"La Brabançonne" is the national anthem of Belgium. The originally-French title refers to Brabant. According to legend, the Belgian national anthem was written in September 1830, during the Belgian Revolution, by a young revolutionary called "Jenneval", who read the lyrics during a meeting at the Aigle d'Or café. Jenneval, a Frenchman whose real name was Alexandre Dechet, did in fact write the Brabançonne. At the time, he was an actor at the theatre where, in August 1830, the revolution started which led to independence from the Netherlands. Jenneval died in the war of independence. François van Campenhout composed the accompanying score, based on the tune of a French song called "L'Air des lanciers polonais", written by the French poet Eugène de Pradel, whose tune was itself an adaptation of the tune of a song, "L'Air du magistrat irréprochable", found in a popular collection of drinking songs called La Clé du caveau and it was first performed in September 1830. In 1860, Belgium formally adopted the song and music as its national anthem, although the prime minister, Charles Rogier edited out lyrics attacking the Dutch Prince of Orange.
The ending, pledging loyalty to "Le Roi, la Loi, la Liberté!" is an obvious parallel to the French "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité" – with the republican sentiment of the original replaced in the Belgian version by the promotion of constitutional monarchy. A slogan similar to the Belgian one – "la Nation, la Loi, le Roi" – had been used in the early days of the French Revolution, when that revolution was still considered to be aimed toward constitutional monarchy rather than a republic; the Brabançonne is a monument by the sculptor Charles Samuel on the Surlet de Chokier square in Brussels. The monument contains partial lyrics of both the Dutch versions of the anthem. Like many elements in Belgian folklore, this is based on the French "La Marseillaise", both an anthem and the name of a monument – the sculptural group Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 called La Marseillaise, at the base of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Various committees were charged with reviewing the text and tune of the Brabançonne and establishing an official version.
A ministerial circular of the Ministry of the Interior on August 8, 1921, decreed that only the fourth verse of the text by Charles Rogier should be considered official for all three, German and in Dutch. Here below: In recent years, an unofficial short version of the anthem is sung during Belgian National Day on July 21 yearly, combining the words of the anthem in all three of Belgium's official languages, similar to the bilingual version of "O Canada"; the lyrics are from the 4th verse of the anthem. "De Vlaamse Leeuw" "Le Chant des Wallons" Place des Martyrs, Brussels "Vers l'avenir" Belgium: La Brabançonne – Audio of the national anthem of Belgium, with information and lyrics Les Arquebusiers History and illustrations Belgium National Anthem instrumental File MIDI Belgium National Anthem instrumental File AU "La Brabançonne" on YouTube.
Ja, vi elsker dette landet
"Ja, vi elsker dette landet" known by the title "Song For Norway", is a patriotic anthem, regarded as the de facto national anthem of Norway since early 20th century, after being used alongside Sønner av Norge since the 1860s. The lyrics were written by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson between 1859 and 1868, the melody was written by his cousin Rikard Nordraak sometime during the winter of 1863-1864, it was first performed publicly on 17 May 1864 in connection with the 50th anniversary of the constitution. Only the first and the last two verses are sung; until the mid-1860s, the older anthems Sønner av Norge and Norges Skaal were regarded as the Norwegian national anthems, with Sønner av Norge being most recognised. Ja, vi elsker dette landet came to be recognised as a national anthem from the mid-1860s; until the early 20th century, both Sønner av Norge and Ja, vi elsker were used alongside, with Sønner av Norge being preferred in official situations. In 2011, the song Mitt lille land featured prominently in all the memorial ceremonies following the 2011 Norway attacks and was described by the media as "a new national anthem."
On the Norwegian Constitution Day in 2012, the NRK broadcast was opened with "Mitt lille land." Bjørnson wrote in a modified version of the Danish language current in Norway at the time. Written Bokmål has since been altered in a series of orthographic reforms intended to distinguish it from Danish and bring it closer to spoken Norwegian; the text below, in use today, is identical to Bjørnson's original in using the same words, but with modernised spelling and punctuation. The most sung verses, 1, 7 and 8, have been modernised most and have several variations in existence. For example, Bjørnson wrote «drømme på vor jord», which some sources today write as «drømme på vår jord», while others write «drømmer på vår jord». In each verse the last two lines are sung twice, one or two words are repeated an extra time when the lines are sung the second time; these words are written in italics in the Norwegian lyrics below. The first verse is written down in full as an example; the three used stanzas of Ja, vi elsker were translated into English long ago.
