Eusebius of Nicomedia

Eusebius of Nicomedia was an Arian priest, the man who baptised Constantine the Great. He was a bishop of Berytus in Phoenicia, he was made the bishop of Nicomedia, where the Imperial court resided. He lived in Constantinople from 338 up to his death. Distantly related to the imperial family of Constantine, he owed his progression from a less significant Levantine bishopric to the most important episcopal see to his influence at court, the great power he wielded in the church was derived from that source. In fact, during his time in the imperial court, the Eastern court and the major positions in the Eastern Church were held by Arians or Arian sympathizers. With the exception of a short period of eclipse, he enjoyed the confidence both of Constantine and Constantius II, he served as the tutor of the Emperor Julian the Apostate. During his time in the imperial court, Arianism became more popular with the royal family, it can be logically surmised that Eusebius had a huge hand in the acceptance of Arianism in the Constantinian household.

The Arian influence grew so strong during his tenure in the imperial court that it was not until the end of the Constantinian dynasty and the appointment of Theodosius I that Arianism lost its influence in the empire. It was of particular interest that Eusebius was nearly persecuted because of his close relationship to the Emperor Licinius while serving as bishop of Nicomedia during Licinius' reign. Like Arius, he was a pupil of Lucian of Antioch, it is probable that he held the same views as Arius from the beginning, it was because of this relationship that he was the first person whom Arius contacted after the latter was excommunicated from Alexandria by Alexander I of Alexandria in 321. Arius and Eusebius were close enough and Eusebius powerful enough that Arius was able to put his theology down in writing, he afterward modified his ideas somewhat, or he only yielded to the pressure of circumstances. At the First Council of Nicaea, 325, he signed the Confession, but only after a long and desperate opposition in which he "subscribe with hand only, not heart" according to ancient sources.

It was a huge blow to the Arian party since it was surmised that the participants in the First Council of Nicaea were evenly split between non-Arians and Arians. His defense of Arius angered the emperor, a few months after the council he was sent into exile due to his continual contacts with Arius and his followers. After the lapse of three years, he succeeded in regaining the imperial favor by convincing Constantine that Arius and his views do not conflict with the proclaimed Nicene Creed. After his return in 329 he brought the whole machinery of the state government into action in order to impose his views upon the Church. In complement to his theological interests, Eusebius was a skilled politician. Upon his return, he regained the lost ground resulted from the First Council of Nicaea, established alliances with other groups such as the Melitians and expelled many opponents, he was described by modern historians as an "ambitious intriguer" and a "consummate political player". He was described by ancient sources as a high-handed person, aggressive in his dealings..

He was able to dislodge and exile three key opponents who espoused the First Council of Nicaea: Eustathius of Antioch in 330, Athanasius of Alexandria in 335 and Marcellus of Ancyra in 336. This was no small feat, and both Eustathius and Athanasius held top positions in the church. Another major feat was his appointment as the Patriarch of Constantinople by expelling Paul I of Constantinople. Outside the empire, Eusebius had great influence, he sent the latter to convert the heathen Goths. Eusebius baptised Constantine the Great in his villa in Nicomedia, on May 22, 337 just before the death of the Emperor, he died at the height of his power in the year 341. He was so influential that after his death, Constantius II heeded his and Eudoxus of Constantinople's advice to attempt to convert the Roman Empire to Arianism by creating Arian Councils and official Arian Doctrines, it was because of Eusebius that "On the whole and his successors made life pretty miserable for Church leaders committed to the Nicene decision and its Trinitarian formula."Eusebius of Nicomedia is not to be confused with his contemporary Eusebius of Caesarea, the author of a well-known early book of Church History.

Amidon, Philip R.. The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia: Books 10 and 11. New York: Oxford University Press. Bright, William; the Age of the Fathers. New York: AMS Press. Chadwick, Henry; the Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chadwick, Henry; the Early Church. London: Penguin Group. Drake, H. A.. Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of intolerance. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Ellingsen, Mark. Reclaiming Our Roots: An Inclusive Introduction to Church History, Vol. I, The Late First Century to the Eve of the Reformation. Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International. Guitton, Jean. Great Heresies and Church councils. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Jones, A. H. M.. Constantine and the Conversion of Europe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Lim, Richard

Riverbend Music Center

The Riverbend Music Center is an outdoor amphitheater located in Cincinnati, along the banks of the Ohio River. It has a capacity of 20,500 and was built for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, to allow them to play in an outdoor venue during the summer months. Famed architect and 2012 Driehaus Prize winner Michael Graves designed the building; the venue is managed by the Symphony subsidiary and Event Management Incorporated and booked in conjunction with Live Nation. The amphitheater, along with the PNC Pavilion, are a part of the Hulbert Taft Jr. Center for the Performing Arts; when Riverbend opened in 1984, it was one of only 16 outdoor music amphitheaters in the United States and it helped revive the Cincinnati concert scene. Many concert promoters avoided Cincinnati following the December 3, 1979, The Who rock concert tragedy, in which 11 people died at Riverfront Coliseum; the city passed tough crowd control ordinances. Despite those factors, promoters gave the venue a chance and the fans were excited to see acts, avoiding the city since 1979.

