The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Kos or Cos is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after Karpathos; the island measures 40 by 8 kilometres, is 4 km from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, part of the South Aegean region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos town. The name Kos is first attested in the Iliad, has been in continuous use since. Other ancient names include Meropis and Nymphaea. In many Romance languages, Kos was known as Stancho, Stanchio, or Stinco, in Ottoman and modern Turkish it is known as İstanköy, all from the reinterpretation of the Greek expression εις την Κω'to Kos'. Under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller of Rhodes, it was known as Lango or Langò because of its length. In The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, the author misunderstands this and treats Lango and Kos as distinct islands.
In Italian, the island is known as Coo. A person from Kos is called a "Koan" in English; the word is an adjective, as in "Koan goods". Kos is in the Aegean Sea, its coastline is 112 kilometres long and it extends from west to east. The island has several promontories, some with names known in antiquity: Cape Skandari, anciently Scandarium or Skandarion in the northeast. In addition to the main town and port called Kos, the main villages of Kos island are Kardamena, Tingaki, Mastihari and Pyli. Smaller ones are Zia, Platani and Asfendiou; the present municipality of Kos was created in 2011 with the merger of three municipalities, which became municipal units: Dikaios Irakleides KosThe municipality has an area of 290.313 km2, the municipal unit 67.200 km2. Tourism is the main industry in the island's beaches being the primary attraction; the main port and population centre on the island, Kos town, is the tourist and cultural centre, with whitewashed buildings including many hotels, restaurants and a number of nightclubs forming the Kos town "barstreet".
The seaside village of Kardamena is a popular resort for young holidaymakers and has a large number of bars and nightclubs. Farming is the second principal occupation, with the main crops being grapes, figs and tomatoes, along with wheat and corn. Cos lettuce may be grown here. In Homer's Iliad, a contingent of Koans fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War. In classical mythology the founder-king of Kos was Merops, hence "Meropian Kos" is included in the archaic Delian amphictyony listed in the 7th-century Homeric hymn to Delian Apollo; the island was colonised by the Carians. The Dorians invaded it in the 11th century BC, establishing a Dorian colony with a large contingent of settlers from Epidaurus, whose Asclepius cult made their new home famous for its sanatoria; the other chief sources of the island's wealth lay in its wines and, in days, in its silk manufacture. Its early history–as part of the religious-political amphictyony that included Lindos, Ialysos and Halicarnassus, the Dorian Hexapolis,–is obscure.
At the end of the 6th century, Kos fell under Achaemenid domination but rebelled after the Greek victory at the Battle of Mycale in 479. During the Greco-Persian Wars, before it twice expelled the Persians, it was ruled by Persian-appointed tyrants, but as a rule it seems to have been under oligarchic government. In the 5th century, it joined the Delian League, after the revolt of Rhodes, it served as the chief Athenian station in the south-eastern Aegean. In 366 BC, a democracy was instituted. In 366 BC, the capital was transferred from Astypalaea to the newly built town of Cos, laid out in a Hippodamian grid. After helping to weaken Athenian power, in the Social War, it fell for a few years to the king Mausolus of Caria. Proximity to the east gave the island first access to imported silk thread. Aristotle mentions silk weaving conducted by the women of the island. Silk production of garments was conducted in large factories by women slaves. In the Hellenistic period, Kos attained the zenith of its prosperity.
Its alliance was valued by the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt, who used it as a naval outpost to oversee the Aegean. As a seat of learning, it arose as a provincial branch of the museum of Alexandria, became a favorite resort for the education of the princes of the Ptolemaic dynasty. During the Hellenistic age, there was a medical school. Diodorus Siculus and Strabo describe it as a well-fortified port, its position gave it a high importance in Aegean trade. Under Alexander the Great and the Egyptian Ptolemies the town developed into one of the great centers in the Aegean. Herod is said to have provided an annual stipend for the benefit of prize-winners in the athletic games
The Calydonian or Aetolian Boar is one of the monsters of Greek mythology that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. Sent by Artemis to ravage the region of Calydon in Aetolia because its king failed to honour her in his rites to the gods, it was killed in the Calydonian Hunt, in which many male heroes took part, but a powerful woman, who won its hide by first wounding it with an arrow; this outraged some of the men, with tragic results. Strabo was under the impression that the Calydonian Boar was an offspring of the Crommyonian Sow vanquished by Theseus; the Calydonian Boar is one of the chthonic monsters in Greek mythology, each set in a specific locale. Sent by Artemis to ravage the region of Calydon in Aetolia, it met its end in the Calydonian Hunt, in which all the heroes of the new age pressed to take part, with the exception of Heracles, who vanquished his own Goddess-sent Erymanthian Boar separately. Since the mythic event drew together numerous heroes—among whom were many who were venerated as progenitors of their local ruling houses among tribal groups of Hellenes into Classical times—the Calydonian Boar hunt offered a natural subject in classical art, for it was redolent with the web of myth that gathered around its protagonists on other occasions, around their half-divine descent and their offspring.
