Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
In fish anatomy and turtle anatomy, a barbel is a slender, whiskerlike sensory organ near the mouth. Fish that have barbels include the catfish, the carp, the goatfish, the hagfish, the sturgeon, the zebrafish, the black dragonfish and some species of shark such as the sawshark. Barbels are used to search for food in murky water; the word "barbel" comes from the Middle Latin barbula, for "little beard." Barbels are sometimes erroneously referred to as barbs. Barbels may be located in a variety of locations on the head of a fish. "Maxillary barbels" refers to barbels on either side of the mouth. Barbels may be nasal, extending from the nostrils. Barbels are mandibular or mental, being located on the chin. Adriaens, D. and Verraes, W.. Ontogeny of the maxillary barbel muscles in Clarias gariepinus, with some notes on the palatine-maxillary mechanism. Journal of Zoology 241, 117-133. Eakin, R. R. Eastman, J. T. and Vacchi, M.. Sexual dimorphism and mental barbel structure in the South Georgia plunderfish Artedidraco mirus.
Polar Biology 30, 45-52. Fadaee, B. Pourkazemi, M. Tavakoli, M. Joushideh, H. Khoshghalb, M. R. B. Hosseini, M. R. and Abdulhay, H.. Tagging and tracking juvenile sturgeons in shallow waters of the Caspian Sea using CWT and barbel incision. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22, 160-165. Fox, H.. Barbels and barbel-like tentacular structures in sub-mammalian vertebrates: A review. Hydrobiologia 403, 153-193. Grover-Johnson, N. and Farbman, A.. Fine structure of taste buds in the barbel of the catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Cell Tissue Res 169, 395-403. Joyce, E. C. and Chapman, G. B.. Fine structure of the nasal barbel of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Morphology 158, 109-153. LeClair, E. E. and Topczewski, J.. Methods for the study of the zebrafish maxillary barbel. J Vis Exp, http://www.jove.com/video/1558/methods-for-the-study-of-the-zebrafish-maxillary-barbel?id=1558, doi:10.3791/1558. LeClair, E. E. and Topczewski, J.. Development and regeneration of the zebrafish maxillary barbel: a novel study system for vertebrate tissue growth and repair.
PLoS One 5, e8737. Ogawa, K. Marui, T. and Caprio, J.. Bimodal fibers innervate the maxillary barbel in the channel catfish. Chem Senses 22, 477-82
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
The shortnose sturgeon is a small North American sturgeon, which can be found in 16 to 19 large river and estuary systems along the Atlantic seaboard from the Saint John River in New Brunswick, Canada, to the St. Johns River in Florida, United States. Populations may be disjunct, evidenced by lack of records in the sea outside the influence of their home river and minimal captures of tagged individuals outside the river in which they were tagged; the species is sometimes mistaken for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon, as adults of this species are similar in size to juveniles of that species. Prior to 1973, U. S. commercial fishing records did not differentiate between the two species, both were reported as "common sturgeon", although it is believed based on sizes that the bulk of the catch was Atlantic sturgeon. They spawn in fresh water, above the head of the tide, in moving water over rubble or gravel bottoms with little silt or organic material. Time of spawning varies by latitude and is based on water temperatures in the range from 9–12 °C, although successful spawning can occur from 6.5–15 °C.
Other spawning requirements include a day length of 13.9–14.9 hours, water velocity at the bottom of 30–120 cm/second. The eggs hatch after 13 days, into 7– to 11-mm-long hatchlings with a large yolk sac, minimal sight, minimal swimming ability, a strong tendency to seek cover. After another 9–12 days, they mature to a swimming larval stage at about 15 mm in length, resembling a miniature adult by the time they reach 20 mm in length and begin feeding, they drift downstream in the deep channels of the river, remaining in fresh water for the first year of their lives. Juveniles, up to 18 in long move to the area where fresh and salt water come together, move with it through the tidal cycle. Adults can be found in either fresh or salt water. Adults mature sexually at an age varying with latitude. Males mature after 2–3 years in Georgia or 10–14 years in New Brunswick, females mature between 6 and 17 years of age. First spawning occurs after sexual maturity. Adults continue to grow to between 4 ft in length.
