Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist and composer. In the 1960s, he was one of the founders of free jazz, a term he invented for his album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, his "Broadway Blues" and "Lonely Woman" have become standards and are cited as important early works in free jazz. His album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music. Coleman was born on 1930 in Fort Worth, Texas where he was raised, he attended I. M. Terrell High School, where he participated in band until he was dismissed for improvising during "The Washington Post" march, he began performing R&B and bebop on tenor saxophone and started The Jam Jivers with Prince Lasha and Charles Moffett. Eager to leave town, he accepted a job in 1949 with a Silas Green from New Orleans traveling show and with touring rhythm and blues shows. After a show in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he was assaulted and his saxophone was destroyed, he switched to alto saxophone, which remained his primary instrument, first playing it in New Orleans after the Baton Rouge incident.
He joined the band of Pee Wee Crayton and traveled with them to Los Angeles. He worked including as an elevator operator, while pursuing his music career. In California he found like-minded musicians such as Ed Blackwell, Bobby Bradford, Don Cherry, Charlie Haden, Billy Higgins, Charles Moffett, he recorded his debut album, Something Else!!!! with Cherry, Walter Norris, Don Payne. During the same year he belonged to a quintet led by Paul Bley that performed at a club in New York City. By the time Tomorrow Is the Question! was recorded soon after with Cherry and Haden, the jazz world had been shaken up by Coleman's alien music. Some jazz musicians called him a fraud. In 1959 Atlantic released The Shape of Jazz to Come According to music critic Steve Huey, the album "was a watershed event in the genesis of avant-garde jazz, profoundly steering its future course and throwing down a gauntlet that some still haven't come to grips with." Jazzwise listed it No. 3 on their list of the 100 best jazz albums of all time.
Coleman's quartet received a long – and sometimes controversial – engagement at Five Spot jazz club in New York City. Leonard Bernstein, Lionel Hampton, Modern Jazz Quartet were impressed and offered encouragement. Hampton asked to perform with the quartet, but trumpeter Miles Davis said Coleman was "all screwed up inside" although he recanted this comment and became a proponent of Coleman's innovations. Coleman's early sound was due in part to his use of a plastic saxophone, he bought a plastic horn in Los Angeles in 1954 because he was unable to afford a metal saxophone, though he didn't like the sound of the plastic instrument at first. On the Atlantic recordings, Coleman's sidemen in the quartet are Cherry on pocket trumpet; the complete recordings for the label were collected on the box set Beauty Is a Rare Thing. In 1960, Coleman recorded Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, which featured a double quartet, including Don Cherry and Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Eric Dolphy on bass clarinet, Haden and LaFaro on bass, both Higgins and Blackwell on drums.
The album was recorded in stereo with a reed/brass/bass/drums quartet isolated in each stereo channel. Free Jazz was, at nearly 40 minutes, the longest recorded continuous jazz performance to date and was one of Coleman's most controversial albums; the music features a regular but complex pulse, one drummer playing "straight" while the other played double-time. A series of solo features for each member of the band, but the other soloists are free to chime in as they wish. In the January 18, 1962 issue of Down Beat magazine, in a review titled "Double View of a Double Quartet," Pete Welding gave the album five stars while John A. Tynan rated it zero stars. Coleman intended "free jazz" as an album title, but his growing reputation placed him at the forefront of jazz innovation, free jazz was soon considered a new genre, though Coleman has expressed discomfort with the term. Among the reasons he may have disapproved of the term, his melodic material, although skeletal, recalls melodies that Charlie Parker wrote over standard harmonies.
The music is closer to the bebop. After the Atlantic period and into the early part of the 1970s, Coleman's music became more angular and engaged with the avant-garde jazz which had developed in part around his innovations. After his quartet disbanded, he formed a trio with David Izenzon on bass and Charles Moffett on drums, he extended the sound of his music, introducing string players and playing trumpet and violin, which he played left-handed. He had little conventional musical technique and used the instruments to make large, unrestrained gestures, his friendship with Albert Ayler influenced his development on violin. Charlie Haden sometimes joined this trio to form a two-bass quartet. Coleman recorded At the Golden Circle Stockholm. In 1966, he recorded The Empty Foxhole with his son, Denardo Coleman, ten years old. Freddie Hubbard and Shelly Manne regarded this as an ill-advised piece of publicity on Coleman's part. Despite his youth, Denardo Coleman had studied drumming for several years.
