Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England. The town lies on the southern edge of the North Downs at a valley between two cliffs, it was an important shipping port for most of the 19th and 20th centuries. There has been a settlement in this location since the Mesolithic era. A nunnery was founded by Eanswith, granddaughter of Æthelberht of Kent in the 7th century, still commemorated as part of the town's culture. During the 13th century it subsequently developed into a seaport and the harbour developed during the early 19th century to provide defence against a French invasion, expanded further after the arrival of the railway in 1843; the harbour's use has diminished since the opening of the nearby Channel Tunnel and stopping of local ferry services, but still remains in active use. The harbour's use has increased due to the construction of the'Harbour Arm' which holds cafés, pubs and bands playing; the area of Folkestone has been occupied since at least the Mesolithic era.
In 2010, worked flints were discovered below the remains of the Folkestone Roman Villa. The East Cliff area was excavated in 1924 and most from 2010 to 2011 and has produced artifacts from the Mesolithic period through to the Roman era. On the East Cliff, an extensive Iron Age oppidum existed, which produced quern-stones on an industrial scale; those querns, or stones, which were used for grinding cereals into flour, were traded for continental exports such as pottery and wine. A modest Roman style villa was constructed over the Iron Age settlement sometime during the 1st century AD, followed by a more luxurious one in about 200 AD; the villa was abandoned sometime during the 4th century for unknown reasons. In 597 AD, led by Augustine of Canterbury, arrived at Ebbsfleet on the Isle of Thanet, on a mission from Pope Gregory to re-Christianise Britain, he was greeted by the Anglo Saxon pagan King of Kent and his Christian Queen, Bertha. Augustine was granted land in Canterbury, where he built his church and outside the walls founded the monastery of St Peter & St Paul, now known as St Augustine's.
Ethelbert was succeeded as Anglo-Saxon king of Kent by his son Eadbald, whose daughter Eanswythe refused all offers of marriage. In 630, Eanswythe founded a nunnery on the site of her father's castle near Folkestone by the present Parish Church of St Mary & St Eanswythe. Eanswythe died around 640 and was made a saint, her remains were moved into the chancel of the current church on 12 September 1138, which has since been commemorated as the Feast of St Eanswythe. They became the focus of prayer and pilgrimage such that Eanswythe was adopted as the town's patron; the community grew and developed into a monastery until it was dissolved by Henry VIII, St Eanswythe's remains disappeared. They were rediscovered in June 1885 when workmen, carrying out alterations to the high altar, found a battered lead casket immured in a niche in the north wall of the chancel. Examination by archaeologists at the time and again in 1981 confirmed that the casket was of Anglo-Saxon origin and the few bone fragments were those of a woman in her early thirties.
The relics are still housed in the church, close to where they were discovered, in the north wall of the chancel flanked by a pair of small brass candlesticks. St Eanswythe is celebrated on 12 September each year, the date on which her relics were moved to the present chancel, she appears on the town's seal with William Harvey, the Folkestone-born 17th-century physician who discovered the circulation of the blood. A Norman knight held a Barony of Folkestone, which led to its entry as a part of the Cinque Ports in the thirteenth century and with that the privilege of being a wealthy trading port. At the start of the Tudor period it had become a town in its own right. Wars with France meant that defences had to be built here and soon plans for a Folkestone Harbour began. At the beginning of the 1800s a harbour was developed, but it was the coming of the railways in 1843 that would have the bigger impact. Dover Hill, the highest point in Folkestone, was a sighting point for the Anglo-French Survey, which measured the precise distance between the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory.
