Eurydice (Anouilh play)
Eurydice is a play by French writer Jean Anouilh, written in 1941. The story is set among a troupe of travelling performers, it combines skepticism about romance in general and the intensity of the relationship between Orpheus and Eurydice with an other-worldly mysticism. The result is a ironic modern retelling of the classical Orpheus myth; the play has been performed under the title Point of Departure, a translation by Kitty Black, on Broadway as Legend of Lovers, in a 1951 production by the Theatre Guild. Eurydice is the daughter of the leading actress in a second-rate acting troupe; the troupe is waiting in a train station. Orphée is a violinist at the station restaurant. Eurydice and Orphée fall in love instantly. Eurydice rejects the advances of a young man named Matthew—who is her lover and a fellow member of the troupe. Orphée is repulsed at the thought of Matthew having touched his love, but Eurydice reassures him that he and one other man who took her virginity are her only two previous lovers.
Orphée notes that he can tell when Eurydice is lying because of the color of her eyes changes accordingly. Offstage, Matthew throws himself under a train in despair of Eurydice's rejection, humbled by this news, the couple runs away together, they are followed by both M. Henri, a mysterious figure, Dulac, the manager of the acting troupe. In a hotel room the next day and Orphée discuss the identity as something grounded in the past or in the present. Eurydice becomes uncomfortable with Orphée's insistence. While Orphée is out of the room, Eurydice is visited by a hotel worker and given a mysterious letter, she leaves the hotel room when Orphée returns, claiming that she needs to run errands. After she exits, Dulac reveals to Orphée that Eurydice is his mistress, too. Orphée does not believe him, but before he can confirm the truth with Eurydice, the two men receive word that she has died in a car crash—and that the car was not going to the market, but on its way out of town. M. Henri, the mysterious man, is moved to compassion for Orphée and makes a bargain with him: If Orphée wants his beloved back, it is possible.
Eurydice is brought back to life. As they sit and wait, Orphée brings up the subject of Dulac. Eurydice insists that she never slept with him, but Orphée cannot know for sure without looking into her eyes. Driven crazy with uncertainty, he does so and she admits that she was in fact Dulac's lover. However, Dulac had blackmailed her into doing it every time, threatening to fire a young, orphaned stage manager working in the troupe; the police officer who found Eurydice's body enters, reading a letter that she wrote in the taxi to Orphée. It reveals that she planned to leave town because she was so in love with Orphée, knew that her promiscuous past was something he could never overcome—despite the fact that her love for him had made her pure again, she alone with his mess of a father. Distraught, he talks with M. Henri, who convinces him that the perfect relationship he envisioned having with Eurydice is still possible...but only in death. In fact, if she hadn't died, M. Henri says, the relationship would have disappointed him.
Reassured that he will be with his true love in death, Orphée kills himself offstage. As ghosts, the couple reunites on stage, happy and in love forever more. BBC THIRD PROGRAMME, 5/2/51. Cast included Paul Scofield, Esme Percy and Sebastian Cabot. Held at The British Library National Sound Archive, Find Format: T11629WR C1 You Ain't Seen Nothin' Yet by Alain Resnais Legend of Lovers at the Internet Broadway Database
Patsy Stone is a fictional character on the UK television series Absolutely Fabulous, portrayed by actress Joanna Lumley. Patsy was the last of a string of children born to an aging Czech mother in Paris, who gave birth "like a sprinkler, scattering bastard babies all over Europe."In a flashback showing Patsy's birth, after telling an attendant to cut the cord, Patsy's mother exclaims that she names the child Eurydice Colette Clytemnestra Dido Bathsheba Rabelais Patricia Cocteau Stone. The only sibling seen in the series is her older sister Jackie, a former high-class escort whom Patsy worships, despite the fact that Jackie treats her horribly and twice tried to murder her through heroin overdose. Patsy and Edina Monsoon were childhood friends, since her mother despised and neglected her—regarding her more as a rival than a daughter—she came to rely on the Monsoons for most of her shelter and food, she mentioned that her mother would have had an abortion, but she mistook her pregnancy for the onset of the menopause.
