Volvo implies is for use on the race track. This is accomplished through a drive by wire throttle, allowing the same pedal travel to result in different performance when the appropriate mode is selected, electronically controlled shock absorbers that can adjust themselves 500 times a second, a complex series of sensors throughout the body of the vehicle. Volvo collaborated with high-tech system developer Ohlins Racing AB and shock absorber manufacturer Monroe for the self-adjusting shock absorbers; the Rs had three interior color options: Gobi and a R-only leather option. It feel; the s