A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids, the study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are over 5,300 known mineral species, over 5,070 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association, the silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earths crust. The diversity and abundance of species is controlled by the Earths chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earths crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals, minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various properties, which are related to their chemical structure.
Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, more specific tests for describing minerals include magnetism, taste or smell and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents, the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification, the silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a unit of a 4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses, disilicates, inosilicates, other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. The first criterion means that a mineral has to form by a natural process, stability at room temperature, in the simplest sense, is synonymous to the mineral being solid. More specifically, a compound has to be stable or metastable at 25 °C, modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy.
Minerals are chemical compounds, and as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula, many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution, pure substances are not usually found because of contamination or chemical substitution. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous with crystallinity, crystals are periodic, an ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been recent proposals to amend the definition to consider biogenic or amorphous substances as minerals. The formal definition of an approved by the IMA in 1995, A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound, Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science
The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Thus, protection schemes must apply with very pragmatic and pessimistic approach to clearing system faults, the devices that are used to protect the power systems from faults are called protection devices. Communication channels to allow analysis of current and voltage at remote terminals of a line, for parts of a distribution system, fuses are capable of both sensing and disconnecting faults. Failures may occur in part, such as insulation failure, fallen or broken transmission lines, incorrect operation of circuit breakers, short circuits. Protection devices are installed with the aims of protection of assets, switchgear is a combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control and isolate electrical equipment. Switches are safe to open under normal load current, while protective devices are safe to open under fault current, very important equipment may have completely redundant and independent protective systems, while a minor branch distribution line may have very simple low-cost protection.
Safety, Instrument transformers create electrical isolation from the power system, Relays are able to be simpler and cheaper given lower-level relay inputs. Accuracy, Power system voltages and currents are accurately reproduced by instrument transformers over large operating ranges, Protection on the transmission and distribution serves two functions, Protection of plant and protection of the public. At a basic level, protection looks to disconnect equipment which experience an overload or a short to earth, some items in substations such as transformers might require additional protection based on temperature or gas pressure, among others. Such failures are unusual, so the protective relays have to operate very rarely, overload protection requires a current transformer which simply measures the current in a circuit. There are two types of protection, instantaneous overcurrent and time overcurrent. Instantaneous overcurrent requires that the current exceeds a level for the circuit breaker to operate. TOC protection operates based on a current vs time curve, based on this curve if the measured current exceeds a given level for the preset amount of time, the circuit breaker or fuse will operate.
The function of both types is explained in Non-Directional Overcurrent Protection on YouTube, earth fault protection again requires current transformers and senses an imbalance in a three-phase circuit. Normally the three currents are in balance, i. e. roughly equal in magnitude. If one or two phases become connected to earth via a low impedance path, their magnitudes will increase dramatically, if this imbalance exceeds a pre-determined value, a circuit breaker should operate. Restricted earth fault protection is a type of earth fault protection which looks for earth fault between two sets current transformers, distance protection detects both voltage and current. A fault on a circuit will generally create a sag in the voltage level, if the ratio of voltage to current measured at the relay terminals, which equates to an impedance, lands within a predetermined level the circuit breaker will operate
A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. Such a reactor needs no moderator, but must use fuel that is relatively rich in fissile material when compared to that required for a thermal reactor. In order to sustain a chain reaction, the neutrons released in fission events have to react with other atoms in the fuel. The chance of this depends on the energy of the neutron, most atoms will only undergo induced fission with high energy neutrons. Natural uranium consists mostly of three isotopes, U-238, U-235, and trace quantities of U-234, a product of U-238. U-238 accounts for roughly 99. 3% of natural uranium and undergoes fission only by neutrons with energies of 5 MeV or greater, about 0. 7% of natural uranium is U-235, which undergoes fission by neutrons of any energy, but particularly by lower energy neutrons. When either of these isotopes undergoes fission they release neutrons around 1 to 2 MeV, too low to cause fission in U-238, and too high to do so easily in U-235.