The name of the translator is mentioned in printed versions of the English text. It has so far not been possible to identify the person responsible or to ascertain when it was translated, but the following versions of stanzas 1, 7, 8 are well known and sung by descendants of Norwegian immigrants to the United States. Its popularity and familiarity among Norwegian-Americans seems to indicate that it has been around for a long time since before the middle of the 20th century, much earlier; this translation may be regarded as the "official" version in English. Two alternative metrical version are in existence; the second version follows the original and was learnt by heart by a Norwegian who did not know the name of the translator. It has been published in a collection of Sange og digte paa dansk og engelsk. Two small changes in this text has been done in the version, presented here. Verse 2, sung, has been omitted, the last two lines in each verse are repeated, in the same way as we sing it in Norwegian.
A verse hailing Charles IV who had succeeded his father as king of Norway in July 1859 was included in the original version of "Ja, vi elsker". However, following the divisive international events of the spring of 1864 where the ideal of a unified Scandinavia was coldly shattered, Bjørnson went from being a monarchist to republicanism, the tribute to the reigning sovereign was stricken from the song; the lyrics that were taken out were: Kongen selv står stærk og åpen som vår Grænsevagt og hans allerbedste Våpen er vår Broderpagt. In English this reads: The King himself stands strong and open As our border guard and his most powerful weapon is our brethren pact; the "brethren pact" which the text is referring to was a military treaty between Norway and Denmark to come to the assistance should one of the nations come under military assault. This happened when German troops invaded South Jutland in February 1864. None of the alliance partners came to the rescue of Denmark; this perceived treason of the "brethren pact" once and for all shattered many people's dreams of unification of the three countries.
In 1905 the Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved after many years of Norwegian struggle for equality between the two states, as stipulated in the 1815 Act of Union. The unilateral declaration by the Norwegian Storting of the union's dissolution 7 June provoked strong Swedish reactions, bringing the two nations to the brink of war in the autumn. In Sweden, pro-war conservatives were opposed by the Social Democrats, whose leaders Hjalmar Branting and Zeth Höglund spoke out for reconciliation and a peaceful settlement with Norway. Swedish socialists sang Ja, vi elsker dette landet to demonstrate their support for the Norwegian people’s right to secede from the union. During World War II, the anthem was used both by the Norwegian resistance and the Nazi collaborators, the latter group for propaganda reasons; the German occupiers forbade any use of the anthem. In May 2006, the multicultural newspaper Utrop proposed that the national anthem be translated into Urdu, the native language of the most numerous group of recent immigrants to Norway.
The editor's idea was that people from other ethnic groups should be able to honour their adopted country with devotion if they were no
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, was titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin"; the French National Convention adopted it as the Republic's anthem in 1795. The song acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching to the capital; the song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. The anthem's evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music; as the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries. The War of the First Coalition was an effort to stop the revolution, or at least contain it to France; the French army did not distinguish itself, Coalition armies invaded France. On 25 April 1792, baron Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, the mayor of Strasbourg, requested his guest Rouget de Lisle compose a song "that will rally our soldiers from all over to defend their homeland, under threat".
That evening, Rouget de Lisle wrote "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin", dedicated the song to Marshal Nicolas Luckner, a Bavarian in French service from Cham. A plaque on the building on Place Broglie where De Dietrich's house once stood commemorates the event. De Dietrich was executed the next year during the Reign of Terror; the melody soon became the rallying call to the French Revolution and was adopted as "La Marseillaise" after the melody was first sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille by the end of May. These fédérés were making their entrance into the city of Paris on 30 July 1792 after a young volunteer from Montpellier called François Mireur had sung it at a patriotic gathering in Marseille, the troops adopted it as the marching song of the National Guard of Marseille. A newly graduated medical doctor, Mireur became a general under Napoléon Bonaparte and died in Egypt at age 28; the song's lyric reflects the invasion of France by foreign armies that were under way when it was written.