His technique was unrefined but enthusiastic, owing more to pulse-oriented free jazz drummers like Sunny Murray t
Free jazz is an approach to jazz that developed in the 1960s when musicians attempted to change or break down jazz conventions, such as regular tempos and chord changes. Musicians during this period believed that the bebop, hard bop, modal jazz, played before them was too limiting, they became preoccupied with creating something new. Free jazz has been combined with or substituted for the term "avant-garde jazz". Europeans tend to favor the term "free improvisation". Others have used "modern jazz", "creative music", "art music"; the ambiguity of free jazz presents problems of definition. Although it is played by small groups or individuals, free jazz big bands have existed. Although musicians and critics claim it is innovative and forward looking, it draws on early styles of jazz and has been described as an attempt to return to primitive religious, roots. Although jazz is an American invention, free jazz musicians drew from world music and ethnic music traditions from around the world. Sometimes they invented their own.
They emphasized emotional sound for its own sake. Some jazz musicians resist any attempt at classification. One difficulty is. Many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms, free jazz was never distinct from other genres, but free jazz does have its own characteristics. Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane used harsh overblowing or other extended techniques to elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments. Like other forms of jazz it places an aesthetic premium on expressing the "voice" or "sound" of the musician, as opposed to the classical tradition in which the performer is seen more as expressing the thoughts of the composer. Earlier jazz styles were built on a framework of song forms, such as twelve-bar blues or the 32-bar AABA popular song form with chord changes. In free jazz, the dependence on a fixed and pre-established form is eliminated, the role of improvisation is correspondingly increased. Other forms of jazz use regular meters and pulsed rhythms in 4/4 or 3/4. Free jazz retains pulsation and sometimes swings but without regular meter.
Frequent Accelerando and ritardando give an impression of rhythm. Previous jazz forms used harmonic structures cycles of diatonic chords; when improvisation occurred, it was founded on the notes in the chords. Free jazz by definition is free of such structures, but by definition it retains much of the language of earlier jazz playing, it is therefore common to hear diatonic, altered dominant and blues phrases in this music. Guitarist Marc Ribot commented that Ornette Coleman and Albert Ayler "although they were freeing up certain strictures of bebop, were in fact each developing new structures of composition." Some forms use composed melodies as the basis for group improvisation. Free jazz practitioners sometimes use such material. Other compositional structures are employed, some detailed and complex; the breakdown of form and rhythmic structure has been seen by some critics to coincide with jazz musicians' exposure to and use of elements from non-Western music African and Indian. The atonality of free jazz is credited by historians and jazz performers to a return to non-tonal music of the nineteenth century, including field hollers, street cries, jubilees.
This suggests that the movement away from tonality was not a conscious effort to devise a formal atonal system, but rather a reflection of the concepts surrounding free jazz. Jazz became "free" by removing dependence on chord progressions and instead using polytempic and polyrhythmic structures. Rejection of the bop aesthetic was combined with a fascination with earlier styles of jazz, such as dixieland with its collective improvisation, as well as African music. Interest in ethnic music resulted in the use of instruments from around the world, such as Ed Blackwell's West African talking drum, Leon Thomas's interpretation of pygmy yodeling. Ideas and inspiration were found in the music of John Cage, Musica Elettronica Viva, the Fluxus movement. Many critics at the music's inception, suspected that abandonment of familiar elements of jazz pointed to a lack of technique on the part of the musicians. Today such views are more marginal, the music has built a body of critical writing. Many critics have drawn connections between the term "free jazz" and the American social setting during the late 1950s and 1960s the emerging social tensions of racial integration and the civil rights movement.
Many argue those recent phenomena such as the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, the emergence of the "Freedom Riders" in 1961, the 1963 Freedom Summer of activist-supported black voter registration, the free alternative black Freedom Schools demonstrate the political implications of the word "free" in context of free jazz, thus many consider free jazz to be not only a rejection of certain musical credos and ideas, but a musical reaction to the oppression and experience of black Americans. Although free jazz is considered to begin in the late 1950s, there are compositions that precede this era that have notable connections to the free jazz aesthetic; some of the works of Lennie Tristano in the late 1940s "Intuition", "Digression", "Descent into the Maelstrom" exhibit the use of techniques associated with free jazz, such as atonal collective improvisation and lack of discrete chord changes. Other notable examples of proto-free jazz include City of Glass written in 1948 by Bob
Theodor Franz Jörgensmann is a jazz and free-improvising Basset clarinet player and composer. He has been a professional musician since 1975. Theo Jörgensmann belongs to the 2nd generation of European free jazz musicians, he was part of the clarinet renaissance in the improvising music scene. Jörgensmann is one of a few clarinet players for whom unaccompanied solo recordings are a significant part of his work, he started to play clarinet. From 1969 until 1972 Jörgensmann took private lessons from a music teacher at the Folkwang Hochschule in Essen. At the same time he started working with fellow musicians from the Ruhr industrial area. During this time he was a chemical laboratory assistant. After a one and half year hitch in the German Army Jörgensmann worked with handicapped children and studied social pedagogics, but he never brought it to a conclusion. Since 1975 he has been a professional musician. During a career spanning three decades as a free improviser Jörgensmann has worked with Mike Richmond, Barre Phillips, Kent Carter, John Lindberg, Charlie Mariano, Wilber Morris, Eric Vloeimans, Jeanne Lee, John Fischer, Vincent Chancey, Kenny Wheeler, Paul McCandless and Lee Konitz.