Riverbend was built for $9 million on 15 acres of land donated by Coney Island, a small amusement park. The land was once the home of 2 popular rollercoasters, The Wildcat and Shooting Star, the latter was demolished in 1971. Due to its location next to the Ohio River, parts of the venue can become flooded. A Pearl Jam concert in 2003 and a 2001 show by Oasis and The Black Crowes were among the shows canceled; the venue's first performance was by Erich Kunzel & The Cincinnati Pops Orchestra, with special guests Ella Fitzgerald and Neil Armstrong, on July 4, 1984. On July 4, 2000, The Pops performed the first live concert televised from Cincinnati, which aired on PBS, featuring Rosemary Clooney and Doc Severinsen; the Dave Matthews Band performed and recorded their show, on June 26, 2000, released as a live album, entitled Live Trax Vol. 16. Sting performed during his Symphonicities Tour on July 20, 2010, along with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; the amphitheatre has played host to music festivals, including Crüe Fest, Crüe Fest 2, Lilith Fair, The Mayhem Festival, Projekt Revolution,The Horde Festival and The Vans Warped Tour.

Jimmy Buffett has played at Riverbend every year since 1988. As of his 2008 appearance, he has performed for 41 consecutive sell-out crowds. There are only two other venues, his following in Cincinnati started at Kings Island's Timberwolf Amphitheater, where the phrase Parrotheads was coined. Every year since, his concerts sell out in minutes, is one of the toughest tickets to get in Cincinnati; because of the sellouts, he played two shows in 1989. As shows continued to sell out, Buffett was one of a few artists who played multiple nights at Riverbend, he played two shows in 1989 and 1990, three in 1991, four in 1992, a five-night stint in 1993. He continued to play multiple nights through 2000. During the summer of 2001, fans in Cincinnati were disappointed when only one show was played that year. Though the shows continued to sell out in record breaking time, he has just played one show each year since 2001. During his two-night stay at Riverbend in 1990, he recorded live songs for the album Feeding Frenzy.

Riverbend has built an additional 4,100 seat pavilion, The PNC Pavilion, adjacent to the current box office. The pavilion opened on May 2008 with Cincinnati's Over the Rhine; the band performed their entire Ohio album on the venue's opening night. In January 2009 National City Pavilion became PNC Pavilion due to PNC's purchase of National City bank. List of contemporary amphitheatres Riverbend Music Center - Official Site

Waldorf Hotel (Fargo, North Dakota)

Waldorf Hotel was a hotel building in Fargo, North Dakota, US with entrances on Seventh and Front streets. It opened on April 1, 1899 and was demolished in 1951, it was built on the site of the old Sherman house, diagonally across Front street from the new Northern Pacific depot. It cost upwards of US$75,000, the furniture $19,000; the capital was furnished by O. J. DeLendrecie, a Fargo merchant, who owned and operated the largest department store west of the Twin Cities; the hotel's proprietor was R. R. Wise, it was furnished by Samuel Mathews and George E. Nichols. Hancock Brothers of Fargo were the architects; the contractors were Stewart Wilson for the basement, J. H. Bowers for the other parts of the structure; the heating plant was installed by Minneapolis. The bricks were furnished by the trimmings by the Portage Sandstone Company. Messrs Ashelman Bros. & Prescott did the decorating with the exception of the dining room ceiling. They did the paper hanging and painting. Milton Earl Beebe had supervision of the work.

The plumbing was done by the Fargo Plumbing Company, was one of the largest jobs done in the city. An entire carload of bath tubs was imported by them for the contract; the Mantel & Tile Company of Saint Paul, undertook the marble and tile work. The exterior was 140 by four stories and basement, it measured 61.13 feet in height. The basement is of stone; the walls are pink. There is an iron balcony of 70 feet around the front; the Waldorf had 108 rooms besides 15 rooms for help. There were 15 rooms with hot and cold water. There were return bells in every room and telephone connection with the office from several of the leading suites; the elevator was run by electricity making it at the time the only hotel in the state that had this feature. The house was heated by steam throughout; the rooms were large. The floor was of mosaic tile, the wainscoting and desk were of white and grey marble; the office measured 75 by 100 feet. The fireplace contained a carved mantel of oak. There were immense plate glass windows.

The arches were carved. The upper floors were reached by a broad staircase of steel and marble, by an electric elevator; the furniture cost upwards of $19.000. There were six parlors en suite; the fourth floor was for regular boarders, fitted with closets and other conveniences necessary for home life. The bedsteads on the second floor were of brass, the floors above were iron with brass trimmings; the dining room was 40 by 75 feet. It had arched windows draped with curtains; the ceiling was frescoed in floral designs. At one end of the dining room, there were two alcoves; the dining room furniture included a sideboard. The china was decorated, the silver was of the modern design; the room had a maple floor. The kitchen was modern; the laundry and ice house were in the basement. Quarters for the help were housed in an annex. Just off from the office and close to the Seventh street entrance there was a ladies' waiting room which contained a writing desk and an Oriental rug. West of the office was a drug store, 27 by 60 feet, with an opening into the office, west of that a jewelry store, 24 by 30 feet.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: C. A. Lounsberry's "Record"