Like the quest for the Golden Fleece or the Trojan War that took place the following generation, the Calydonian Hunt is one of the nodes in which much Greek myth comes together. Both Homer and Hesiod and their listeners were aware of the details of this myth, but no surviving complete account exists: some papyrus fragments found at Oxyrhynchus are all that survive of Stesichorus' telling. King Oeneus of Calydon, an ancient city of west-central Greece north of the Gulf of Patras, held annual harvest sacrifices to the gods on the sacred hill. One year the king forgot to include Great "Artemis of the Golden Throne" in his offerings Insulted, the "Lady of the Bow", loosed the biggest, most ferocious wild boar imaginable on the countryside of Calydon, it rampaged throughout the countryside, destroying vineyards and crops, forcing people to take refuge inside the city walls, where they began to starve. Oeneus sent messengers out to look for the best hunters in Greece, offering them the boar's pelt and tusks as a prize.
Among those who responded were some of the Argonauts, Oeneus' own son Meleager, remarkably for the Hunt's eventual success, one woman— the huntress Atalanta, the "indomitable", suckled by Artemis as a she-bear and raised as a huntress, a proxy for Artemis herself. Artemis appears to have been divided in her motives, for it was said that she had sent the young huntress because she knew her presence would be a source of division, so it was: many of the men, led by Kepheus and Ankaios, refused to hunt alongside a woman, it was the smitten Meleager. Nonetheless it was Atalanta who first succeeded in wounding the boar with an arrow, although Meleager finished it off, offered the prize to Atalanta, who had drawn first blood, but the sons of Thestios, who considered it disgraceful that a woman should get the trophy where men were involved, took the skin from her, saying that it was properly theirs by right of birth, if Meleager chose not to accept it. Outraged by this, Meleager again gave the skin to Atalanta.
Meleager's mother, sister of Meleager's slain uncles, took the fatal brand from the chest where she had kept it and threw it once more on the fire. Thus Artemis achieved her revenge against King Oeneus. During the hunt, Peleus accidentally killed his host Eurytion. In the course of the hunt and its aftermath, many of the hunters turned upon one another, contesting the spoils, so the Goddess continued to be revenged: "But the goddess again made a great stir of anger and crying battle, over the head of the boar and the bristling boar's hide, between Kouretes and the high-hearted Aitolians"; the boar's hide, preserved in the Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea in Laconia was reputedly that of the Calydonian Boar, "rotted by age and by now altogether without bristles" by the time Pausanias saw it in the second century CE. He noted that the tusks had been taken to Rome as booty from the defeated allies of Mark Anthony by Augustus; the Calydonian Hunt was the theme of the temple's main pediment. The heroes who participated assembled according to Homer.