The hill provided a sight-line to the east along the line of the Folkestone Turnpike to Dover Castle, one of the two principal cross-channel observation points, the other being Fairlight Down in Sussex. Until the 19th century Folkestone remained a small fishing community with a seafront, continually battered by storms and encroaching shingle that made it hard to land boats. In 1807 an Act of Parliament was passed to build a pier and harbour, built by Thomas Telford in 1809. By 1820 a harbour area of 14 acres had been enclosed. Folkestone's trade and population grew but development was still hampered by sand and silt from the Pent Stream; the Folkestone Harbour Company invested in removing the silt but with little success. In 1842 the company became bankrupt and the Government put the derelict harbour up for sale, it was bought by the South Eastern Railway Company, building the London to Dover railway line. George Turnbull was responsible in 1844 for building the Horn pier. Dredging the harbour, the construction of a rail route down to it, began immediately, the town soon became the SER’s principal packet station for the Continental traffic to Boulogne.
Folkestone Harbour Company commissioned Foster and Partners to produce a masterplan for Folkestone, published in April 2006. The plans described the rebuilding of the harbour as a marina, a "Green Wave" along the sea front linking countryside west and east of the town, new housing, shops
A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges and other structures. Classification systems vary between different countries and gauges may vary across a network if the track gauge remains constant; the loading gauge limits the size of passenger carriages, goods wagons and shipping containers that can be conveyed on a section of railway line. It varies across the world and within a single railway system. Over time there has been more standardization of gauges. Containerisation and a trend towards larger shipping containers has led rail companies to increase structure gauges to compete with road haulage; the term "loading gauge" can refer to a physical structure, sometimes using electronic detectors using light beams on an arm or gantry placed over the exit lines of goods yards or at the entry point to a restricted part of a network. The devices ensure that loads stacked on open or flat wagons stay within the height/shape limits of the line's bridges and tunnels, prevent out-of-gauge rolling stock entering a stretch of line with a smaller loading gauge.
Compliance with a loading gauge can be checked with a clearance car. In the past, these were physical feelers mounted on rolling stock. More lasers are used; the loading gauge is the maximum size of rolling stock. This is distinct from the structure gauge, the minimum size of bridges and tunnels, must be larger to allow for engineering tolerances and car motion; the difference between the two is called the clearance. The terms "dynamic envelope" or "kinematic envelope" – which include factors such as suspension travel, overhang on curves and lateral motion on the track – are sometimes used in place of loading gauge; the height of platforms is a consideration for the loading gauge of passenger trains. Where the two are not directly compatible, stairs may be required, which will increase loading times. Where long carriages are used at a curved platform, there will be gaps between the platform and the carriage door, causing risk. Problems increase where trains of several different loading gauges and train floor heights use the same platform.
The size of load that can be carried on a railway of a particular gauge is influenced by the design of the rolling stock. Low-deck rolling stock can sometimes be used to carry taller 9 ft 6 in shipping containers on lower gauge lines although their low-deck rolling stock cannot carry as many containers. Larger out-of-gauge loads can sometimes be conveyed by taking one or more of the following measures: Operate at low speed in places with limited clearance, such as platforms. Cross over from a track with inadequate clearance to another track with greater clearance if there is no signalling to allow this. Prevent operation of other trains on adjacent tracks. Use refuge loops to allow trains to operate on other tracks. Use of Schnabel cars that manipulate the load up and down or left and right to clear obstacles. Remove obstacles. Use gauntlet track to shift the train to center. For locomotives that are too heavy, ensure that fuel tanks are nearly empty. Turn off power in overhead wiring or in the third rail.
Rapid Transit railways have a small loading gauge, which reduces the cost of tunnel construction. These systems only use their own specialised rolling stock; the loading gauge on the main lines of Great Britain, most of which were built before 1900, is smaller than in other countries. In mainland Europe, the larger Berne gauge was agreed to in 1913 and came into force in 1914; as a result, British trains have noticeably and smaller loading gauges and smaller interiors, despite the track being standard gauge along with much of the world. This results in increased costs for purchasing trains as they must be designed for the British network, rather than being purchased "off-the-shelf". For example, the new trains for HS2 have a 50% premium applied to the "classic compatible" sets that will be able to run on the rest of the network, meaning they will cost £40 million each rather than £27 million for the captive stock, despite the captive stock being larger; the International Union of Railways has developed a standard series of loading gauges named A, B, B+ and C.