The first few years of her life were spent locked in a room, the rest of her childhood was dismal by Patsy's own description, without friends, parties, or presents. Although her mother sent her to school, by the time she did Patsy was much older than all the other students, she claims to have forgotten everything before 1968, though memories come back to her in the form of flashbacks. Although Patsy claims to have been an It girl and in-demand model in 1960's Swinging London, flashbacks reveal she was unsuccessful, only getting work through latching on to high-profile designers and models. A flashback to the Sixties reveals Patsy wreaking havoc on the set of one of Zandra Rhodes' photo shoots, she dubs herself an "ex-Bond girl", but the films she starred in were Bond-inspired sexploitation films entitled Bond Meets Black Emmanuelle and The Man with Thunder Balls. In "Schmoozin'" a group of partygoers are treated to a viewing of Patsy's 70's softcore porn film "Booberella." Patsy claims to have slept with every member of the Rolling Stones, stating that "...you didn't have a favourite Stone, you had'em all."
She claims to have slept with Keith Moon, one of the Beatles, although she cannot remember which one. At various times throughout the series it is alluded to that Patsy was at one time transgender, having undergone a sex-change operation in Morocco in the 1960s. Eddy states that this only lasted a few months, "before it fell off", Elton John recognizes her as someone he slept with when she was a man. Patsy shares a codependent existence with Edina and acts as her enabler, encouraging her to partake in addictive behaviors like smoking and drinking; the relationship results in hilarious, albeit dysfunctional and over-the-top conflicts. The two spend their days shopping at high-end department stores and boutiques, going to lunch at trendy restaurants, avoiding their respective work places. Patsy is more parasitic in her dependence than Eddie is, she spends most of her spare time at Eddie's house, drinks Eddie's booze, uses her chauffeur-driven car, at various points lives with her, in either the attic, Saffy's bedroom, or the utility room.
In "Death" Patsy attempts to convince Eddy to leave her her multimillion-pound Holland Park house in the event of Eddy's death. Her dependence on the friendship leads Patsy to sabotage any relationships which take Eddy's attention away from her, the root cause of her near-constant animosity towards Saffy. Patsy is quite critical of Edina making passive jabs at her weight and poor fashion choices. Unlike Eddy, Patsy is conservatively, but stylishly and invariably wears her hair in a characteristic blonde beehive with a fringe she is attached to, she has a particular fondness for couture Chanel jackets, which she wears to editorial meetings to intimidate her colleagues. Patsy was born on 30 October, although her actual age is never divulged, she is so obsessed with projecting youth that she uses a false passport with a doctored picture from her modelling days. In one episode a nurse guesses. In the episode "Happy New Year", Patsy's older sister Jackie reveals that she is 72 years old, to which Patsy replies "My God how old does that make me?".
Her vanity and obsession with youth leads her to use radical beauty treatments, including sulfuric acid peels, collagen lip injections, the Botox-like filler "Paralox", which takes away wrinkles but paralyses her face. As the series progresses, Patsy betrays her age more and more, appearing to become more feeble beginning in the 4th series. In "Menopause" Patsy has to visit the hospital after fracturing her bones doing simple tasks, like snapping her fingers; the doctor diagnoses her with osteoporosis and declares that she has the lowest bone density on record. In "Olympics" she admits to using adult diapers for occasional incontinence, her poor eyesight is evident, with Patsy colliding with objects and having to scrutinize type and images closely. Patsy seems quite cold and unemotive in her behaviour toward her chief rival Saffy, but she sometimes reveals a more vulnerable side
Euridice is an opera by Jacopo Peri, with additional music by Giulio Caccini. It is Peri's earlier Dafne being lost; the libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini is based on books X and XI of Ovid's Metamorphoses which recount the story of the legendary musician Orpheus and his wife Euridice. The opera was first performed in Florence on 6 October 1600 at the Palazzo Pitti with Peri himself singing the role of Orfeo. Euridice was created for the marriage of King Henry IV of Maria de Medici; the composition is considered to be the second work of modern opera, the first such musical drama to survive to the present day. Since both the libretto and score were dedicated to the new Queen of France, Marie de' Medici, some scholars have recognized a possible parallel between Euridice and Orfeo and the Queen and King of France. While the comparison is made, some scholars argue that the traits of King Henry IV are different from Orfeo with respect to Orfeo's most famous deed. Orfeo loved Euridice so much that he journeyed to Hell and back, quite to unite once more with his beloved wife while King Henry IV wouldn't travel as far as Florence to retrieve Medici.