The table lists: Those seen by Pausanias on the Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea. Those listed by Latin mythographer Hyginus; those noted in Ovid's list from the 8th Book of his Metamorphoses. Those who appear in Book I of the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca I, VIII, 2–3; the Heroes of the Greeks pp114ff, et passim Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII, 267–525. Ruck, Carl A. P. and Danny Staples, 1994. The World of Classical Myth p Algernon Charles. "Atalanta in Calydon"
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s
In Greek mythology, Eurystheus was king of Tiryns, one of three Mycenaean strongholds in the Argolid, although other authors including Homer and Euripides cast him as ruler of Argos. Eurystheus was the son of Sthenelus and Nicippe, he was a grandson of the hero Perseus, as was his opponent Heracles, he was married to daughter of Amphidamas. In the contest of wills between Hera and Zeus over whose candidate would be hero, fated to defeat the remaining creatures representing an old order and bring about the reign of the Twelve Olympians, Eurystheus was Hera's candidate and Heracles – though his name implies that at one archaic stage of myth-making he had carried "Hera's fame" – was the candidate of Zeus; the arena for the actions that would bring about this deep change are the Twelve Labors imposed on Heracles by Eurystheus. The immediate necessity for the Labours of Heracles is as penance for Heracles' murder of his own family, in a fit of madness, sent by Hera. Details of the individual episodes may be found in the article on the Labours of Heracles, but Hera was connected with all of the opponents Heracles had to overcome.
Heracles' human stepfather Amphitryon was a grandson of Perseus, since Amphitryon's father was older than Eurystheus' father, he might have received the kingdom, but Sthenelus had banished Amphitryon for accidentally killing the eldest son in the family. When, shortly before his son Heracles was born, Zeus proclaimed the next-born descendant of Perseus should get the kingdom, Hera thwarted his ambitions by delaying Alcmene's labour and having her candidate Eurystheus born prematurely. Heracles' first task was to slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its skin, which Heracles decided to wear. Eurystheus was so scared by Heracles' fearsome guise that he hid in a subterranean bronze winejar, from that moment forth all labors were communicated to Heracles through a herald, Copreus. For his second labour, to slay the Lernaean Hydra, Heracles took with him his nephew, Iolaus, as a charioteer; when Eurystheus found out that Heracles' nephew had helped him he declared that the labour had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the ten labours set for him.
Eurystheus' third task did not involve killing a beast, but capturing one alive - the Ceryneian Hind, a golden-horned stag sacred to Artemis. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind, as he had promised, to Artemis, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. Eurystheus did come out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, she sprinted back to her mistress, Heracles departed, saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough; when Heracles returned with the Erymanthian Boar, Eurystheus was again frightened and hid in his jar, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast. The fifth labour proposed by Eurystheus was to clear out the numerous stables of Augeias. Striking a deal with Augeias, Heracles proposed a payment of a tenth of Augeias' cattle if the labour was completed successfully. Not believing the task feasible, Augeias agreed. Heracles rerouted two nearby rivers through the stable; when Augeias learned of Heracles' bargain for the task, he refused payment.
Heracles brought the case to court, Phyleus testified against his father. Enraged, Augeias banished both Phyleus and Heracles from the land before the court had cast their vote. However, Eurystheus refused to credit the labour to Heracles. So Heracles drove Augeias out of the kingdom and installed Phyleus as king. Heracles took his tenth of the cattle and left them to graze in a field by his home. For his sixth labour, Heracles had to drive the Stymphalian Birds off the marshes, he did so, shooting down several birds with his Hydra-poisoned arrows and bringing them back to Eurystheus as proof. For his seventh labour, Heracles captured the Cretan Bull, he rode it back to his cousin. Eurystheus offered to sacrifice the bull to Hera his patron, she refused the sacrifice. The bull was wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull; when Heracles brought back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes Eurystheus dedicated the horses to Hera and allowed them to roam in the Argolid. Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse, was said to be descended from these mares.
To acquire the belt of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons was Heracles ninth task. This task was at the request of Admete. For the tenth labour, he stole the cattle of the giant Geryon, which Eurystheus had sacrificed to Hera. To extend what may have once been ten Labours to the canonical dozen, it was said that Eurystheus didn't count the Hydra, as he was assisted, nor the Augean stables, as Heracles received payment for his work. For the eleventh labour Heracles had to obtain the Apples of the Hesperides. For his final labour, he was to capture Cerberus, the three-headed hound that guarded the entrance to Hades; when he managed to bring the struggling animal back, the terrified Eurystheus hid in his jar one more time, begging Heracles to leave for good and take the dog with him. After Heracles died, Eurystheus remained bitter over the ind
Atalanta is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, loved by the hero Meleager. According to the Bibliotheca of pseudo-Apollodorus, Atalanta was the daughter of Iasus, son of Lycurgus, Clymene, daughter of Minyas, she is mentioned as the daughter of Mainalos or Schoeneus, of a Boeotian, or of an Arcadian princess. The Bibliotheca is the only source which gives an account of Atalanta's upbringing. King Iasus wanted a son; some stories say that a she-bear suckled and cared for Atalanta until hunters found and raised her, she learned to fight and hunt as a bear would. She was reunited with her father. Having grown up in the wilderness, Atalanta was always happy, she took an oath of virginity to the goddess Artemis, slew two centaurs and Rhoecus, who attempted to ravish her. When Artemis was forgotten at a sacrifice by King Oineus, she was angered and sent the Calydonian Boar, a wild boar that ravaged the land and cattle and prevented crops from being sown. Atalanta joined many other famous heroes on a hunt for the boar.