The common solution to this problem is to slow the neutron from these fast speeds using a moderator, any substance which interacts with the neutrons. The most common moderator is normal water, which slows the neutrons through elastic scattering until the neutrons reach thermal equilibrium with the water. Although U-238 will not undergo fission by the released in fission. Pu-239 has a cross section very similar to that of U-235. In most reactors this accounts for as much as ⅓ of the energy being generated, not all of the Pu-239 is burned up during normal operation, and the leftover, along with leftover U-238, can be separated out to be used in new fuel during nuclear reprocessing. Water is a moderator for practical reasons, but has its disadvantages. From a nuclear standpoint, the problem is that water can absorb a neutron. The most common solution to this problem is to concentrate the amount of U-235 in the fuel to produce enriched uranium. Other designs use different moderators, like water, that are much less likely to absorb neutrons.
In either case, the neutron economy is based on thermal neutrons. Although U-235 and Pu-239 are less sensitive to higher energy neutrons and this means that if you enrich the fuel you will eventually reach a threshold where there are enough fissile atoms in the fuel that a chain reaction can be maintained even with fast neutrons
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earths streams and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen, Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often refers to its solid state or its gaseous state. It occurs in nature as snow, ice packs and icebergs, fog, aquifers, Water covers 71% of the Earths surface. It is vital for all forms of life. Only 2. 5% of this water is freshwater, and 98. 8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0. 3% of all freshwater is in rivers and the atmosphere, a greater quantity of water is found in the earths interior. Water on Earth moves continually through the cycle of evaporation and transpiration, precipitation. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land, large amounts of water are chemically combined or adsorbed in hydrated minerals.
Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. There is a correlation between access to safe water and gross domestic product per capita. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in developing regions of the world. Water plays an important role in the world economy, approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, lakes, large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a variety of chemical substances, as such it is widely used in industrial processes. Water is central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, Water is a liquid at the temperatures and pressures that are most adequate for life.
Specifically, at atmospheric pressure of 1 bar, water is a liquid between the temperatures of 273.15 K and 373.15 K
Fire sprinklers are extensively used worldwide, with over 40 million sprinkler heads fitted each year. In buildings protected by properly designed and maintained fire sprinklers, over 99% of fires were controlled by fire sprinklers alone, in 1812, British inventor Sir William Congreve patented a manual sprinkler system using perforated pipes along the ceiling. When someone noticed a fire, a valve outside the building could be opened to water through the pipes. A large furniture factory had burned down, and Hiram Stevens Maxim was consulted on how to prevent a recurrence. As a result, Maxim invented the first automatic fire sprinkler and it would douse the areas that were on fire, and it would report the fire to the fire station. Maxim was unable to sell the idea elsewhere, but when the patent expired the idea was used, at the time he was the president of Mathusek Piano Works. Parmelee invented his system in response to exorbitantly high insurance rates. Parmalee patented his idea and had success with it in the U. S.
Parmalee called his invention the automatic fire extinguisher. He traveled to Europe to demonstrate his method to stop a fire before total destruction. His invention did not get as much attention as he had planned, most people could not afford to install a sprinkler system. Once Parmalee realized this, he turned his efforts on educating the insurance companies about his system and he talked about how the sprinkler system would reduce the loss ratio, thus saving money for the insurance companies. He knew that he could never succeed in obtaining contracts from the owners to install his system unless he could ensure for them a reasonable return in the form of reduced premiums. In this connection he was enough to enlist the sympathies of two men, who both had connections in the insurance industry. The first of these was Major Hesketh, who, in addition to being a cotton spinner in a business in Bolton, was Chairman of the Bolton Cotton Trades Mutual Insurance Company. The Directors of this Company and more particularly its Secretary, Peter Kevan, although Parmalee got two sales through its efforts, the Bolton Cotton Trades Mutual Insurance Company was not a very big company outside of its local area.
