Ithaca, Ithaki or Ithaka is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece. Ithaca's main island has an area of 96 square kilometres and had a population in 2011 of 3,231, it is the second-smallest of seven main Ionian Islands, after Paxi. Ithaca is a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, the only municipality of the regional unit; the capital is Vathy. Modern Ithaki is linked with Homer's Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, whose twenty-year absence is part of the plot of the classical Greek poem and allegory: Odyssey of Homer; the island was named by Pterelaus, the son of Taphius, king of the Taphians. The Taphians were mariners and slave-traders from Taphos, an island off the coast of Arcanania in north-western Greece. Pterelaus' sons Ithakus and Polyctor colonised the island of Ithaki around 1,320 BC, which took the name of his oldest son. Although the name Ithaki has remained unchanged since ancient times, written documents of different periods refer to the island by other names, such as: Val di Compare, Piccola Cephallonia, Anticephallonia Ithaki nisos, Thakou, Thiakou Thiaki Teaki Fiaki The island has been inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC.
It may have been the capital of Cephalonia during the Mycenaean period and the capital-state of the small kingdom ruled by Odysseus. The Romans occupied the island in the 2nd century BC, it became part of the Byzantine Empire; the Normans ruled Ithaca in the 13th century, after a short Turkish rule it fell into Venetian hands. Ithaca was subsequently occupied by France under the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio, it was liberated by a joint Russo-Turkish force commanded by admirals Fyodor Ushakov and Kadir Bey in 1798 and subsequently became a part of the Septinsular Republic, established as a protectorate of the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire. It became a French possession again in 1807, until it was taken over by the United Kingdom in 1809. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Ithaca became a state of the United States of the Ionian Islands, a protectorate of the British Empire. In 1830 the local community requested to join with the rest of the newly restored nation-state of Greece. Under the 1864 Treaty of London, along with the remaining six Ionian islands, were ceded to Greece as a gesture of diplomatic friendship to Greece's new Anglophile king, George I.
The United Kingdom kept its privileged use of the harbour at Corfu. The origins of the first people to inhabit the island, which occurred during the last years of the Neolithic period, are not clear; the traces of buildings, walls and a road from this time period prove that life existed and continued to do so during the Early Hellenic era. In the years some of the population migrated to part of the island; the buildings and walls that were excavated showed the lifestyle of this period had remained primitive. During the Mycenaean period, Ithaca rose to the highest level of its ancient history. Based on the Odyssey and oral traditions, it is believed that the island became the capital of the Ionian Kingdom-State, which included the surrounding lands, was referred to as one of the most powerful states of that time; the Ithacans were characterized as great navigators and explorers with daring expeditions reaching further than the Mediterranean Sea. The epic poems of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, shed some light on Bronze-Age Ithaca.
Those poems are thought to have been composed sometime in the 9th or 8th centuries BC, but may have made use of older mythological and poetic traditions. Recent studies concluded. After the end of the Mycenaean period Ithaca's influence diminished, it came under the jurisdiction of the nearest large island. During the ancient Hellenic prime, independent organized life continued in the northern and southern part of the island. In the southern part, in the area of Aetos, the town Alalcomenae was founded. From this period, many objects of important historical value have been found during excavations. Among these objects are coins imprinted with the name Ithaca and the image of Odysseus which suggest that the island was self-governed. According to the different periods and circumstances, the population of the island kept changing. Although there is no definite numerical information until the Venetian period, it is believed that from the Mycenaean to the Byzantine period, the number of inhabitants was several thousand, who lived in the northern part of Ithaca.
