Roman Catholic Diocese of Angers
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Angers is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The episcopal see; the diocese extends over the entire department of Maine-et-Loire. It was a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Tours under the old regime as well as under the Concordat; the diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Rennes and Saint-Malo. The first Bishop known in history is Defensor, when present in 372, at the election of the Bishop of Tours, made a determined stand against the nomination of Saint Martin; the legend concerning the earlier episcopate of a certain Auxilius, is connected with the cycle of legends that centre about Saint Firmin of Amiens and is contradicted by Angevin tradition from before the thirteenth century. Among the illustrious names of the Diocese of Angers during the first centuries of its existence are those of Saint Maurilius, disciple of Saint Martin, at an earlier period hermit of Chalonnes, who made a vigorous stand against idolatry, died in 427.
As for the tradition that Saint Renatus, raised from the dead by Saint Maurilius, was Bishop of Angers for some time shortly before 450, it bases its claims to credibility on a late life of Saint Maurilius written in 905 by the deacon Archinald, circulated under the name of Gregory of Tours, it seems to have no real foundation. Among the Bishops of Angers in modern times were Cardinal de la Balue confined by Louis XI in an iron cage for his negotiations with Charles the Bold. Angers Cathedral, a majestic structure without side aisles, dedicated to Saint Maurice, dates from the twelfth century and exhibits the characteristic type of Angevin or Plantagenet architecture. During the Middle Ages Angers was a flourishing monastic city with six great monasteries: the Abbey of St. Aubin founded by King Childebert I. In 1219 Pope Callixtus II went in person to Angers to assist at the second consecration of the church attached to Ronceray Abbey; the Diocese of Angers includes Fontevrault, an abbey founded at the close of the eleventh century by Robert d'Arbrissel but which did not survive the Revolution.
The ruins of St. Maur perpetuate the memory of the great Benedictine abbey of that name. In 1244, a university was founded at Angers for the teaching of canon and civil law. In 1432 faculties of theology and art were added; this university was divided into six "nations," and survived up to the time of the Revolution. In consequence of the law of 1875 giving liberty in the matter of higher education, Angers again became the seat of a Catholic university; the Congregation of the Good Shepherd, which has houses in all parts of the world, has its mother-house at Angers by virtue of a papal brief of 1835. Berengarius, the heresiarch condemned for his doctrines on the Holy Eucharist, was Archdeacon of Angers about 1039, for some time found a protector in the person of Eusebius Bruno, Bishop of Angers. Bernier, who played a great role in the wars of La Vendée and in the negotiations that led to the Concordat, was curé of St. Laud in Angers. Defensor Maurilius Andulphe Aubin Audovée Lezin Mainboeuf Nefingus Renaud II.
Hubert of Vendôme Eusebius Bruno Gottfried of Tours Gottfried of Mayenne Renaud de Martigné Ulger Normand de Doué Mathieu de Loudun Geoffroy La Mouche Raoul I. de Beaumont Guillaume I. de Chemillé Guillaume II. de Beaumont Michel I. Villoiseau Nicolas Gellent Guillaume III. Le Maire Hugues Odard Foulques de Mathefelon Raoul II. de Machecoul Guillaume IV. Turpin de Cressé Milon de Dormans Hardouin de Bueil Jean I. Michel Jean II. de Beauveau Jean de La Balue Jean II de Beauveau Auger de Brie Jean de La Balue Jean IV. de Rély François de Rohan Jean Olivier Gabriel Bouvery Guillaume Ruzé Charles Miron Guillaume Fouquet de la Varenne Charles Miron Claude de Rueil Henri Arnauld Michel Le Peletier Michel Poncet de la Rivière Jean de Vaugirault Jacques de Grasse Michel Cauet Hugues Pelletier Charles Montault des Isles Louis-Robert Paysant Guillaume-Laurent-Louis Angebault Charles-Emile Freppel François-Désiré Mathieu Louis-Jules Baron Joseph Rumeau Jean-Camille Costes Henri-Alexandre Chappoulie Pierre Veuillot Henri-Louis-Marie Mazerat Jean Pierre Marie Orchampt
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A synod is a council of a church convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word synod comes from the Greek σύνοδος meaning "assembly" or "meeting", it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium meaning "council". Synods were meetings of bishops, the word is still used in that sense in Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Orthodoxy. In modern usage, the word refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not, it is sometimes used to refer to a church, governed by a synod. Sometimes the phrase "general synod" or "general council" refers to an ecumenical council; the word synod refers to the standing council of high-ranking bishops governing some of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. The day-to-day governance of patriarchal and major archiepiscopal Eastern Catholic Churches is entrusted to a permanent synod. In Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, synods of bishops are meetings of bishops within each autonomous Church and are the primary vehicle for the election of bishops and the establishment of inter-diocesan ecclesiastical laws.