A male may breed every year or every other year, lives beyond age 30. Females breed every third to fifth year, laying between 40,000 and 200,000 eggs in those years in which they breed, can live to age 67. Females spend multiple years with reduced feeding and growth while they are producing the gonadal material needed for spawning. Maximum ages are thought to be highest in the north; the maximum salinity in which the species has been found is 30–31 ppt below the salinity of sea water. In three locations the shortnose sturgeon was able to survive as a landlocked population following construction of river dams; this indicates. Hatchery-raised sturgeon appear to do best in zero-salinity fresh water. Northern populations spend more time in salt water than southern populations do, to the extent of being anadromous instead of amphidromous. Sturgeon are bottom feeders, eating insects and small crustaceans. Juveniles have been observed with stomach contents with as much as 90% nonfood items, leading to a belief that they randomly vacuum the bottom.
Adults in fresh water eat mollusks, supplemented by polychaetes and small benthic fish in estuaries or crustaceans and insects in fresh water. The largest population, estimated to be at least 60,000 adults in 2007, is found in the Hudson River; the second-largest, 18,000 adults and 100,000 of all ages, is in the Saint John River. Little nonhuman predation is documented. Yellow perch have been caught with the current year's young in their stomachs, sharks and seals may eat adults. Parasites are not believed to be harmful. No incidents of diseases among wild shortnose sturgeon have been reported, although one hatchery population has suffered a disease outbreak; the waste of the shortnose sturgeon helps to fertilize the area. Genetically, shortnose sturgeon are hexaploid, having chromosomes in groups of six, rather than the pairs that most vertebrates have, it may have been one of the last sturgeon species to evolve. It is an endangered species in the United States, having been recognized as such in 1967.
NOAA Fisheries shortnose sturgeon webpage Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Acipenser brevirostrum" in FishBase. February 2009 version
The Siberian sturgeon is a species of sturgeon in the Acipenseridae family. It is most present in all of the major Siberian river basins that drain northward into the Kara and East Siberian Seas, including the Ob, Yenisei Lena, Kolyma Rivers, it is found in Kazakhstan and China in the Irtysh River, a major tributary of the Ob. The species epithet honors the German Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer. Siberian sturgeon is divided into two subspecies. However, recent studies suggest they may be monotypic, forming continuous genetically connected populations throughout their vast range; the nominate taxon accounts for 80% of all Siberian sturgeon and resides in the Ob River and its tributaries. This subspecies migrates to mouth of the Ob during the winter due to seasonal oxygen deficiency, swims thousands of kilometers upstream to spawn; the subspecies A. b. baicalensis, known as the Baikal sturgeon, is a unique lake form found in the northern end of Lake Baikal and migrates up the Selenga River to spawn.
Once considered a third form, "A. b. stenorrhynchus" resides in the eastern Siberian rivers and displays two life history patterns: a more abundant migratory one which swims considerable distances upstream from estuaries and deltas to spawn, a nonmigratory form. This form is now considered to be a junior synonym of A. b. baerii. Siberian sturgeon weigh about 65 kg, with considerable variability between and within river basins; the maximum recorded weight was 210 kg. As with all other acipenserids, the Siberian sturgeon are long-lived, late to reach sexual maturity, they spawn in strong current main stem river channels over gravel substrates. The Siberian sturgeon feeds on a variety of benthic organisms, such as crustaceans and chironomid larvae; the species had been in steep decline in its natural range due to habitat loss and poaching. Up to 40% of the Siberian sturgeon spawning habitat has been made inaccessible by damming. High levels of pollution in certain places have led to significant negative impacts on the reproductive development of gonads.