He found this influence in James North Lane, the Manager of the Mutual Fire Insurance Corporation of Manchester and this company was founded in 1870 by the Textile Manufacturers Associations of Lancashire and Yorkshire as a protest against high insurance rates. They had a policy of encouraging risk management and more particularly the use of the most up-to-date, even though he put tremendous effort and time into educating the masses on his sprinkler system, by 1883 only about 10 factories were protected by the Parmalee sprinkler. Back in the U. S. Frederick Grinnell, who was manufacturing the Parmalee sprinkler, by this means the valve seat was forced against the valve by the water pressure, producing a self-closing action, so that the greater the water pressure, the tighter the valve
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum, Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar. The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales. It is used in fluorescent lighting, electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light which causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light. Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury, Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. Compared to other metals, it is a conductor of heat. It has a point of −38.83 °C and a boiling point of 356.73 °C. Upon freezing, the volume of mercury decreases by 3. 59%, the coefficient of volume expansion is 181.59 × 10−6 at 0 °C,181.71 × 10−6 at 20 °C and 182.50 × 10−6 at 100 °C.
Solid mercury is malleable and ductile and can be cut with a knife, because this configuration strongly resists removal of an electron, mercury behaves similarly to noble gases, which form weak bonds and hence melt at low temperatures. The stability of the 6s shell is due to the presence of a filled 4f shell, an f shell poorly screens the nuclear charge that increases the attractive Coulomb interaction of the 6s shell and the nucleus. Like silver, mercury reacts with hydrogen sulfide. Mercury reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury, Mercury dissolves many other metals such as gold and silver to form amalgams. Iron is an exception, and iron flasks have traditionally used to trade mercury. Several other first row transition metals with the exception of manganese, other elements that do not readily form amalgams with mercury include platinum. Sodium amalgam is a reducing agent in organic synthesis, and is used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Mercury readily combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminium amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact, since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth, even small amounts of mercury can seriously corrode aluminium.
For this reason, mercury is not allowed aboard an aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming an amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft, Mercury embrittlement is the most common type of liquid metal embrittlement
Galinstan is a commercial liquid metal alloy whose composition is taken from a family of eutectic alloys mainly consisting of gallium and tin. Such eutectic alloys are liquids at room temperature, typically melting at −19 °C, due to the low toxicity and low reactivity of its component metals, Galinstan finds use as a replacement for many applications that previously employed the toxic liquid mercury or the reactive NaK. The marketing name is a portmanteau of gallium, Galinstan is a registered trademark of the German company Geratherm Medical AG. The exact composition of Galinstan is not publicly known, Galinstan may be used as a thermal interface for computer hardware cooling solutions, though its cost and aggressivity are major obstacles for widespread use. It is electrically conductive, and thus needs to be applied more carefully than regular insulating compounds, Galinstan has higher reflectivity and lower density than mercury, it is investigated as a replacement for mercury in liquid mirror telescopes for astronomy.
Conversely, it is being investigated as a coolant for fusion reactors. Unlike other liquid metals used in application, such as lithium and mercury. The melting point of Galinstan has been a source of much debate, many commercially available gallium and tin eutectic alloys are advertised with a melting point of about +11 °C, which is significantly higher than the −19 °C featured by Galinstan. The official MSDS mentions only that Galinstan is a mixture of the metal components gallium, indium. The resulting material is noted to have a point of −19.5 °C. Fields metal Roses metal Woods metal NaK Scharmann, F. Cherkashinin, G. Breternitz, V. Knedlik, Ch. Hartung, G. Weber, viscosity effect on GaInSn studied by XPS. Dickey, Michael D. Chiechi, Ryan C, Ryan J. Weiss, Emily A. Weitz, David A. Whitesides, George M. Eutectic Gallium-Indium, A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature. Scitoys. com, Liquid metal RG Medical Diagnostics United States Patent & Trademark Office
Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French solduree and soulder, from the Latin solidare, meaning to make solid. In fact, solder must be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together, whenever possible, the solder should be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time. Solder that is intended for use in making connections between electronic components usually has favorable electrical characteristics. Soft solder typically has a melting point range of 90 to 450 °C, and is used in electronics, plumbing. Manual soldering uses an iron or soldering gun. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 °C are the most commonly used, soldering performed using alloys with a melting point above 450 °C is called hard soldering, silver soldering, or brazing. In specific proportions, some alloys can become eutectic — that is, non-eutectic alloys have markedly different solidus and liquidus temperatures, and within that range they exist as a paste of solid particles in a melt of the lower-melting phase.