A sobor is a formal gathering or council of bishops together with other clerical and lay delegates representing the church to deal with matters of faith, morality and canonical and cultural life. The synod in the Western churches is similar, but it is distinguished by being limited to an assembly of bishops; the term is found among those Eastern Orthodox Churches that use Slavic language, along with the Romanian Orthodox Church. The presence of clerical and lay delegates is for the purpose of discerning the consensus of the church on important matters. Kievan Rus' chronicles record the first known East Slavic church sobor as having taken place in Kiev in 1051. Sobors were convened periodically from on. Important sobors in the History of the Russian Orthodox Church are: Vladimir's Sobor in 1276 The Stoglavy Sobor in 1551 The Moscow Sobor of 1666–1667, to deal with disputes surrounding the ecclesiastical reforms of Patriarch Nikon The All-Russian Sobor of 1917, which restored the Moscow Patriarchate and elected Saint Tikhon as the first modern Patriarch of Moscow The All-Russian Sobor of 1988, called on the 1000th anniversary of the Baptism of Rus' to guide the church in the wake of glasnost and the loosening of the Soviet grip over the churchA bishop may call a sobor for his diocese, which again would have delegates from the clergy and parishes of his diocese, to discuss important matters.
Such diocesan sobors may be held only occasionally. In Roman Catholic usage and council are theoretically synonymous as they are of Greek and Latin origins both meaning an authoritative meeting of bishops for the purpose of church administration in the areas of teaching or governance. However, in modern use and council are applied to specific categories of such meetings and so do not overlap. A synod meets every three years and is thus designated an "Ordinary General Assembly." However, "Extraordinary" synods can be called to deal with specific situations. There are "Special" synods for the Church in a specific geographic area such as the one held November 16-December 12, 1997, for the Church in America. While the words "synod" and "council" refer to a transitory meeting, the term "Synod of Bishops" or "Synod of the Bishops", is applied to a permanent body established in 1965 as an advisory body of the pope, it holds assemblies at which bishops and religious superiors, elected by bishops conferences or the Union of Superiors General or appointed by the Pope vote on proposals to present for the pope's consideration, which in practice the pope uses as the basis of "post-synodal apostolic exhortations" on the themes discussed.
While an assembly of the Synod of Bishops thus expresses its collective wishes, it does not issue decrees, unless in certain cases the pope authorizes it to do so, then an assembly's decision requires ratification by the pope. The pope serves as president of an assembly or appoints the president, determines the agenda, summons and dissolves the assembly. Modern Catholic synod themes: X "The Bishop: Servant of the Gospel of JESUS CHRIST for the hope of the world" 1998 XI "The Eucharist: Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church 2005 XII "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church" 2008 XIII "New Evangelisation for the Transmission of the Christian Faith" 2012 Extraordinary General "The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization" 2014 Meetings of bishops in the Roman empire are known from the mid-third century and numbered twenty by the time of the First Council of Nicaea. Thereafter they continued by the hundreds into the sixth century; those authorized by an emperor and attended by him came to be called ecumenical, meaning throughout the world.
Today, Council in Roman Catholic canon law refers to an irregular meeting of the entire episcopate of a nation, region, or the world for the purpose of legislation with binding force. Those contemplated in canon law are the following: An ecumenical council is an irregular meeting of the entire episcopate in communion with the pope and is, along with the pope
Transubstantiation is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that in the Eucharistic offering bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ; the reaffirmation of this doctrine was expressed, using the word "transubstantiate", by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. It was challenged by various 14th-century reformers, John Wycliffe in particular; the manner in which the change occurs, the Roman Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: "The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ." The precise terminology to be used to refer to the nature of the Eucharist and its theological implications has a contentious history in the Protestant Reformation. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the doctrine has been discussed under the term of metousiosis, coined as a direct loan-translation of transsubstantiatio in the 17th century.