At the premiere, many of the other roles were filled by members of Caccini's entourage, including his daughter Francesca Caccini. Peri composed all of the music for the first production, but owing to the integral involvement of Caccini and his performers, some of Peri's music was replaced by that of Caccini; when Caccini discovered that Peri intended to publish the opera with the added Caccini pieces, he rushed to finish his own version of Euridice using the same libretto, managed to have his published before Peri's. In his preface, Peri notes that all of the music was completed by the date of the first performance earning his efforts the designation Prima Euridice. In creating the music for Euridice, Peri envisioned a vocal style, half sung and half spoken. For less dramatic parts he created vocal lines close to the style of spoken language set over a sustained accompaniment. For impassioned scenes he explored stronger and more rapid melodies with changing harmonies. Peri's critics have observed that within the score of Euridice, he created no musically remarkable examples of either.
However, he did use ranges and widths of register, as well as frequency and power of cadences, to distinguish different characters and dramatic moods. The voice and accompaniment are paced to emphasize the tension and release in the text. Rhythmic and melodic inflections in the vocal lines almost scientifically, imitate dramatic speech. In addition, impassioned exclamations are set with unprepared dissonances and unexpected movements in the bass. All qualitative judgments aside his greater detractors admit that with Euridice Peri managed to establish sound principles for operatic composition; the work establishes in opera the dual resource of aria and recitative, it explores the use of solo and choral singing. Peri's Euridice tells Euridice from Greek Mythology. According to myth, Orpheus was a great musician who journeyed to the underworld to plead with the gods to revive his wife Euridice after she had been fatally injured, it opens with a simple melody by a singer representing the Tragic Muse, La Tragedia, a short ritornello.
Shepherds nearby and the Tragic Muse sing a conversation in recitatives and choruses, Daphne enters to notify everyone that Euridice has been fatally bitten by a serpent. Scene 1 All of the nymphs and shepherds gather to celebrate the wedding of Euridice. Scene 2 Orfeo is soon interrupted by Dafne, she brings the terrible news that Euridice has died. Orfeo vows to rescue her from the underworld. Scene 3 Arcetro recounts that while Orfeo lay weeping, goddess of love, carries him off in her chariot; this opens with Orpheus pleading with Venere, Prosperina and Radamanto in the underworld for the return of his beloved wife Euridice. Nearly the entire scene is carried in recitative; when the act closes, Orpheus is back with the other shepherds. Scene 4 Venus and Orfeo arrive at the gates of the underworld. Venus suggests. Orfeo is allowed to leave with his bride. Scene 5 Orfeo and Euridice return from the rejoice, it should be noted. Pastore, Ninfa/Ninfe, Deita D'Inferno refer to choruses of shepherds and Deities of Hell respectively.
List of Orphean operas John Walter. Baroque Music: Music in Western Europe, 1580–1750. Norton. ISBN 0-393-97800-1. Oldmeadow, Earnest. Great Musicians. Forgotten Books. Other sourcesBrown, Howard Mayer. "Euridice", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com. Burkholder, Peter J. Donald Jay Grout, Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music, 8th edition. New York: Norton. 986 pages Porter, William V.. "Jacopo Peri", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com. Weiss and Richard Taruskin. Music in the Western World: A History in Documents. Belmont: Scrimer. 556 pages. ScoreEuridice: Original Score and Modern Edition at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSL
Carol Ann Duffy
Dame Carol Ann Duffy is a Scottish poet and playwright. She is a professor of contemporary poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University, was appointed Britain's Poet Laureate in May 2009, she is the first woman, the first Scot, the first gay or bisexual poet to hold the position. Her collections include winner of a Scottish Arts Council Award, her poems address issues such as oppression and violence in an accessible language that has made them popular in schools. Carol Ann Duffy was born to a Roman Catholic family in a poor part of Glasgow, she was Frank Duffy, an electrical fitter. Her mother was Irish, her father had Irish grandparents; the eldest of five siblings, she has four brothers. The family moved to Stafford, when Duffy was six years old, her father worked for English Electric. He was a trade unionist, stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for the Labour Party in 1983 in addition to managing the Stafford Rangers football club. Duffy was educated in Stafford at Saint Austin's RC Primary School, St. Joseph's Convent School, Stafford Girls' High School, her literary talent encouraged by two English teachers, June Scriven at St Joseph's, Jim Walker at Stafford Girls' High.