During the Middle Ages, the population decreased due to the continuous invasions of pirates, forcing the people to establish settlements and live in the mountains. In 1479, Ottoman forces reached the islands and many of the people fled from the island out of fear of the new Turkish settlers; those that remained hid in the mountains to avoid the pirates who controlled the channel between Cephalonia and Ithaca and the bays of the island. In the following five years, the Turks and Venetians laid claim to the islands diplomatically. Possession of the islands was taken by the Ottoman Empire from 1484 to 1499. During this period, the Venetians had strength
Diomedes or Diomede is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War. He was born to Tydeus and Deipyle and became King of Argos, succeeding his maternal grandfather, Adrastus. In Homer's Iliad Diomedes is regarded alongside Ajax the Great as one of the best warriors of all the Achaeans, he founded ten or more Italian cities. After his death, Diomedes was worshipped as a divine being under various names in Italy as well as Greece. Diomedes was, on his father’s side, an Aetolian, on his mother's an Argive, his father, was himself of royal blood, being the only son of Oeneus, the king of Calydon. He had been exiled from his homeland for killing his relatives, either his cousins or his paternal uncles. In any case, Tydeus was exiled, he found refuge at Argos, where the king, offered him hospitality giving him his daughter, Deipyle, to be his wife; the two were married and had two children together - a daughter, a son, Diomedes. Sometime Polynices, a banished prince of Thebes, arrived in Argos.
Adrastos promised to do so and set out to gather an expeditionary force with which to march against Thebes. This force was made up of seven individual champions, each assigned to lead an assault on one of the seven gates of the city. Together, these champions were known as the “Seven Against Thebes”; the expedition proved to be complete disaster, however, as all seven of the Argive champions were killed in the ensuing battle, except for Adrastus, who escaped thanks to his horse Arion, the fastest of all of his brethren. Diomedes' father, was among those, slain. Tydeus was Athena’s favourite warrior at the time, when he was dying she wanted to offer him a magic elixir that would make him immortal. However, she withdrew the intended privilege in apparent disgust when Tydeus gobbled down the brains of the hated enemy who had wounded him. According to some, Diomedes was four years old. At the funeral of their fathers, the sons of the seven fallen champions met and vowed to vanquish Thebes in order to avenge their fathers.
They were called "the Epigoni" because they were born "after everything has happened". Ten years the Epigoni set out to launch another expedition against Thebes, appointing Alcmaeon as their commander-in-chief, they strengthened their initial forces with contingents from Messenia, Arcadia and Megara. This army, was still small compared to that of Thebes; the war of the Epigoni is remembered as the most important expedition in Greek mythology prior to the Trojan War. It was a favorite topic for epics, but all of these epics are now lost; the main battle took place at Glisas where Prince Aegialeus was slain by King Laodamas, in turn killed by Alcmaeon. With their king dead, the Thebans, believing this to be the end for them, sought counsel from the seer Tiresias, who urged them to flee the city, they did so, faced with no opposition, the Epigoni entered the city, plundering its treasures and tearing down its great walls. Having achieved their objective, the Epigoni returned home, but not before they installed Thersander, son of the fallen prince Polynices, as the city's new ruler.
As Diomedes and the Argive forces travelled home, an elderly King Adrastus died of grief upon learning that his son Aegialeus had perished in the battle. That being so, upon returning home to Argos, Diomedes ascended to the throne. In order to secure his grasp on the throne, Diomedes married Princess Aegialia. According to some, Diomedes ruled Argos for more than five years and brought much wealth and stability to the city during his time, he was a skilled politician and was respected by other rulers. He still kept an eye on Calydonian politics, when the sons of Agrius put Oeneus in jail and their own father on the throne, Diomedes decided to restore Oeneus to the throne. Diomedes attacked and ceded the kingdom, slaying all the traitors except Thersites and Agrius restoring his grandfather to the throne. Oeneus passed the kingdom to his son-in-law and headed to Argos to meet Diomedes, he was assassinated on the way by Onchestus. Unable to find the murderers, Diomedes founded a mythical city called "Oenoe" at the place where his grandfather was buried to honour his death.