In Eastern Orthodoxy in general, the Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist is more discussed using alternative terms such as "trans-elementation", "re-ordination", or "change". The belief that the bread and wine that form the matter of the Eucharist become the body and blood of Christ appears to have been widespread from an early date, with early Christian writers referring to them as his body and the blood, they speak of them as the same blood which suffered and died on the cross. The short document known as the Teaching of the Apostles or Didache, which may be the earliest Christian document outside of the New Testament to speak of the Eucharist, says, "Let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. A figure, there could not have been, unless there were first a veritable body. An empty thing, or phantom, is incapable of a figure. If, however, He pretended the bread was His body, because He lacked the truth of bodily substance, it follows that He must have given bread for us."The Apostolic Constitutions says: "Let the bishop give the oblation, The body of Christ.
And let the deacon take the cup. Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed.... For that sacrament which you receive is made, but if the word of Elijah had such power as to bring down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ have power to change the nature of the elements?... Why do you seek the order of nature in the Body of Christ, seeing that the Lord Jesus Himself was born of a Virgin, not according to nature? It is the true Flesh of Christ, crucified and buried, this is truly the Sacrament of His Body; the Lord Jesus Himself proclaims: "This Is My Body." Before the blessing of the heavenly words another nature is spoken of, after the consecration the Body is signified. He Himself speaks of His Blood. Before the consecration it has another name, and you say, that is, It is true. Let the heart within confess what the mouth utters, let the soul feel. Other fourth-century Christian writers say that in the Eucharist there occurs a "change", "transelementation", "transformation", "transposing", "alteration" of the bread into the body of Christ.
In AD 400, Augustine quotes Cyprian: "For as Christ says'I am the true vine,' it follows that the blood of Christ is wine, not water.
Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
The Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a religious encyclopedia. It is based on an earlier German encyclopedia, the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche. Like the Realencyklopädie, it focuses on Christianity from a Protestant point of view; the final edition, titled The New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, was published 1908–14 in 13 volumes, based on the third edition of the Realencyklopädie. The Realencyklopädie's publishing history was: 1853—1868 — 1st ed. Ed. Johann Jakob Herzog. 22 vols. c. 1877 — new ed. Ed. Herzog and G. L. Plitt. 1896—1909 — 3rd ed. Ed. Albert Hauck. 22 vols. The Schaff-Herzog's publishing history was: 1882–84 – 1st ed. Ed. Philip Schaff. 1891 – 3rd ed. Ed. Albert Hauck. 1908–14 – The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 13 vols. This was a substantial update, based throughout on the 3rd ed. Christian Classics Ethereal Library has made it available online. Logos Bible Software is undertaking a digitization project of it.
The idea of translating Herzog in a condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger, a minister of the German Reformed Church, president of Ursinus College, Pennsylvania, in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title-page reads thus: The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog’s Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D. D. Assisted by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. I. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, x 1856. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 he issued the second volume, but the American Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it was never resumed. The first volume included the article "Concubinage", the second "Josiah", it had been issued in numbers. In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, this work was begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff’s study in the Bible House, New York City.
The next year Dr. Schaff’s son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. joined the staff. The original publishers were S. S. Scranton & Company, Conn. but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopedia was issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title-page read thus: A Religious Encyclopædia: or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical and Practical Theology. Based on the Real-Encyklopädie of Herzog and Hauck. Edited by Philip Schaff, D. D. LL. D. Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. Associate editors: Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M. A. and Rev. D. S. Schaff. Volume I. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and 18 Dey Street; the first volume was issued Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, the third Tuesday, March 4, 1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1-847. Pp. xvii. 848-1714. Pp. xix. 1715-2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers of All Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
Edited by Rev. Philip Schaff, D. D. LL. D. and Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887. In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia of Living Divines, with an appendix the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the biographical and literary notices down to December, 1890; the entire work was repaged sufficiently to make it one of four volumes of about equal size, it is this four-volume edition, known to the public as the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, the volumes being of pp. xlviii. 679 and four pages unnumbered. 2087-2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was overtaken by the time "S" had been reached, the Schaff-Herzog from that letter on was based on the first edition of Herzog. Therefore, much of its matter is now old, yet it has been a useful work, in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of Herzog, appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the beginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date.