Strasbourg itself was attacked just a few days later. The invading forces were repulsed from France following their defeat in the Battle of Valmy; as the vast majority of Alsatians did not speak French, a German version was published in October 1792 in Colmar. The Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on 14 July 1795, making it France's first anthem, it lost this status under Napoleon I, the song was banned outright by Louis XVIII and Charles X, only being re-instated after the July Revolution of 1830. During Napoleon I's reign, "Veillons au salut de l'Empire" was the unofficial anthem of the regime, in Napoleon III's reign, it was "Partant pour la Syrie". During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, "La Marseillaise" was recognised as the anthem of the international revolutionary movement. Eight years in 1879, it was restored as France's national anthem, has remained so since. Several musical antecedents have been cited for the melody: Mozart's Allegro maestoso of Piano Concerto No. 25 the credo of the fourth mass of Holtzmann of Mursberg, but this has been refuted by Edgar Istel in 1922.
The oratorio Esther by Jean Baptiste Lucien Grison For Guido Rimonda it is based on "Tema e variazioni in Do maggiore", a spurious work attributed to the Italian violinist Giovanni Battista Viotti. Rouget de Lisle. Only the first verse and the first chorus are sung today in France. There are some slight historical variations in the lyrics of the song; these verses were omitted from the national anthem. "La Marseillaise" was arranged for soprano and orchestra by Hector Berlioz in about 1830. Franz Liszt wrote a piano transcription of the anthem. During World War I, bandleader James Reese Europe played a jazz version of "La Marseillaise", which can be heard on part 2 of the Ken Burns TV documentary Jazz. Serge Gainsbourg recorded a reggae version in 1978, titled "Aux armes et cætera". Jacky Terrasson recorded a jazz version of "La Marseillaise", included in his 2001 album A Paris. During the French Revolution, Giuseppe Cambini published Patriotic Airs for Two Violins, in which the song is quoted and as a variation theme, with other patriotic songs.
Ludwig van Beethoven quotes "La Marseillaise" in his Wellington's Victory overture, Op. 91, composed in 1813. Gioachino Rossini quotes "La Marseillaise" in his 1813 opera, L'italiana in Algeri, during the choral introduction to Isabella's 2nd act aria "Pensa alla patria" and in the second act of his opera Semiramide. Robert Schumann used part of "La Marseillaise" for "Die beiden Grenadiere", his 1840 setting of Heinrich Heine's poem "Die Grenadiere"; the quotation appears at the end of the song. Schumann incorporated "La Marseillaise" as a major motif in his overture Hermann und Dorothea, inspired by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, quotes it, in waltz rhythm, in the first movement of Faschingsschwank aus Wien, for solo piano. Richard Wagner quotes from "La Marseillaise" in his 1839–40 setting of a French translation of Heine's poem. In Orphée aux enfers, Jac
Sabino Policarpo Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin, was a Spanish writer. He was father of Basque nationalism, he died in Sukarrieta at the age of 38 after falling ill with Addison's disease during time spent in prison. He had been charged with treason for attempting to send a telegram to President Theodore Roosevelt, in which he praised the United States for helping Cuba gain independence from Spain. One of the consequences of the First Carlist War was the substitution of the Ancien Régime Basque home rule by a limited still relevant autonomy. A majority in Navarre and the rest of the Basque districts supported the pretender to the Spanish crown Carlos V for his support to their institutions and laws. However, they were defeated in 1839, Navarre, Biscay, Álava and Gipuzkoa were integrated into the Spanish customs system. Basque industrialists profited from privatization of exploitations and the Spanish captive market with the iron ore and the Bessemer converter, Biscay became "the iron California".
Workers from all of Spain were attracted to the area as labourers for the burgeoning industry. Arana was born in a jauntxo family from Abando, a neighbourhood, incorporated into the city of Bilbao as the new extension for the growth of the industrial era. Abando was a Basque speaking town, but following the attitudes of the elites in the area of Bilbao during this period, Basque was not transmitted to Arana's siblings within the family. Abando and its port were at the centre of the Zamacolada uprising against attempts by the Spanish premier Manuel Godoy to recruit Basques for the Spanish army, a contrafuero or breach of basic Basque legislation. In the aftermath of the Third Carlist War, Arana attended the Jesuit School of Orduña along with his brother Luis. Orduña became a hotspot and meeting point for the pro-fueros, primeval Basque nationalists concerned with the loss of the Basque native institutions. Arana claimed that he had a quasi-religious revelation at Easter 1882, one that he communicated to his brother Luis Arana.