Many of the men were angry that a woman was joining them, but Meleager, though married, lusted for Atalanta, so he persuaded them to include her. Several of the men were killed before Atalanta became the first to draw blood. After Meleager killed the boar with his spear, he awarded the hide to Atalanta. Meleager's uncles and Toxeus, were angry and tried to take the skin from her. In revenge, Meleager killed his uncles. Wild with grief, Meleager's mother Althaea threw a charmed log on the fire, which consumed Meleager's life as it burned. After the Calydonian boar hunt, Atalanta was rediscovered by her father, he wanted her to be married, but Atalanta, uninterested in marriage, agreed to marry only if her suitors could outrun her in a footrace. Those who lost would be killed. King Schoeneus agreed, many young men died in the attempt until Hippomenes came along. Hippomenes asked the goddess Aphrodite for help, she gave him three golden apples in order to slow Atalanta down; the apples were irresistible, so every time Atalanta got ahead of Hippomenes, he rolled an apple ahead of her, she would run after it.
In this way, Hippomenes came to marry Atalanta. They had a son Parthenopaios, one of the Seven against Thebes. Zeus or his mother Rhea turned Atalanta and Hippomenes into lions after they had sex together in one of his temples. Other accounts say that Aphrodite changed them into lions because they did not give her proper honor; the belief at the time was. In many versions of the quest for the Golden Fleece, for instance that published by Robert Graves in 1944, Atalanta sailed with the Argonauts as the only woman among them, she jumped aboard the ship soon after the expedition set out, invoking the protection of Artemis, whose virgin priestess she was. She was following Meleager. Atalanta returned his love but was prevented by an oracle from consummating their union, being warned that losing her virginity would prove disastrous for her. In disappointment Meleager joined the Argo, she plays a major part in various adventures of Jason's crew, suffered injury in a battle at Colchis, was healed by Medea.
Apollonius of Rhodes, on the other hand, claims Jason would not allow a woman on the ship because she would cause strife on the otherwise all-male expedition. The Bibliotheca says she wrestled and defeated Peleus at the funeral games for Pelias; the subject is popular in ancient Greek vase painting. In Ovid's Metamorphosis Aphrodite tells the story of the footrace, what follows, including a mysterious prophecy which in this version scared Atalanta away from marriage. Founded in 1907 in Bergamo by local "liceo classico" students, football club Atalanta Bergamasca Calcio gets its name from the Greek deity; the club is for this reason nicknamed "La Dea" by its supporters. The German mythologist, composer and counsellor to Rudolf II, Michael Maier published Atalanta Fugiens in 1617, an early work of mixed media which included an epigrammatic verse on the Greek myth, along with 50 emblematic images and music fugues relating to Atalanta's flight. Handel wrote a 1736 opera about Atalanta. In the 20th century, Robert Ashley wrote an opera, with loose allegorical connections to the myth.
Other works based on the myth include a play by Algernon Charles Swinburne, Atalanta in Calydon, written in 1865. Comic books have used versions of her story, including Hercules: the Thracian Wars, The Incredible Hulk. Versions of the story of Atalanta appear in the television series Atlantis produced by BBC, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, the Hallmark mini-series of Jason and the Argonauts, Free to Be... You and Me. Video game appearances include the Golden Sun series, Herc's Adventures, an expansion of Zeus: Master of Olympus, Rise of the Argonauts, Age of Mythology. Atalanta appears in the 2014 film Hercules, where she is depicted as an Amazonian archer, member of Hercules' travelin