This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to Herzog condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in many instances been brought down to date, second by calling on department editors for supplementary matter. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge followed the previous editions; the points of similarities were: that at its base lay the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche that it gave in condensed form the information in that work, took such matter directly from the German work in most instances, although while the topic was the same the treatment was independent of the German original.
Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire. Reims played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the traditional site of the crowning of the kings of France; the Cathedral of Reims housed the Holy Ampulla containing the Saint Chrême brought by a white dove at the baptism of Clovis in 496. It was used for the most important part of the coronation of French kings. Reims functions as a subprefecture of the department of Marne, in the administrative region of Grand Est. Although Reims is by far the largest commune in its department, Châlons-en-Champagne is the prefecture. Before the Roman conquest of northern Gaul, founded circa 80 BC as *Durocorteron, served as the capital of the tribe of the Remi — whose name the town would subsequently echo.
In the course of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, the Remi allied themselves with the Romans, by their fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of the imperial power. At its height in Roman times the city had a population in the range of 30,000 - 50,000 or up to 100,000. Christianity had become established in the city by 260, at which period Saint Sixtus of Reims founded the bishopric of Reims; the consul Jovinus, an influential supporter of the new faith, repelled the Alamanni who invaded Champagne in 336. In 496 – ten years after Clovis, King of the Salian Franks, won his victory at Soissons — Remigius, the bishop of Reims, baptized him using the oil of the sacred phial – purportedly brought from heaven by a dove for the baptism of Clovis and subsequently preserved in the Abbey of Saint-Remi. For centuries the events at the crowning of Clovis I became a symbol used by the monarchy to claim the divine right to rule. Meetings of Pope Stephen II with Pepin the Short, of Pope Leo III with Charlemagne, took place at Reims.
King Louis IV gave the city and countship of Reims to the archbishop Artaldus in 940. King Louis VII gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne, archbishop from 1176 to 1202, the archbishops of Reims took precedence over the other ecclesiastical peers of the realm. By the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture. Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert, founded schools which taught the classical "liberal arts"; the archbishops held the important prerogative of the consecration of the kings of France – a privilege which they exercised from the time of Philippe II Augustus to that of Charles X. Louis VII granted the city a communal charter in 1139; the Treaty of Troyes ceded it to the English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in 1360. Louis XI cruelly suppressed a revolt at Reims, caused in 1461 by the salt tax. During the French Wars of Religion the city sided with the Catholic League, but submitted to King Henri IV after the battle of Ivry.
In the invasions of the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1814, anti-Napoleonic allied armies captured and re-captured Reims. In August 1909 Reims hosted the first international aviation meet, the Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne. Major aviation personages such as Glenn Curtiss, Louis Blériot and Louis Paulhan participated. Hostilities in World War I damaged the city. German bombardment and a subsequent fire in 1914 did severe damage to the cathedral; the ruined cathedral became one of the central images of anti-German propaganda produced in France during the war, which presented it, along with the ruins of the Cloth Hall at Ypres and the University Library in Louvain, as evidence that German aggression targeted cultural landmarks of European civilization. From the end of World War I to the present day an international effort to restore the cathedral from the ruins has continued; the Palace of Tau, St Jacques Church and the Abbey of St Remi were protected and restored. The collection of preserved buildings and Roman ruins remains monumentally impressive.