From he devoted himself to the nationalist cause of Biscay extended to the Basque Country. He was an early defender of the use of the Basque language in all areas of society, to avoid its increasing marginalization in the face of Spanish language penetration, imposed as mandatory in schooling and administration certain cultural events, he learned the language as a young man, but was ready to compete for a position as a Basque language professor at the Instituto de Bilbao, contending against Miguel de Unamuno and the winner, Resurrección María de Azkue who became an erudite scholar of the language. He made a strong effort to establish a codified orthography and grammar for the Basque language, proposed several neologisms to replace loanwords of Spanish origin; some of these innovations, like the characters ĺ and ŕ, were rejected in the standardization efforts for the Basque language undertaken since 1968 leading to the establishment of Standard Basque—the Euskara Batua. His first published work was Bizkaya por su independencia, where he calls for the independence of the Biscay district from Castile-Spain, echoing like proposals put forward by Gipuzkoa's governmental representatives to the National Convention officials Pinet and Cavaignac in Getaria during the War of the Pyrenees.
The document is a collection of historical events, mythical stories and sometimes inaccurate accounts of earlier battles of the ancient people of Biscay. Just as others nationalist ideologies were doing during the period, e.g. Spanish nationalism, Arana's historic accounts distorted and magnified events from Basque history. Distancing himself from the pro-fueros advocates, Arana refused to demand a reversal of the fueros suppressed in May 1876, instead putting an emphasis on the full restoration of home rule suppressed in 1839, he considered the 1839 Spanish law'upholding' home rule as the act putting an end to the Basque own sources of authority and'secular Basque independence', as well as a violation of international law. In 1894, he founded the first center for the new nationalist party, the second-oldest political party in Spain, to provide a place for gathering and proselytizing. Sabino Arana, like many Europeans of his time, believed that the essence of a country was defined by its blood or ethnic composition.
In Spain, the supremacy of the Spanish race and its "civilizing" pursuit over peoples held to be inferior was defended by the main political figures and parties, while a number of intellectuals Spanish and Basque, including the Socialists, advocated for the extinction of the Basque language—ever more marginalized to family and informal environments. Despite his religious integrism and racist views, he is considered by many Basques to be a gadfly that sparked the movement for the cultural revival of the Basques, for the freedom of his people. In that respect, Arana defended the Constitutional foundations of the abolished Basque institutional and legal framework; the PNV, the party in power in the Basque Autonomous Community from the end of Francoism, developed along more nuanced and pragmatic lines in respect of religion and views on race, moving away from his most controversial ideas but not from his figure. He was a prolific writer, with over 600 journalism articles, most of them with a propaganda purpose.
He liked to shock and provoke, in order to get attention from a society that he deemed unaware of its fate. There are two key aspects of
"Himnusz" is the national anthem of Hungary. It was adopted in the 19th century and the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies; the words were written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet, in 1823, its official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel in 1844, although other less-known musical versions exist. The poem bore the subtitle "A magyar nép zivataros századaiból"; the full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history. The lyrics of "Himnusz" are a prayer beginning with áldd meg a magyart; the title in the original manuscript is "Hymnus"—a Latin word meaning "song of praise", one, used in languages other than English to mean "anthem." The phonetic transcription "Himnusz" replaced the original Latin spelling over time, as the poem gained widespread acceptance as the de facto anthem of Hungary, so too the word "himnusz" took on the meaning "national anthem" for other countries as well. Although Kölcsey completed the poem on 22 January 1823, it was only published first in 1829 in Károly Kisfaludy's Aurora, without the subtitle, despite it being part of the manuscript.
It subsequently appeared in a collection of Kölcsey's works in this time with the subtitle. A competition for composers to make the poem suitable to be sung by the public was staged in 1844 and won by Erkel's entry, his version was first performed in the National Theatre in July 1844 in front of a larger audience on 10 August 1844, at the inaugural voyage of the steamship Széchenyi. By the end of the 1850s it became customary to sing Himnusz at special occasions either alongside Vörösmarty's Szózat or on its own. In the early 1900s, various members of the Hungarian Parliament proposed making the status of Himnusz as the national anthem of Hungary within Austria-Hungary official, but their efforts never got enough traction for such a law to be passed. In the 1950s, Rákosi made plans to have the anthem replaced by one more suited to the Communist ideology, but the poet and composer he had in mind for the task, Illyés and Kodály, both refused, it wasn't until 1989 that Erkel's musical adaptation of Himnusz gained official recognition as Hungary's national anthem, by being mentioned as such in the Constitution of Hungary.