Thersites fought against the Trojans in the Trojan War and noble Diomedes did not mistreat him. In fact, when Thersites was brutally slain by Achilles, Diomedes was the only person who wanted to punish Achilles. Diomedes became one of the suitors of Helen and, as such, he was bound by the oath of Tyndareus, which established that all the suitors would defend and protect the man, chosen as Helen's husband against any wrong done against him in regard to his marriage. Accordingly, when the Trojan prince Paris stole Menelaus' wife, all those who had sworn the oath were summoned by Agamemnon, s
In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. He joined the Greeks in the expedition against Troy. Pausanias in his Description of Greece says that in Corinth is a Temple of Fortune in which Palamedes dedicated the dice that he had invented. After Paris took Helen to Troy, Agamemnon sent Palamedes to Ithaca to retrieve Odysseus, who had promised to defend the marriage of Helen and Menelaus. Odysseus did not want to honor his oath, so he pretended to be insane and plowed his fields with salt. Palamedes put Odysseus' son, Telemachus, in front of the plow. Odysseus revealed his sanity; the ancient sources show differences in regards to the details of. Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for ruining his attempt to stay out of the Trojan War; when Palamedes advised the Greeks to return home, Odysseus hid gold in his tent and wrote a fake letter purportedly from Priam. The letter was found and the Greeks accused him of being a traitor. Palamedes was stoned to death by Diomedes. According to other accounts the two warriors drowned him during a fishing expedition.
Still another version relates that he was lured into a well in search of treasure, was crushed by stones. Although he is a major character in some accounts of the Trojan War, Palamedes is not mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Ovid discusses Palamedes' role in the Trojan War in the Metamorphoses. Palamedes' fate is described in Virgil's Aeneid. In the Apology, Plato describes Socrates as looking forward to speaking with Palamedes after death, intimates in the Phaedrus that Palamedes authored a work on rhetoric. Euripides and many other dramatists have written dramas about his fate. Hyginus revives an old account that Palamedes created eleven letters of the Greek alphabet: The three Fates created the first five vowels of the alphabet and the letters B and T, it is said that son of Nauplius invented the remaining eleven consonants. Hermes reduced these sounds to characters, showing wedge shapes because cranes fly in wedge formation and carried the system from Greece to Egypt*; this was the Pelasgian alphabet, which Cadmus had brought to Boeotia Evander of Arcadia, a Pelasgian, introduced into Italy, where his mother, formed the familiar fifteen characters of the Latin alphabet.
Other consonants have since been added to the Greek alphabet. Alpha was the first of eighteen letters, because alphe means honor, alphainein is to invent. In one modern account, The Luck of Troy by Roger Lancelyn Green, Palamedes was double-dealing with the Trojans. Defense of Palamedes is a text by Gorgias, describing the defense speech that Palamedes gave when charged with treason; the major Dutch playwright Joost van den Vondel wrote in 1625 the play "Palamedes", based on the above Greek myth. The play had a clear topical political connotation, the unjust killing of Palamedes standing for the execution of the statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt six years earlier - which Vondel, like others in the Dutch Republic, considered a judicial murder. In Vondel's version, responsibility for the killing of Palamedes is attributed to to Agamemnon. Authorities in Amsterdam found no difficulty in deciphering the political meanings behind Vondel's Classical allusions, imposed a heavy fine on the playwright.
D. R. Reinsch, "Die Palamedes-Episode in der Synopsis Chronike des Konstantinos Manasses und ihre Inspirationsquelle," in Byzantinische Sprachkunst. Studien zur byzantinischen Literatur gewidmet Wolfram Hoerandner zum 65. Geburtstag. Hg. v. Martin Hinterberger und Elisabeth Schiffer. Berlin-New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, 266-276. Palamedes at Greek Mythology Link
Philoctetes, or Philocthetes, according to Greek mythology, was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. He was a Greek hero, famed as an archer, a participant in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was the subject of four different plays of ancient Greece, each written by one of the three major Greek tragedians. Of the four plays, Sophocles' Philoctetes is the only one. Sophocles' Philoctetes at Troy, Aeschylus' Philoctetes and Euripides' Philoctetes have all been lost, with the exception of some fragments. Philoctetes is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, Book 2, which describes his exile on the island of Lemnos, his being wounded by snake-bite, his eventual recall by the Greeks; the recall of Philoctetes is told in the lost epic Little Iliad, where his retrieval was accomplished by Diomedes. Philoctetes killed three men at Troy. Philoctetes was the son of King Poeas of the city of Meliboea in Thessaly. Heracles built his own funeral pyre. No one would light it for him in other versions his father Poeas.