From 1975 to 1977 he headed the group Clarinet Contrast. In this group played Perry Robinson, Hans Kumpf, Bernd Konrad and Michel Pilz. At the end of the 1970s he was leader of one of West Germany's best-known jazz groups. At the beginning of the 1980s he took part in a Clarinet Summit with John Carter, Perry Robinson, Gianluigi Trovesi and others. Since those days Jörgensmann has been involved in numerous international projects. In 1985 Jörgensmann toured Europe with bassist Barre Phillips and reed player Paul McCandless, he was a member of Willem van Manen's Contraband, Andrea Centazzo's Mitteleuropa Orchestra, John Fischer's Interface and Franz Koglmann's Pipetet. At the same time he was leader of Klarinettenquartett Cl-4 and co-founder of large ensemble Grubenklangorchester. In 1987 Jörgensmann was the subject of a documentary film, Theo Jörgensmann, Klarinette, directed by Christoph Hübner. Between 1983 and 1993 he held a lectureship for clarinet and ensemble at University of Duisburg, from 1993 until 1997 he was a lecturer for free improvising at Music Therapeutics Institute of Witten/Herdecke University.
In company with the music-scientist Rolf-Dieter Weyer, Jörgensmann wrote a philosophical book about improvising in music. In 1997 he started playing with a new Theo Jörgensmann Quartet, which toured in North America in 1999, 2001, 2003, including playing twice at Montreal International Jazz Festival. In addition he has played with the young Polish twins Marcin Oles and Bartlomiej Oles since 2003; the album Oleś Jörgensmann Oleś, was chosen by Polish internet jazz-magazine Diapazon as "The Record of the Year" in 2005. Since 2008 he is a member of Trio Hot with Albrecht Maurer and Peter Jacquemyn, in 2009 he started the Deep Down Clarinet Duo together with the contrabass clarinet player Ernst Ulrich Deuker, they work together in the Tribal Trio, a clarinet trio with the French-American clarinetist Etienne Rolin. In 2009 Jörgensmann performed a few concerts with younger musicians from UK in London. In 2011 he formed a new trio - The Freedom Trio - with bassist Christian Sydney Ramond and acoustic guitar player Hagen Stüdemann.
After a twelve-year break, he works together again with pianist Bernd Köppen. Jorgensmann is working again with the “Clarinet Summit”; the members of the group are Perry Robinson, Gianluigi Trovesi, Bernd Konrad, Albrecht Maurer, Sebastian Gramss and Günther “Baby” Sommer. In 2018, Jörgensmann was artist in residence at Singers Festival Warsaw, the biggest festival of Jewish culture in Poland. Contact 4tett, Full House, 2019 Contact 4tett, Loud Enough To Rock The Kraut, art of making, with Christopher Dell and Christian Ramond Rivière Composers Pool, Summer Works 2009. Theo Jörgensmann, Fellowship with Petras Vyšniauskas, Charlie Mariano, Karl Berger, Kent Carter and Klaus Kugel Theo Jörgensmann Quartet, ta eko mo with Christopher Dell, Christian Ramond and Klaus Kugel Hans Günther Wauer, Theo Jörgensmann, Günter Sommer, Merseburger Begegnung Theo Jörgensmann Werkschau Ensemble, aesthetic direction with Albrecht Maurer Theo Jörgensmann Eckard Koltermann Perry Robinson, Materialized Perception CL 4' Seltsam ist Propheten Lied CL 4' Alte und neue Wege, with Lajos Dudas, Dieter Kühr, Eckard Koltermann.