PPI – the predecessor of the UIC gauges had the maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.28 m with an round roof top. UIC A: The smallest. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.32 m. UIC B: Most of the high-speed TGV tracks in France are built to UIC B. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.32 m. UIC B+: New structures in France are being built to UIC B+. Up to 4.28 m it features a width of 2.50 m to accommodate ISO containers. UIC C: The Central European gauge. In Germany and other central European countries, the railway systems are built to UIC C gauges, sometimes with an increment in the width, allowing Scandinavian trains to reach German stations directly built for Soviet freight cars. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.65 m. In the European Union, the UIC directives were supplanted by ERA Technical Specifications for Interoperability of European Union in 2002, which has def
Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras; the population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, only 34 km wide here, is the closest French town to England; the White Cliffs of Dover can be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail. Due to its position, Calais since the Middle Ages has been a major port and a important centre for transport and trading with England, it grew into a thriving centre for wool production. The town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Calais was a territorial possession of England until its capture by France in 1558. The town was razed to the ground during World War II, when in May 1940, it was a strategic bombing target of the invading German forces who took the town during the Siege of Calais. During World War II, the Germans built massive bunkers along the coast in preparation for launching missiles on England; the old part of the town, Calais proper, is situated on an artificial island surrounded by canals and harbours. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south-east. In the centre of the old town is the Place d'Armes, in which stands the Tour du Guet, or watch-tower, a structure built in the 13th century, used as a lighthouse until 1848 when a new lighthouse was built by the port. South east of the Place is the church of Notre-Dame, built during the English occupancy of Calais, it is arguably the only church built in the English perpendicular style in all of France. In this church former French President Charles de Gaulle married his wife Yvonne Vendroux.
South of the Place and opposite the Parc St Pierre is the Hôtel-de-ville, the belfry from the 16th and early 17th centuries. Today, Calais is visited by more than 10 million annually. Aside from being a key transport hub, Calais is a notable fishing port and a centre for fish marketing, some 3,000 people are still employed in the lace industry for which the town is famed; the early history of habitation in the area is limited. The Romans called the settlement Caletum. Julius Caesar mustered 800 to 1,000 sailing boats, five legions and some 2,000 horses at Calais, due to its strategic position, to attack Britannia; the English could hold on to it for so many centuries because it remained an island surrounded by marshes, therefore impossible to attack from the land. At some time before the 10th century, it would have been a Flemish-speaking fishing village on a sandy beach backed by pebbles and a creek, with a natural harbour at the west edge of the early medieval estuary of the River Aa; as the pebble and sand ridge extended eastward from Calais, the haven behind it developed into fen, as the estuary progressively filled with silt and peat.
Afterwards, canals were cut between Saint-Omer, the trading centre at the head of the estuary, three places to the west and east on the newly formed coast: Calais and Dunkirk. Calais was improved by the Count of Flanders in 997 and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224; the first document mentioning the existence of this community is the town charter granted by Mathieu d'Alsace, Count of Boulogne, in 1181 to Gerard de Guelders. In 1189, Richard the Lionheart is documented to have landed at Calais on his journey to the Third Crusade. English wool trade interests and King Edward III's claims to be heir to the Kingdom of France led to the Battle of Crécy between England and France in 1346, followed by Edward's siege and capture of Calais in 1347. Angered, the English king demanded reprisals against the town's citizens for holding out for so long and ordered that the town's population be killed en masse, he agreed, however, to spare them, on condition that six of the principal citizens would come to him and barefooted and with ropes around their necks, give themselves up to death.