In electrical work, if the joint is disturbed in the pasty state before it has solidified totally, for electrical and electronics work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for hand-soldering, and with cores containing flux. It is available as a paste or as a preformed foil shaped to match the workpiece, alloys of lead and tin were commonly used in the past, and are still available, they are particularly convenient for hand-soldering. Lead-free solders have been increasing in use due to regulatory requirements plus the health and they are almost exclusively used today in consumer electronics. Plumbers often use bars of solder, much thicker than the used for electrical applications. Jewelers often use solder in thin sheets, which cut into snippets. In the US, manufacturers may receive tax benefits by reducing the use of lead-based solder, lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, silver, indium, zinc and traces of other metals. Most lead-free replacements for conventional 60/40 and 63/37 Sn-Pb solder have melting points from 5 to 20 °C higher and it may be desirable to use minor modification of the solder pots used in wave-soldering, to reduce maintenance cost due to increased tin-scavenging of high-tin solder.
Lead-free solder may be desirable for critical applications, such as aerospace and medical projects. Tin-Silver-Copper solders are used by two-thirds of Japanese manufacturers for reflow and wave soldering, tin-based solders readily dissolve gold, forming brittle intermetallics, for Sn-Pb alloys the critical concentration of gold to embrittle the joint is about 4%. Indium-rich solders are more suitable for soldering thicker gold layer as the rate of gold in indium is much slower
Fractional freezing is a process used in process engineering and chemistry to separate substances with different melting points. The initial sample is thus fractionated, fractional freezing is generally used to produce ultra-pure solids, or to concentrate heat-sensitive liquids. Such enrichment parallels enrichment by true distillation, where the evaporated and re-condensed portion is richer than the portion left behind. The detailed situation is the subject of thermodynamics, a subdivision of physics of importance to chemistry, without resorting to mathematics, the following can be said for a mixture of water and alcohol, Freezing in this scenario begins at a temperature significantly below 0 °C. The first material to freeze is not the water, but a solution of alcohol in water. The liquid left behind is richer in alcohol, and as a consequence, the frozen material, while always poorer in alcohol than the liquid, becomes progressively richer in alcohol. Further stages of removing material and waiting for more freezing will come to naught once the liquid uniformly cools to the temperature of whatever is cooling it.
The best-known freeze-distilled beverages are applejack and ice beer, ice wine is the result of a similar process, but in this case, the freezing happens before the fermentation, and thus it is sugar, not alcohol, that gets concentrated. For an in depth discussion of the physics and chemistry, see eutectic point, when a pure solid is desired, two possible situations can occur. If the contaminant is soluble in the solid, a multiple stage fractional freezing is required. If, however, a system forms, a very pure solid can be recovered. When the requirement is to concentrate a liquid phase, fractional freezing can be due to its simplicity. Fractional freezing is used in the production of fruit juice concentrates and other heat-sensitive liquids. Fractional freezing can be used to desalinate sea water, in a process that naturally occurs with sea ice, frozen salt water, when partially melted, leaves behind ice that is of a much lower salt content. Because sodium chloride lowers the point of water, the salt in sea water tends to be forced out of pure water while freezing.
Likewise, the water with the highest concentration of salt melts first. Either method decreases the salinity of the water left over. Fractional freezing can be used as a method to increase the alcohol concentration in fermented alcoholic beverages
Soldering, is a process in which two or more items are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces, in brazing, the filler metal melts at a higher temperature, but the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders contained lead, but environmental and health concerns have increasingly dictated use of alloys for electronics. There is evidence that soldering was employed as early as 5000 years ago in Mesopotamia and brazing are thought to have originated very early in the history of metal-working, probably before 4000 BC. Sumerian swords from ~3000 BC were assembled using hard soldering, soldering was historically used to make jewelry items, cooking ware and tools, as well as other uses such as in assembling stained glass. Soldering is used in plumbing and metalwork from flashing to jewelry, jewelry components, machine tools and some refrigeration and plumbing components are often assembled and repaired by the higher temperature silver soldering process.