John Thomas, Go Ahead Clarinet Theo Jörgensmann Trio, Live at Birdland Gelsenkirchen Theo Jörgensmann
Konrad "Conny" Bauer is a free jazz trombonist. He is the brother of the trombonist Johannes Bauer; as a student at senior high school in Sonneberg between 1957 and 1961, he was enthusiastic about modern music and dance genres such as swing, boogie-woogie and rock'n' roll, taught himself to play guitar and piano. After leaving school with A-levels, he tried to play his music in several bands and was nicknamed "Conny" by his friends. After recognizing that he did not know enough about music to become a professional musician, Bauer studied modern dance music from 1964 to 1968 at the Carl Maria von Weber-Music school Conservatory in Dresden; because too many students wanted to study guitar, he entered the trombone class, having had some experience of playing the instrument. In 1968 he left the conservatory for Berlin to improve his skills with private lessons. From 1969 until 1971 he started his career as guitarist and singer in the band of Ernst-Ludwig Petrowsky, he began a career as a trombone soloist in 1970.
During the second half of the 1970s Bauer became a prominent jazz player in European free jazz. He helped found numerous groups which influenced the development of jazz in East Germany: these included FEZ and its successive quartet and trio formations, the Doppelmoppel quartet, Synopsis/Zentralquartett with Ernst-Ludwig Petrowsky, Ulrich Gumpert and Günter "Baby" Sommer. In 1986 he toured Japan for several weeks. From 1988 to 1989 he directed the National Jazz Orchestra of the former East Germany. Since 1983 he has worked with artists such as Tadashi Endo, Sheryl Banks, Tony Oxley, Derek Bailey, Maggie Nicols, Theo Jörgensmann, Peter Brötzmann, Barre Phillips, Peter Kowald, Han Bennink, Barry Altschul, Jay Oliver, Louis Moholo, Gerry Hemingway, George Lewis. In 2004 Bauer was awarded the German SWR jazz prize for his solo recordings Hummelsummen; as unaccompanied soloist Bauer uses multiphonics, with matchless "circular breathing techniques" he conjures his own loops. Just for fun, FMP 0140 LP Synopsis, Amiga 855395 LP Auf der Elbe schwimmt ein rosa Krokodil, FMP 0240 LP FEZ, Amiga 855585 LP Was ist denn nun?, Konrad Bauer Trio, FMP 0780 LP Secret Points, Conny Bauer & Gianluigi Trovesi, Dragon DRLP 21 LP Konrad Bauer Solo, Amiga 855783 LP Round about Mittweida, Konrad Bauer Quartet, FMP 0980 LP Flüchtiges Glück, Konrad Bauer Solo, Riskant 4017 LP / EFA-CD 15713 Reflections, Doppelmoppel, FMP CD 74 Jazzorchester der DDR, directed by Konrad Bauer, Amiga 856455 LP Live im Völkerschlachtdenkmal, Konrad Bauer Solo, Amiga 856439 LP Zentralquartett, ZOOM 2170 019 ADD Torontotöne, Konrad Bauer Solo, Victo CD 017 Three Wheels - Four Directions, Konrad Bauer Trio, Victo CD 023 Plié, Intakt CD 037 Bauer - Bauer, Intakt CD 040 Generations from Germany, Conny Bauer with Joachim Kühn, Klangräume, LC 6035 Careless Love, Intakt CD 050 Aventure Québécoise, Victo CD 065 Alice im Wunderland, Walfriede Schmitt with Konrad Bauer, Eulenspiegel Verlag News from Berlin, Aki Takase, Konrad Bauer, Victo CD 081 Between Heaven and Earth, Conrad Bauer, Peter Kowald, Günter Sommer, Intakt CD 079 Hummelsummen, Conrad Bauer, Intakt CD 085 With Graham Collier Hoarded Dreams Jazz in Germany Zentralquartett Hummelsummen Early works Biography at Trombone Page of the World
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Derek Bailey (guitarist)
Derek Bailey was an English avant-garde guitarist and figure in the free improvisation movement. Bailey abandoned conventional techniques of jazz and music, he emphasized atonality and whatever unusual sounds he could produce with an electric guitar. Much of his work was released by Incus, a record label. Bailey was born in England. A third-generation musician, he began playing guitar at the age of ten, he studied with Sheffield City organist C. H. C. Biltcliffe, an experience he disliked, with his uncle George Wing and John Duarte; as an adult he worked as a guitarist and session musician in clubs and dance hall bands, playing with Morecambe and Wise, Gracie Fields, Bob Monkhouse, Kathy Kirby, on the television program Opportunity Knocks. Bailey's earliest foray into free improvisation was in 1953 with two guitarists in Glasgow, he was part of a trio founded in 1963 with Tony Oxley and Gavin Bryars called Joseph Holbrooke, named after English composer Joseph Holbrooke, although the group never played his work.