She was a passionate reader from an early age, always wanted to be a writer, producing poems from the age of 11. When one of her English teachers died, she wrote: When Duffy was 15, June Scriven sent her poems to Outposts, a publisher of pamphlets, where it was read by the bookseller Bernard Stone, who published some of them; when she was 16, she met Adrian Henri, one of the Liverpool poets, decided she wanted to be with him. "He gave me confidence," she said, "he was great. It was all poetry heady, he was never faithful, he thought poets had a duty to be unfaithful."She applied to the University of Liverpool to be near him, began a philosophy degree there in 1974. She had two plays performed at the Liverpool Playhouse, wrote a pamphlet, Fifth Last Song, received an honours degree in philosophy in 1977, she won the National Poetry Competition in 1983. She worked as poetry critic for The Guardian from 1988–1989, was editor of the poetry magazine, Ambit. In 1996, she was appointed as a lecturer in poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University, became creative director of its Writing School.
Duffy was appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom in 1999 after the death of Ted Hughes, but lost out on the position to Andrew Motion. Duffy said she would not have accepted the position at that time anyway, because she was in a relationship with Scottish poet Jackie Kay, had a young daughter, would not have welcomed the public attention. In the same year, she was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, she was appointed as Poet Laureate on 1 May 2009. Duffy was featured on the South Bank Show with Melvyn Bragg in December 2009 and on 7 December she presented the Turner Prize to artist Richard Wright. Duffy received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 2009. In 2015, Duffy was elected as an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy. In her first poem as poet laureate, Duffy tackled the scandal over British MPs expenses in the format of a sonnet, her second, "Last Post", was commissioned by the BBC to mark the deaths of Henry Allingham and Harry Patch, the last remaining British soldiers to fight in World War I.
Her third, "The Twelve Days of Christmas 2009", addresses current events such as species extinction, the climate change conference in Copenhagen, the banking crisis, the war in Afghanistan. In March 2010, she wrote "Achilles" about the Achilles tendon injury that left David Beckham out of the English football team at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. "Silver Lining", written in April 2010, acknowledges the grounding of flights caused by the ash of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. On 30 August 2010 she premièred her poem "Vigil" for the Manchester Pride Candlelight Vigil in memory of LGBTQ people who have lost their lives to HIV/AIDS. Duffy wrote a 46 line poem Rings for the 2011 wedding of Catherine Middleton; the poem celebrates the rings found in nature and does not mention the couple's names. It begins for both to say and continues "I might have raised your hand to the sky / to give you the ring surrounding the moon / or looked to twin the rings of your eyes / with mine / or added a ring to the rings of a tree / by forming a handheld circle with you, thee, /...".
She wrote the verse with Stephen Raw, a textual artist, a signed print of the work was sent to the couple as a wedding gift. Duffy wrote the poem The Throne, which she composed for the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation. In a Stylist magazine, Duffy said. I do get asked to do things and so far I've been happy to do them." She spoke about being appointed to the role by Queen Elizabeth II, saying, "She's lovely! I met her before I became poet laureate but when I was appointed I had an'audience' with her which meant we were alone, at the palace, for the first time. We chatted about poetry, her mother was friends with Ted Hughes. We spoke about his influence on me."As of October 2018, she is preparing to step down as laureate in May 2019. Duffy's work
Sleepthief is an American electronic music recording project formed by producer and composer Justin Elswick. Elswick began writing music for the album ten years prior to its release; the album was mixed, mastered, co-produced, co-arranged by Israel Curtis. Sleepthief's first album, The Dawnseeker, was released in 2006. Sleepthief is most compared to musical groups such as Delerium and Balligomingo, which produce emotive, synthesized music with what is described as new-age-influenced ethnic characteristics from other cultures. Similar to these groups is Sleepthief's use of pop music-based song structures with performances by female singers. Eleven vocalists contribute to The Dawnseeker, many of whom are established recording artists, some having worked with the aforementioned groups previously. All of Sleepthief's cover album art was drawn by his long-time collaborator Brian Son. Born in Southern California, Elswick served as an LDS missionary in Texas and received a B. A. degree in History from Brigham Young University.
Throughout this period, he became a self-taught musician. Justin studied in Ireland, graduating with a master's degree in philosophy at Trinity College, Dublin followed by a law degree at J. Reuben Clark Law School, he is a practicing attorney in Provo, Utah. In addition, Elswick wrote for Musical Discoveries, a music website dedicated to female vocalists, as an associate editor. Elswick began working on songs with Curtis around 2003. Russell Elliot, editor-in-chief of Musical Discoveries, put Elswick in contact with singer Jody Quine in December 2003. Quine became the first singer to join with the project, recording three songs and being filmed for a music video by 2005. Vic Levak, who worked with Balligomingo along with Quine worked with the group. All songs written by Elswick and the vocalist featured except; the lead single, "Eurydice", was released as a digital download as well as a limited-edition CD single. The track listing for the single is as follows: The new "Eurydice" mix was released on August 12, 2012 and is credited to DjMikelD.