This gained him the favor of the newly deified Heracles. Because of this, Philoctetes or Poeas was given poisoned arrows. Philoctetes was one of the many eligible Greeks who competed for the hand of Helen, the Spartan princess; as such, he was required to participate in the conflict to reclaim her for Menelaus in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was stranded on the island of Lemnos by the Greeks on the way to Troy. There are at least four separate tales about what happened to strand Philoctetes on his journey to Troy, but all indicate that he received a wound on his foot that festered and had a terrible smell. One version holds that Philoctetes was bitten by a snake that Hera sent to molest him as punishment for his or his father's service to Heracles. Another tradition says that the Greeks forced Philoctetes to show them where Heracles's ashes were deposited. Philoctetes would not break his oath by speech, so he went to the spot and placed his foot upon the site, he was injured in the foot that touched the soil over the ashes.
Yet another tradition has it that when the Achaeans, en route to Troy at the beginning of the war, came to the island of Tenedos, Achilles angered Apollo by killing King Tenes the god's son. When, in expiation, the Achaeans offered a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake came out from the altar and bit Philoctetes, it is said that Philoctetes received his terrible wound on the island of Chryse, when he unknowingly trespassed into the shrine of the nymph after whom the island was named. A modern interpretation of the cause of his wound is. Tips of arrows were poisoned with a combination of fermented viper venom, blood or plasma, feces. A scratch would result in death, sometimes drawn out. A person who survives would do so with a festering wound. Regardless of the cause of the wound, Philoctetes was exiled by the Greeks and was angry at the treatment he received from Odysseus, King of Ithaca, who had advised the Atreidae to strand him. Medôn took control of Philoctetes' men, Philoctetes himself remained on Lemnos, for ten years.
Helenus, the prophetic son of King Priam of Troy, was forced to reveal, under torture, that one of the conditions of the Greeks' winning the war was that they needed the bow and arrows of Heracles. Upon hearing this, Odysseus and a group of men rushed back to Lemnos to recover Heracles' weapons. Surprised to find the archer alive, the Greeks balked on. Odysseus tricked the weaponry away from Philoctetes, but Diomedes refused to take the weapons without the man. Heracles, who had become a god many years earlier, came down from Olympus and told Philoctetes to go and that he would be healed by the son of Asclepius and win great honor as a hero of the Achaean army. Once back in military company outside Troy, they employed either Machaon the surgeon or more Podalirius the physician, both sons of the immortal physician Asclepius, to heal his wound permanently. Philoctetes challenged and would have killed Paris, son of Priam, in single combat were it not for the debates over future Greek strategy. In one telling it was Philoctetes who killed Paris.
He shot four times: the first arrow went wide. Philoctetes sided with Neoptolemus about continuing to try to storm the city, they were the only two to think so because they had not had the war-weariness of the prior ten years. Afterward, Philoctetes was among those chosen to hide inside the Trojan Horse, during the sack of the city he killed many famed Trojans; the legend of Philoctetes was used by André Gide in his play Philoctète. George Maxim Ross adapted the legend in his play Philoktetes, written in the 1950s and performed off Broadway at One Sheridan Square; the East German postmodern dramatist Heiner Müller produced a successful adaptation of Sophocles' play in 1968 in Munich. It became one of his most-performed plays. Philoctetes appears in Seamus Heaney's play The Cure at a "version" of Sophocles' Philoctetes. John Jesurun wrote the Philoktetes-variations in 1993 on Ron Vawter's request, it was
In Greek mythology, Podalirius or Podaleirius was a son of Asclepius. With Machaon, his brother, he led thirty ships from Tricca, Thessaly in the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks. Like Machaon, he was a legendary healer, he healed holder of the bow and arrows of Heracles required to end the war. He was one of those. Alongside Amphimachus, Calchas and Polypoetes he traveled to Colophon, where Calchas died. Unlike his brother, Podalirius survived the war, subsequently settled in Caria. Accounts vary as to. According to one version, he returned to Argos after the war but went on to consult the Delphian oracle about a preferable place for himself to live, was instructed to stay at a place where he would suffer no harm should the sky fall. Others relate that on the way back from Troy Podalirius' ship was blown off course so he landed in Syrnus, where he settled. In yet another version, he got shipwrecked near the Carian coast but was rescued by a shepherd named Bybassus, the eponym-to-be of a city in Caria.