The public radio station Kossuth Rádió plays Himnusz at ten minutes past midnight each day at the close of transmissions in the AM band, as do the state TV channels at the end of the day's broadcasts. Himnusz is traditionally played on Hungarian television at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Eve. "Szózat", which starts with the words Hazádnak rendületlenül légy híve, óh magyar enjoys a social status nearly equal to that of "Himnusz" though only "Himnusz" is mentioned in the Constitution of Hungary. Traditionally, Himnusz is sung at the beginning of ceremonies, Szózat at the end. Recognition is given to the "Rákóczi March", a short wordless piece, used on state military occasions. Another popular song is the "Székely Himnusz", an unofficial ethnic anthem of the Hungarian-speaking Szekler living in Eastern Transylvania, the Székely Land and in the rest of the world. Two English versions are given below; as Hungarian is a genderless language, masculine pronouns in the English translations are in fact addressed to all Hungarians regardless of gender.
On May 7, 2006, a sculpture was inaugurated for Himnusz at Szarvas Square, Budakeszi, a small town close to Budapest. It was created by Mária V. Majzik, an artist with the Hungarian Heritage Award, depicting the full text of the poem in a circle, centered around a two metres high bronze figure of God, with 21 bronze bells in seven arches between eight pieces of stone, each four and a half metres high; the musical form of the poem can be played on the bells. The cost of its construction, 40 million forints, was collected through public subscription. Hungarian anthem Hungary: Himnusz - Audio of the national anthem of Hungary, with information and lyrics National and historical symbols of Hungary has a page about the anthem, featuring a vocal sound file. Sheet Music is available at the Hungarian Electronic Library website. Hungarian Anthem on Music Keyboard 2.4
"Lofsöngur" known as "Ó Guð vors lands", is the national anthem of Iceland. Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson composed the music; this was adopted as the national anthem in 1944, when the country voted to end its personal union with Denmark and become a republic. It is notorious for being challenging to sing and its strong religious theme has been source of dispute in contemporary Iceland; the period during the late 1800s saw music in Iceland flourish. Though many of their initial composers had to study and ply their trade abroad due to insufficient opportunities on offer at home, they were able to bring what they had learned back to Iceland. One of these musicians was Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson, the first person from his homeland to pursue "an international career as a composer", he sojourned in Edinburgh during the early 1870s, wrote the music for Lofsöngur inside a town house located in the city's New Town in 1874. By 1922, the song became so well known and loved throughout Iceland that, in recognition of this, the Althing endowed Sveinbjörnsson with a state pension.
He was the first composer in the country to be conferred such an honour. The lyrical portion of it was penned by Matthías Jochumsson, one of the "best loved poets" in the country, a priest. Although the commemorative plaque in Edinburgh purports that both the music and lyrics were written there, it is nowadays believed that Jochumsson had in fact produced the latter back in his homeland. Much like Sveinbjörnsson, Jochumsson became the first Icelandic poet to be given a state pension; the Althing bestowed on him the title of "National Poet". It was written to coincide with the 1874 festivities in honor of one millennium since the Norse first arrived on the island, it is for this reason that the full translation of the anthem's title is "The Millennial Hymn of Iceland". The song was first played on August 2 of that year, at a service celebrated at Reykjavík Cathedral to commemorate the milestone, with the King of Denmark – Christian IX – in attendance. However, the song was not adopted as the country's national anthem until 70 years in 1944, when Icelanders voted in a referendum to end their state's personal union with Denmark and become a republic.
Although the Icelandic national anthem consists of three stanzas, only the first one is sung on a regular basis. It is notorious for being challenging to sing, due to its large vocal range of high and low registers. "Lofsöngur" has been described as a Christian hymn to God with strong religious themes. Thus, its suitability as the national anthem in Iceland's secular society of the present-day has been challenged, not withstanding the fact that the country still maintains an official religion in the form of the Church of Iceland; some have suggested replacing it with a non-religious song, more all-encompassing. Upptökurnar eru af geisladisk sem forsætisráðuneytið gaf út árið 2003 The Icelandic National Anthem Audio of the national anthem of Iceland, with information and lyrics A simple but accurate MIDI transcription of the official version Video of choir singing'Lofsöngur'