The follow-up single, "The Chauffeur", is a cover of the Duran Duran song and was released in the same formats. 11 different versions of the song appear on the single, along with a cover of the Scorpions song "Send Me an Angel", with Kristy Thirsk on vocals. A limited edition CD single featuring the music video for "The Chauffeur" was released by Neurodisc soon afterwards; the track list for the single is as follows: Music videos were filmed for "Tenuous", "Eurydice", "The Chauffeur". The lead single for the Labyrinthine Heart, "World Gone Crazy", features the vocals of Coury Palermo and was released as a digital download EP on June 30, 2009, it includes the original version as well as a music video. In December 2009, a new version of the World Gone Crazy EP was released; the track "Skimming Stones", performed with Kirsty Hawkshaw, is a reprised version, released on a compilation album featuring various female vocalists called Sirenes: The Beauty of the Female Voice. A music video was produced for this track.
The next single was "Reason Why", a duet performed by Coury Zoë Johnston. A music video has been shot for the track as well, set in the Provo Tabernacle, destroyed by a fire in December 2010. Along with several remixes, a new song titled "Asunder" was released, it is performed with the neoclassical/Celtic duo Mirabilis. The track list is as follows: Sleepthief's third full-length album, Mortal Longing, was released on August 17, 2018. A crowd-funding campaign to raise $40,000 for the third album was launched on June 28, 2013, which raised around $10,000. Kirsty Hawkshaw, Caroline Lavelle, Coury Palermo, Carla Werner, Jody Quine, Kristy Thirsk, Sonja Drakulich, Roberta Harrison, Andrea Gerak, Marcella Detroit and Sandra Jill Alikas-St. Thomas were potential singers for the album. All songs written by Curtis and the vocalist featured except where otherwise noted. "Mortal Longing" was released on June 4, 2012, while the digital single and remixes from Psychosomatic, Blue Stone, DjMikeID were released on June 11, 2012.
A music video was released with the single. It was shot in the Goblin Valley State Park in Utah and features Jody Quine and Justin Curtis, Elswick himself in what can be defined a metaphor of the search for love. "a search that not always is happy". Jody Quine had a short insight on the song concept: "When Justin gave me the title'Mortal Longing' and the ideas behind it I struggled with how to best embody it lyrically. What I heard and followed was diving into the idea of physical addiction to the point of death and yet having it be the saviour. Choosing the right words that weren't cliche or cheesy can be difficult, but I think I found some strong and vivid choices that portray the physical responses of being in love and cry out for breath. Now that the song is out and I know more about where Justin was coming from in his concept, I think I wrote a kick ass song with him. I love you Justin, I'm always so honoured to work with you, Thank you." Another new single, "This Means War", was recorded in June 2013 with Joanna Stevens and released as an EP on November 12, 2013, along with a science fiction-themed music video.
The track list is as follows: The music video for "Dust & Cloud" was released on July 21, 2014, the single itself was released on July 28, 2014. The track list is as follows: The music video for "The Sandshaper" was released on August 17, 2018. After releasing Labyrinthine Heart, Elswick released two new tracks included in the compilation Beauty 2 - Music That Touches The Soul, r
Ludwig von Löfftz
Ludwig von Löfftz was a German genre and landscape painter. He was born at Darmstadt, he was a pupil of August von Kreling and Karl Raupp at Nuremberg of Wilhelm von Diez at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich, where he became professor in 1879, of which he was director between 1891 and 1899. His chief importance lay in his influence as a teacher. One of his students was Lovis Corinth, his works are of great perfection. A lofty atmosphere pervades his interiors, treated in the spirit of the Flemish masters, while his religious subjects are imbued with deep feeling and solemn grandeur. Great technical skill and masterly treatment of the chiaroscuro produce the most harmonious effects in all of his paintings; the impressive "Pietà" won him the gold medal at the International Exhibition in Munich and is now in the Neue Pinakothek, which contains Eurydice. Among his works are: Cardinal Playing the Organ Avarice and Love Erasmus in his Study An Old Woman The Money Changers This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"Löfftz, Ludwig". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Lofftz, Ludwig". Encyclopedia Americana
Harryette Mullen, Professor of English at University of California, Los Angeles, is an American poet, short story writer, literary scholar. Mullen was born in Florence, grew up in Fort Worth, graduated from the University of Texas at Austin and attended graduate school at the University of California, Santa Cruz; as of 2008, she lives in California. Mullen's most recent work is Urban Tumbleweed: Notes from a Tanka Diary. Mullen began to write poetry as a college student in a multicultural community of writers, artists and dancers in Austin, Texas; as an emerging poet, Mullen received a literature award from the Black Arts Academy, a Dobie-Paisano writer’s fellowship from the Texas Institute of Letters and University of Texas, an artist residency from the Helene Wurlitzer Foundation of New Mexico. In Texas, she worked in the Artists in Schools program before enrolling in graduate school in California, where she continued her study of American literature and encountered more diverse communities of writers and artists.