Podalirus could be the founder of Syrnus. Podalirius arrived at the court of the Carian king Damaethus and healed the king's daughter Syrna, who had fallen off a roof. In reward, Damaethus handed the power over the peninsula over to him. Podalirus founded two cities, one of which he named Syrnus after his wife and the other Bybassus after the shepherd to whom he owed his life. According to Strabo, a heroum of Podalirius, another of Calchas, were located in Daunia, Italy, on a hill known as Drium. By the hero-shrine of Podalirius there flowed. Lycophron writes that Podalirius was buried in Italy near the cenotaph of Calchas, but John Tzetzes accuses him of providing false information and defends the versions cited above. 4086 Podalirius, a Jovian asteroid Podalyria, a plant genus in Fabaceae, was named for Podalirius. Iphiclides podalirius, the scarce swallowtail butterfly; the dictionary definition of Podaleirios at Wiktionary
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s
The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the other Homeric epic; the Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon. Scholars believe the Odyssey was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia; the poem focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus, king of Ithaca, his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres or Proci, who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage; the Odyssey continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many scholars believe the original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos a rhapsode, was more intended to be heard than read; the details of the ancient oral performance and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars.
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter. Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, the influence on events of choices made by women and slaves, besides the actions of fighting men. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage; the Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, not written by Homer. It was attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source, the Telegony was said to have been stolen from Musaeus of Athens by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene; the Odyssey begins after the end of the ten-year Trojan War, Odysseus has still not returned home from the war because he angered the god Poseidon. Odysseus' son Telemachus is about 20 years old and is sharing his absent father's house on the island of Ithaca with his mother Penelope and a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, "the Suitors", whose aim is to persuade Penelope to marry one of them, all the while reveling in Odysseus' palace and eating up his wealth.
Odysseus' protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus' enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus to accept a sacrifice in Ethiopia. Disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge him to search for news of his father, he offers her hospitality. Penelope objects to Phemius' theme, the "Return from Troy", because it reminds her of her missing husband, but Telemachus rebuts her objections, asserting his role as head of the household; that night Athena, disguised as Telemachus, finds a crew for the true prince. The next morning, Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done with the suitors. Telemachus is scoffed by the insolent suitors by their leaders Antinous and Leiocritus. Accompanied by Athena, he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, who resided in Pylos after the war.
From there, Telemachus rides overland, accompanied by Nestor's son Peisistratus, to Sparta, where he finds Menelaus and Helen, who are now reconciled. While Helen laments the fit of lust brought on by Aphrodite that sent her to Troy with Paris, Menelaus recounts how she betrayed the Greeks by attempting to imitate the voices of the soldiers' wives while they were inside the Trojan Horse. Telemachus hears from Helen, the first to recognize him, that she pities him because Odysseus was not there for him in his childhood because he went to Troy to fight for her and about his exploit of stealing the Palladium, or the Luck of Troy, where she was the only one to recognize him. Menelaus, meanwhile praises Odysseus as an irreproachable comrade and friend, lamenting the fact that they were not only unable to return together from Troy but that Odysseus is yet to return. Both Helen and Menelaus say that they returned to Sparta after a long voyage by way of Egypt. There, on the island of Pharos, Menelaus encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that Odysseus was a captive of the nymph Calypso.
Incidentally, Telemachus learns the fate of Menelaus' brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks at Troy: he was murdered on his return home by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. The story shifts to the suitors, who have only just now realized that Telemachus is gone. Angry, they kill him as he sails back home. Penelope overhears their plot and worries for her son's safety; the second part recounts the story of Odysseus. In the course of his seven years in captivity of Calypso on the island of Ogygia, she has fallen in love with him though he has spurned her offer of immortality as her husband and still mourns for home, she is ordered to release him by the messenger god Hermes, sent by Zeus in response to Athena's plea. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing and drink by Calypso; when Poseidon learns that Odysseus has escaped, he wrecks the raft but, helped by a veil given by the sea nymph Ino, Odysseus swims asho