The band played conventional jazz at first, but moved in the direction of free jazz. In 1966, Bailey moved to London. At the Little Theatre Club run by drummer John Stevens, he met like-minded musicians such as saxophonist Evan Parker, trumpeter Kenny Wheeler, double bassist Dave Holland, with whom he formed the Spontaneous Music Ensemble. In 1968 they recorded Karyobin for Island Records. Bailey formed the Music Improvisation Company with Parker, percussionist Jamie Muir, Hugh Davies on homemade electronics; the band continued until 1971. He was a member of the Jazz Composer's Orchestra and formed the trio Iskra with double bassist Barry Guy and trombonist Paul Rutherford, named after a newspaper published by Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, he was a member of Oxley's sextet until 1973. In 1970, Bailey founded the record label Incus with Tony Oxley, Evan Parker, Michael Walters, it was the first musician-owned independent label in the UK. Oxley and Walters left early in the label's history.
Bailey continued the label with his partner Karen Brookman until his death in 2005. With other musicians, Bailey was a co-founder in 1975 of Musics magazine, described as "an impromental experivisation arts magazine". In 1976, Bailey started the band Company, which at various times included Han Bennink, Steve Beresford, Anthony Braxton, Eugene Chadbourne, Lol Coxhill, Johnny Dyani, Fred Frith, Tristan Honsinger, Henry Kaiser, Steve Lacy, Keshavan Maslak, Misha Mengelberg, Wadada Leo Smith, John Zorn. Bailey organized the annual music festival Company Week, which lasted until 1994. In 1980, he wrote the book Improvisation: Practice. In 1992, the book was adapted by Channel 4 in the UK into a four-part TV series, On the Edge: Improvisation in Music, narrated by Bailey. Bailey died in London on Christmas Day in 2005, he had been suffering from motor neurone disease. For listeners unfamiliar with experimental music, Bailey's distinctive style can be challenging, its most noticeable feature is its extreme discontinuity from note to note.
There may be enormous intervals between consecutive notes, rather than aspiring to the consistency of timbre typical of most guitar-playing, Bailey interrupts it as much as possible. Four consecutive notes, for instance, may be played on an open string, a fretted string, via harmonics, using a nonstandard technique such as scraping the string with the pick or plucking below the bridge. Playing both acoustic and electric guitars, Bailey extended the possibilities of the instrument in radical ways, obtaining wider array of sounds than are heard, he explored the full vocabulary of the instrument, producing timbres and tones ranging from the most delicate tinklings to fierce noise attacks. He played a conventional instrument, in standard tuning, but his use of amplification was crucial. In the 1970 his standard set-up involved two independently controlled amplifiers to give a stereo effect onstage, he would use the swell pedal to counteract the normal attack and decay of notes, he made original use of feedback, a technique demonstrated on the album String Theory.
Throughout both his commercial and improvising careers his principal guitar was a 1963 Gibson ES 175 model. Although Bailey made use of prepared guitar in the 1970s for Dadaist/theatrical effect, by the end of that decade he had, in his own words, "dumped" such methods. Bailey argued that his approach to music-making was far more orthodox than performers such as Keith Rowe of the improvising collective AMM, who treats the guitar purely as a "sound source" rather than as a musical instrument. Instead, Bailey preferred to "look for whatever'effects' I might need through technique". Eschewing labels such as "jazz" and "free jazz", Bailey described his music as "non-idiomatic". In the second edition of his book Improvisation... Bailey indicated that he felt that free improvisation was no longer "non-idiomatic" in his sense of the word, as it had become a recognizable genre and musical style itself. Bailey sought performance contexts that would provide new stimulations and challenge that would prove musically "interesting", as he put it.
This led to work with collaborators such as Pat Metheny, John Zorn, Lee Konitz, David Sylvian, Cyro Baptista, Cecil Taylor, Keiji Haino, tap da
The term jazz guitar may refer to either a type of guitar or to the variety of guitar playing styles used in the various genres which are termed "jazz". The jazz-type guitar was born as a result of using electric amplification to increase the volume of conventional acoustic guitars. Conceived in the early 1930s, the electric guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound to be heard over loud big bands; when guitarists in big bands only had acoustic guitars, all they could do was play chords. Once guitarists switched from acoustic guitar to semi-acoustic guitar and began using guitar amplifiers, it made the guitar much easier to hear, which enabled guitarists to play guitar solos. Jazz guitar had an important influence on jazz in the beginning of the twentieth century. Although the earliest guitars used in jazz were acoustic and acoustic guitars are still sometimes used in jazz, most jazz guitarists since the 1940s have performed on an electrically amplified guitar or electric guitar.