Mullen was influenced by the social and cultural movements of African Americans, Mexican Americans, women in the 1960s-70s, including the Civil Rights Movement, Black Power movement, the Black Arts Movement, Chicano Movement, feminism. Her first book, Tree Tall Woman, which showed traces of all of these influences, was published in 1981. In her books, Trimmings, S*PeRM**K*T, Muse & Drudge, Sleeping with the Dictionary, Mullen combines cultural critique with humor and wordplay as her poetry grapples with topics such as globalization, mass culture and the politics of identity. Critics, including Elisabeth Frost and Juliana Spahr, have suggested that Mullen’s poetry audience is an eclectic community of collaborative readers who share individual and collective interpretations of poems that may provoke multiple, divergent, or contradictory meanings, according to each reader’s cultural background. Mullen has taught at Cornell University, teaches courses in American poetry, African-American literature, creative writing at the University of California, Los Angeles.
While living in Ithaca and Rochester, New York, she was a faculty fellow of the Cornell University Society for the Humanities and a Rockefeller fellow at the Susan B. Anthony Institute at University of Rochester, she has received a Gertrude Stein Award for innovative poetry, a Katherine Newman Award for best essay on U. S. ethnic literature, a Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists award, a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Her poetry collection, Sleeping with the Dictionary, was a finalist for a National Book Award, National Book Critics Circle Award, Los Angeles Times Book Prize, she received a PEN/Beyond Margins Award for her Recyclopedia. She is credited for rediscovering the novel Oreo, published in 1974 by Fran Ross. Mullen won the fourth annual Jackson Poetry Prize from Poets & Writers in 2010, she appears in the documentary film The Black Candle, directed by M. K. Asante, Jr. and narrated by Maya Angelou. Mullen has stated that she was brought up in Fort Worth, but that her family is from Pennsylvania.
Growing up in such a small black community was hard because as Mullen has said in interviews, "...a Black Southern vernacular was spoken, which my family didn't speak." This created a division between Mullen and her peers who considered her an outsider for speaking "white". Mullen recalls on the different languages that she learned as a child as opposed to those around her; when one hears the term different languages one thinks of languages that are spoken in other far away foreign places. Yet Mullen is discussing the different types of English; the English she grew up learning was considered to be the “Standard English”, which loosely is summed up as the proper way of speaking English, the one that will make one more approachable in a nice part of town, the English that will make a person of color employable. The Black vernacular is considered to be incorrect and if people only spoke this vernacular they would be considered uneducated; this did not sit well with Mullen because she wanted Black children to understand that being black and educated were not mutually exclusive terms.
Mullen says that she does not believe that certain vernaculars are educated or uneducated. Language is the bridge that can connect two different cultures and Mullen experienced the opposite of that when she was growing up at first; the "Standard English" she spoke created a barrier for her. As it does for many other Black children that are considered different for it; this contributes to Black children equating their blackness to their language making some feel inadequate because they don’t sound "Black enough". As Mullen comes to understand in college there is more than one way of being Black, this came as a shock to her because she was learning about all these other Black cultures from a White man. Mullen thought it strange that she could see the Blackness of different cultures and yet hold no true meaningful relation to it, there was not type of familiarity between her and all these other Black cultures. In the Black community where she should feel "safe" in or "belong" but Mullen was alienated!
Code switching is in many ways the key to survival in these instances. For Black children all over they know how to speak when they are hanging out with friends versus how they should speak to a cop if they are pulled over. Tree Tall Woman, 1981 Trimmings, 1991 S*PeRM**K*T, 1992 Muse & Drudge, 19