While wild catches have been declining, the Siberian sturgeon is farmed both for meat and to produce caviar from its roe. Because the Lena population of A. baerii completes its lifecycle in fresh water and sexually matures early, it is the most common original broodstock for captive-bred specimens. The main producer of Siberian sturgeon caviar is France, while the largest meat producers are Russia and China. G. I. Ruban, Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt. A. baerii - IUCN assessment CITES Siberian sturgeon FAO fact page on A. baerii aquaculture
Caviar, is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family. Caviar is eaten as a garnish or a spread; the roe can be "fresh" or pasteurized, with pasteurization reducing its economic value. Traditionally, the term caviar refers only to roe from wild sturgeon in the Caspian Sea and Black Sea. Depending on the country, caviar may be used to describe the roe of other species of sturgeon or other fish such as salmon, trout, whitefish, or carp. According to the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, roe from any fish not belonging to the Acipenseriformes order are not caviar, but "substitutes of caviar." This position is adopted by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United States Customs Service, France. The term caviar is sometimes used as a euphemism to describe dishes that are perceived to resemble caviar, such as "eggplant caviar" and "Texas caviar". Caviar and sturgeon from the Sea of Azov began reaching the tables of aristocratic and noble Byzantine Greeks in the 10th century, after the commencement of large-scale trading between the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus'.
The main types of caviar are Beluga, Kaluga hybrid, American osetra, Siberian sturgeon and Sevruga. The rarest and costliest is from beluga sturgeon that swim in the Caspian Sea, bordered by Iran, Russia and Azerbaijan. Wild caviar production was suspended in Russia between 2008 and 2011 to allow wild stocks to replenish. Azerbaijan and Iran allow the fishing of sturgeon off their coasts. Beluga caviar is prized for its soft large eggs, it can range in color from pale silver-gray to black. It is followed by the small golden sterlet caviar, rare and was once reserved for Russian and Austrian royalty. Next in quality is the medium-sized, light brown to rich brown Ossetra known as Russian caviar. Others in the quality ranking are the gray sevruga caviar, the Chinese Kaluga caviar, the American osetra; the Siberian variety with black beads is similar to sevruga and is popular because of its reduced harvest period, but it has a higher brine content than other kinds. The Chinese Kaluga hybrid varies in color from dark gray to light golden green and is a close cousin of beluga caviar.
An expensive caviar example at 1 kilogram sold for £20,000 is the Iranian'Almas' product produced from the eggs of a rare albino sturgeon between 60-100 years old from the southern Caspian Sea. Wild beluga sturgeon caviar from the Caspian Sea was priced in 2012 at $16,000 per 1 kilogram. Cheaper alternatives have been developed from the roe of the North Atlantic salmon. Conventional sturgeon caviar was priced in 2014 at about $105 per 1 ounce and from albino sturgeon up to $800 per ounce. Other quality factors are texture – with firmness having higher quality value – flavor qualities, such as creaminess, butter taste, brine or mild fish finish, whether the caviar was taken from the fish by massage rather than by killing it. In the wake of over-fishing, the harvest and sale of black caviar was banned in Russia in 2007; the ban on sturgeon fishing in the Caspian Sea has led to the development of aquaculture as an economically viable means of commercial caviar production. In recent years Transnistria built and put into operation a modern sturgeon complex for caviar production, producing natural black caviar of sterlet, Russian sturgeon, beluga.
The design capacity of the fish-breeding zone is equal to 50-80 tons of commodity fish and 5 tons of caviar a year. China has emerged as the leading producer, accounting for 60% of the world production in caviar; the largest caviar company in the world is the Chinese brand Kaluga Queen, which cultivates sturgeon at Qiandao Lake in Zhejiang. In the early 20th century and the United States were the major caviar suppliers to Europe; the American caviar industry got started when Henry Schacht, a German immigrant, opened a business catching sturgeon on the Delaware River. He exported a great deal of it to Europe. At around the same time, sturgeon was fished from the Columbia River on the west coast supplying caviar. At the time, American caviar was so plentiful that it was given away at bars with the intent of inducing or prolonging thirst in patrons. Today, the shortnose sturgeon is rated Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of endangered species and rated Endangered per the Endangered Species Act. With the depletion of Caspian and Black Sea caviar, production of farmed or "sustainable" caviar has increased.
In particular, northern California is reported to account for 70% to 80% of U. S. production. In Canada, a sturgeon farm called Target Marine Hatcheries is now the first producer of organic caviar in North America called "Northern Divine"; as well as Canada and the United States, Uruguay has become a major exporter. Kibbutz Dan in Israel produces 4 tons of caviar a year; the farm is fed by a tributary of the Jordan River. The British Royal family has held a long affinity with the sturgeon since 1324, when Edward II decreed it a Royal fish, whereby all sturge