During World War II the city suffered additional damage. But in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of 7 May 1945, General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht. General Alfred Jodl, German Chief-of-Staff, signed the surrender at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force as the representative for German President Karl Dönitz; the British statesman Leslie Hore-Belisha died of a cerebral haemorrhage while making a speech at the Reims hôtel de ville in February 1957. The principal squares of Reims include the
Berengar of Tours
Berengar of Tours was an 11th-century French Christian theologian and Archdeacon of Angers, a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic, soon followed at cathedral schools of Laon and Paris. He came into conflict with Church authorities over the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Eucharist. Berengar of Tours was born at Tours in the early years of the 11th century, his education began in the school of Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, who represented the traditional theology of the early Middle Ages, but did not succeed in imparting it to his pupil. Berengar was less attracted by pure theology than by secular learning, brought away a knowledge of Latin literature, a general knowledge and freedom of thought surprising for his age, he paid more attention to the Bible and early Christian writers Gregory of Tours and Augustine of Hippo. After the death of Fulbert in 1028, Berengar returned to Tours, where he became a canon of the cathedral.
In about 1040 became head of its school, improving its efficiency and attracting students from far and near. He acquired his fame as much from his blameless and ascetic life as from the success of his teaching, his reputation was such. He remained in Tours to direct the school, he enjoyed the confidence of of the powerful Count Geoffrey of Anjou. Amid this chorus of praise, a discordant voice began to be heard; the first controversies on the nature of the Eucharistic Presence date from the earlier Middle Ages. In the ninth century Paschasius Radbertus claimed that Christ's Eucharistic body was identical with his body in heaven, but he won no support, his doctrine was attacked by Ratramnus and Rabanus Maurus, who opposed his emphatic realism, sometimes marred by unfortunate comparisons and illustrations, proposed a more spiritual conception of the Divine presence. As for Berengar, by one account, "Considerably greater stir was provoked... by the teaching of Berengar, who opposed the doctrine of the Real Presence."
But in reality, there are diverse opinions among theologians and historians on this point, it is not clear that Berengar denies the Real Presence, though he does deny transubstantiation. The first to take formal notice of this was his former fellow student Adelmann, who begged him to abandon his opposition to the Church's teaching. In the early part of 1050, Berengar addressed a letter to Lanfranc prior of Bec Abbey in Normandy, in which he expressed his regret that Lanfranc adhered to the Eucharistic teaching of Paschasius and considered the treatise of Ratramnus on the subject to be heretical, he declared his own agreement with Eriugena, believed himself to be supported by Saint Ambrose, Saint Jerome and other authorities. This letter was received by Lanfranc in Rome, where it was read before a council and Berengar's view was condemned. Berengar was summoned to appear at another council to be held at Vercelli in September. Berengar sought permission to go to the council from King Henry I of France, in his capacity as nominal abbot of St. Martin at Tours.
Instead, for unclear reasons, the king imprisoned him. The council at Vercelli examined Berengar's doctrine and again condemned it and he was excommunicated. On his release from prison effected by the influence of Geoffrey of Anjou, the king still pursued him, called a synod to meet in Paris in October 1051. Berengar, fearing its purpose, avoided appearing, the king's threats after its session had no effect, since Berengar was sheltered by Geoffrey and by his former student, now Bishop of Angers, he found numerous partisans among less prominent people. In 1054, a Council was held at Tours presided over by Cardinal Hildebrand as papal legate. Berengar wrote a profession of faith wherein he confessed that after consecration the bread and wine were the body and blood of Christ; the French bishops indicated that they wished a speedy settlement of the controversy and the synod declared itself satisfied by Berengar's written declaration. In 1059, Berengar went to Rome, fortified by a letter of commendation from Count Geoffrey to Hildebrand.
At a council held in the Lateran, he could get no hearing, a formula representing what seemed to him the most carnal view of the sacrament was offered for his acceptance. Overwhelmed by the forces against him, he took this document in his hand and threw himself on the ground in the silence of apparent submission. Berengar returned to France full of remorse for this desertion of his faith and of bitterness against the pope and his opponents. Eusebius Bruno was withdrawing from him. Rome, was disposed to give him a chance, he was still firm in his convictions, in about 1069 he published a treatise in which he gave vent to his resentment against Pope Nicholas II and his antagonists in the Roman council. Lanfranc answered it, Berengar rejoined. Bishop Hugo of Langres wrote a treatise, De corpore et sanguine Christi, against Berengar; the eponymous