On their arrival he ordered their execution, but pardoned them when his queen, Philippa of Hainault, begged him to spare their lives. This event is commemorated in The Burghers of Calais, one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, erected in the city in 1895. Though sparing the lives of the delegation members, King Edward drove out most of the French inhabitants, settled the town with English; the municipal charter of Calais granted by the Countess of Artois, was reconfirmed by Edward that year. In 1360 the Treaty of Brétigny assigned Guînes and Calais—collectively the "Pale of Calais"—to English rule in perpetuity, but this assignment was informally and only implemented. On 9 February 1363 the town was made a staple port, it had by 1372 become a parliamentary borough sending burgesses to the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. It remained part of the Diocese of Thérouanne from 1379; the town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Its customs revenues amounted at times to a
TransManche Link or TML was a British-French construction consortium responsible for building the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel between Cheriton in Kent, United Kingdom, Coquelles in France. In April 1985 the British and French governments invited proposals for the construction of a link between the two countries to be funded. In January 1986 the two governments selected the Channel Tunnel Group/France Manche proposal for the construction of two undersea tunnels. At Canterbury Cathedral on 12 February 1986 the governments signed a treaty approving construction of the Channel Tunnel. In March the concession for the operation of the tunnel was given to Channel Tunnel Group and France Manche. Following the award of this concession CTG was subsumed by the newly formed Eurotunnel plc and FM was replaced with Eurotunnel SA, together these formed the Eurotunnel Group. In July 1985 the British contractors formed Translink Contractors and the French consortium formed Transmanche Construction.
On 18 October 1985 these two groups were merged to create TransManche Link. TML was thus contracted to build the tunnel for its customer, who would own and operate it. TML senior management were employees of the partner companies seconded to the new organisation. In October 1986 Eurotunnel was floated and the contractors and banks no longer exercised control over the company. Beginning in 1987 relations between TML and Eurotunnel deteriorated, with significant and public rows erupting over cost and programme management. With the completion of the Channel Tunnel TML ceased to exist; the participants were as follows:Channel Tunnel Group Balfour Beatty Construction Costain Tarmac Construction Taylor Woodrow Construction Wimpey International Construction National Westminster Bank Midland Bank France Manche Bouygues S. A Dumez S. A Société Auxiliaire d’Entreprise S. A. Société Générale d’Entreprises S. A. Spie Batignolles S. A. Crédit Lyonnais Banque Nationale de Paris Banque Indosuez
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Eurostar International Limited
Eurostar International Limited is the railway company operating the international Eurostar train services between London and Brussels via the Channel Tunnel. Eurostar was operated by three separate companies in Belgium and the United Kingdom, but this structure was replaced by EIL as a new single management company on 1 September 2010. EIL is owned by SNCF, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Hermes Infrastructure and NMBS/SNCB. Eurostar International is the largest customer of the owner of the Channel Tunnel. Eurostar International was formed in 1990 as European Passenger Services, as the division of British Rail responsible for the UK section of the Eurostar operation. Eurostar trains began operating on 14 November 1994, with EPS, NMBS/SNCB and SNCF were each responsible for the running of Eurostar services in their own territory. On 1 April 1994, EPS signed a fixed-rate track access contract with Railtrack lasting until 29 July 2052 as part of the plans for Regional Eurostar services.
The privatisation of British Rail saw ownership of EPS transferred to London and Continental Railways in 1996, a property development company owned by the Government of the United Kingdom. This was part of the contract agreed with the British Government for LCR build and operate High Speed 1 between London and the Channel Tunnel; the company was renamed Eurostar Limited and was to use the income from EUKL to help finance the HS1 project. Following financial assistance from the government in 1998, LCR was forced to appoint a management contract for EUKL. Bids for the contract were submitted by Virgin Rail Group and Inter-Capital and Regional Rail, a consortium of National Express, SNCF, NMBS/SNCB and British Airways; the latter was awarded the contract, to run from 1998 until 2010. In January 2009, after the completion of HS1, the UK's Department for Transport took control of LCR and announced its intention to put both HS1 and EUKL up for sale. Deutsche Bahn expressed an interest in EUKL but no sale materialised.