Traditionally, jazz electric guitarists use an archtop with a broad hollow sound-box, violin-style f-holes, a "floating bridge", a magnetic pickup. Solid body guitars, mass-produced since the early 1950s, are used. Jazz guitar playing styles include "comping" with jazz chord voicings and "blowing" over jazz chord progressions with jazz-style phrasing and ornaments. Comping refers to playing chords underneath a song's melody or another musician's solo improvisations; when jazz guitar players improvise, they may use the scales and arpeggios associated with the chords in a tune's chord progression and elements of the tune's melody. The stringed, chord-playing rhythm can be heard in groups which included military band-style instruments such as brass, saxes and drums, such as early jazz groups; as the acoustic guitar became a more popular instrument in the early 20th century, guitar-makers began building louder guitars which would be useful in a wider range of settings. The Gibson L5, an acoustic archtop guitar, first produced in 1923, was an early “jazz”-style guitar, used by early jazz guitarists such as Eddie Lang.
By the 1930s, the guitar began to displace the banjo as the primary chordal rhythm instrument in jazz music, because the guitar could be used to voice chords of greater harmonic complexity, it had a somewhat more muted tone that blended well with the upright bass, which, by this time, had completely replaced the tuba as the dominant bass instrument in jazz music. During the late 1930s and through the 1940s—the heyday of big band jazz and swing music—the guitar was an important rhythm section instrument; some guitarists, such as Freddie Green of Count Basie’s band, developed a guitar-specific style of accompaniment. Few of the big bands, featured amplified guitar solos, which were done instead in the small combo context; the most important jazz guitar soloists of this period included the Manouche virtuoso Django Reinhardt, Oscar Moore, featured with Nat “King” Cole’s trio, Charlie Christian of Benny Goodman's band and sextet, a major influence despite his early death at 25. It was not until the large-scale emergence of small combo jazz in the post-WWII period that the guitar took off as a versatile instrument, used both in the rhythm section and as a featured melodic instrument and solo improviser.
In the hands of George Barnes, Kenny Burrell, Herb Ellis, Barney Kessel, Jimmy Raney, Tal Farlow, who had absorbed the language of bebop, the guitar began to be seen as a “serious” jazz instrument. Improved electric guitars such as Gibson’s ES-175, gave players a larger variety of tonal options. In the 1940s through the 1960s, players such as Wes Montgomery, Joe Pass, Jim Hall laid the foundation of what is now known as "jazz guitar" playing; as jazz-rock fusion emerged in the early 1970s, many players switched to the more rock-oriented solid body guitars. Other jazz guitarists, like Grant Green and Wes Montgomery, turned to applying their skills to pop-oriented styles that fused jazz with soul and R&B, such as soul jazz-styled organ trios. Younger jazz musicians rode the surge of electric popular genres such as blues and funk to reach new audiences. Guitarists in the fusion realm fused the post-bop harmonic and melodic language of musicians such as John Coltrane, McCoy Tyner, Ornette Coleman, Miles Davis with a hard-edged rock tone created by guitarists such as Cream's Eric Clapton who had redefined the sound of the guitar for those unfamiliar with the black blues players of Chicago and, before that, the Delta region of the Mississippi upon whom his style was based.
With John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, Clapton turned up the volume on a sound pioneered by Buddy Guy, Freddie King, B. B. King and others, fluid, with heavy finger vibratos, string bending, speed through powerful Marshall amplifiers. Fusion players such as John McLaughlin adopted the fluid, powerful sound of rock guitarists such as Clapton and Jimi Hendrix. McLaughlin was a master innovator, incorporating hard jazz with the new sounds of Clapton, Hendrix and others. McLaughlin formed the Mahavishnu Orchestra, an important fusion band that played to sold out venues in the early 1970s and as a result, produced an endless progeny of fusion guitarist. Guitarists such as Pat Martino, Al Di Meola, Larry Coryell, John Abercrombie, John Scofield and Mike Stern fashioned a new language for the guitar which introduced jazz to a new generation of fans. Like the rock-blues icons that preceded them, fusion guitarists pl