Small mechanical parts are often soldered or brazed as well, soldering is used to join lead came and copper foil in stained glass work. Electronic soldering connects electrical wiring and electronic components to printed circuit boards, soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. In electronics assembly, the alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead has been the alloy of choice. Other alloys are used for plumbing, mechanical assembly, and other applications, a eutectic formulation has advantages when applied to soldering, the liquidus and solidus temperatures are the same, so there is no plastic phase, and it has the lowest possible melting point. Having the lowest possible melting point minimizes heat stress on electronic components during soldering, having no plastic phase allows for quicker wetting as the solder heats up, and quicker setup as the solder cools. A non-eutectic formulation must remain still as the temperature drops through the liquidus and solidus temperatures, any movement during the plastic phase may result in cracks, resulting in an unreliable joint.
Common solder formulations based on tin and lead are listed below and they are suggested anywhere young children may come into contact with, or for outdoor use where rain and other precipitation may wash the lead into the groundwater. Unfortunately, most lead-free solders are not eutectic formulations, melting at around 250 °C, alloying silver with other metals changes the melting point and wetting characteristics, and tensile strength. Of all the brazing alloys, silver solders have the greatest strength, specialty alloys are available with properties such as higher strength, the ability to solder aluminum, better electrical conductivity, and higher corrosion resistance. The purpose of flux is to facilitate the soldering process, one of the obstacles to a successful solder joint is an impurity at the site of the joint, for example, oil or oxidation. The impurities can be removed by mechanical cleaning or by chemical means and this effect is accelerated as the soldering temperatures increase and can completely prevent the solder from joining to the workpiece.
One of the earliest forms of flux was charcoal, which acts as a reducing agent, some fluxes go beyond the simple prevention of oxidation and provide some form of chemical cleaning
Calcium nitrate, called Norgessalpeter, is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca2. This colourless salt absorbs moisture from the air and is found as a tetrahydrate. It is mainly used as a component in fertilizers but has other applications, nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns. A variety of related salts are known including calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate, Norgessalpeter was synthesized at Notodden, Norway in 1905 by the Birkeland–Eyde process. Most of the calcium nitrate is now made in Porsgrunn. The fertilizer grade is popular in the greenhouse and hydroponics trades, it contains ammonium nitrate and water and this is called calcium ammonium nitrate. Formulations lacking ammonia are known, Ca2·4H2O, a liquid formulation is offered. An anhydrous, air-stable derivative is the urea complex Ca2·4, which has sold as Cal-Urea. Calcium nitrate is used to control certain plant diseases.
For example, dilute calcium nitrate sprays are used to bitter pit. Calcium nitrate is used in waste water pre-conditioning for odour emission prevention, the waste water pre-conditioning is based on establishing an anoxic biology in the waste water system. In the presence of nitrate, the metabolism for sulfates stops, additionally easy degradable organic matter is consumed, which otherwise can cause anaerobic conditions downstream as well as odour emissions itself. The concept is applicable for surplus sludge treatment. Calcium nitrate is used in set accelerating concrete admixtures and this use with concrete and mortar is based on two effects. The calcium ion accelerates formation of hydroxide and thus precipitation. This effect is used in cold weather concreting agents as well as some combined plasticizers, the nitrate ion leads to formation of iron hydroxide, whose protective layer reduces corrosion of the concrete reinforcement. Calcium nitrate is a very common coagulant in latex production, especially in dipping processes, dissolved calcium nitrate is a part of the dipping bath solution.
The warm former is dipped into the liquid and a thin film of the dipping liquid remains on the former