On 31 December 2009, EUKL was renamed Eurostar International Limited. On 1 September 2010, the three national Eurostar operators merged into EIL as a single company with a single management structure. Following this change, the ICRR management contract for the UK business was terminated. Once all Eurostar assets were transferred to EIL, the holdings in the company were amended to LCR, NMBS/SNCB and SNCF. LCR sold a 30-year concession to operate HS1 in November 2010 to a Canadian consortium of Borealis Infrastructure and Ontario Teacher's Pension Plan for £2.1bn. EIL paid access charges to the consortium to operate Eurostar trains on HS1. On 4 December 2013, the UK Government announced it was looking to sell LCR's 40% stake in EIL. In January 2014, in a joint venture with Keolis, Eurostar was shortlisted to bid for the InterCity East Coast franchise in the United Kingdom; however the franchise was awarded to Virgin Trains East Coast. In June 2014, the UK's 40% shareholding in EIL was transferred from LCR to HM Treasury, a sale process was launched on 13 October 2014.
In March 2015, the Treasury announced it had sold the stake to Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and Hermes Infrastructure for £585m. It confirmed agreement to redeem its preference share in EIL for £172m, raising £757m in total. EIL is the owner of the Class British Rail Class 374 sets. Eurostar company information
Eurotunnel Folkestone Terminal
The Eurotunnel Folkestone Terminal is a railway terminal built for the transport of road-going vehicles on specially constructed trains through the Channel Tunnel. The terminal is one of two, with the Eurotunnel Calais Terminal located at Coquelles, near Calais; as part of the Channel Tunnel project, the plan for services included the use of dedicated shuttle trains that would carry both passenger and freight vehicles between Britain and France, which would compete with the cross-channel ferries. In order to accommodate these services, it was planned to build a brand new vehicle terminal on each side of the tunnel that would allow cars and lorries to be loaded onto the trains; the site chosen for the British terminal was Cheriton, in Folkestone, not far from the British tunnel portal. The site came to nearly 350 acres in area, smaller than the French terminal, it is bordered by both Newington. The hamlet of Danton Pinch was in the middle of where the terminal was to go, so was demolished; some ancient woodland and listed buildings were transported elsewhere.
Construction began at the same time as boring for the tunnel, which provided large amounts of soil to be used to stabilise and level the terminal site before construction of the facility was undertaken. At the same time, a pipeline was provided connecting Sandgate and Goodwin Sands for the transport of dredged sand to the site. A 6.5km pipeline was laid from Sandgate to the terminal. Dredging was by Westminster Dredging; the major elements to be built at Cheriton were the platforms and overbridges, which connected the terminal to the M20 motorway, completed with the tunnel project. The tunnel was opened on 6 May 1994, with services between Cheriton and Coquelles beginning in July the same year, when the first freight shuttles started running. Passenger services started in December 1994; the terminal consists of eight island platforms, which are each 791 metres in length, with four overbridges connecting them to the motorway. The overbridges are located at equidistant points along the length of the platforms so that vehicles have to drive for as little distance as possible along the platforms themselves.
The two bridges at the western end of the platforms are intended for embarking vehicles, while those at the eastern end are for those disembarking. The island platforms are separated by single track, allowing vehicles to access the train from both sides; the terminal is located at the end of a loop connected to the route from the tunnel. The terminal at Coquelles has a loop arrangement, but instead trains travel anticlockwise. There was more room for a flyover on the French side to create an anticlockwise loop than at the Folkestone terminal; the terminal has a larger loading gauge than the rest of the British network owing to the oversized trailers used to carry the road going vehicles. As a consequence, all maintenance of the rolling stock is undertaken within the small, self-contained Channel Tunnel rail network, with the major work carried out at Coquelles, minor work undertaken at Cheriton; when rolling stock does need to be taken to another British location and carriages are transported by trucks, as was done with the refurbishment of the locomotives at Brush traction in 2010/2011.
The Eurotunnel rail control centre is located within the Folkestone Terminal. Cheriton shuttle terminal - Kent Rail