Life of Jesus in the New Testament
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the narrative of the life of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles which were written within 20–30 years of each other include references to key episodes in his life such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles says more about the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels. The genealogy and Nativity of Jesus are described in two of the four canonical gospels: the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. While Luke traces the genealogy upwards towards Adam and God, Matthew traces it downwards towards Jesus. Both gospels state that Jesus was begotten not by Joseph, but conceived miraculously in the womb of Mary, mother of Jesus by the Holy Spirit. Both accounts trace Joseph back from there to Abraham; these lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ completely between David and Joseph. Matthew gives Jacob as Joseph’s father and Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli.
Attempts at explaining the differences between the genealogies have varied in nature. Much of modern scholarship interprets them as literary inventions; the Luke and Matthew accounts of the birth of Jesus have a number of points in common. In the Luke account Joseph and Mary travel from their home in Nazareth for the census to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born and laid in a manger. Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, shepherds come to adore him. In Matthew, The Magi follow a star to Bethlehem, where the family are living, to bring gifts to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod massacres all males under two years old in Bethlehem in order to kill Jesus, but Jesus's family flees to Egypt and settles in Nazareth. Over the centuries, biblical scholars have attempted to reconcile these contradictions, while modern scholarship views them as legendary, they consider the issue of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines.
The five major milestones in the New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Crucifixion and Ascension. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus starts with his Baptism by John the Baptist, when he is about thirty years old. Jesus begins preaching in Galilee and gathers disciples. After the proclamation of Jesus as Christ, three of the disciples witness his Transfiguration. After the death of John the Baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own death there. Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem, there friction with the Pharisees increases and one of his disciples agrees to betray him for thirty pieces of silver. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples; the Gospel of Luke states. A chronology of Jesus has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around 27–29 and the end in the range 30–36.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees; the Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea; as Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. In the gospel accounts, towards the end of the final week in Jerusalem, Jesus has the Last Supper with his disciples, the next day is betrayed and tried; the trial ends in his death. Three days after his burial, he is resurrected and appears to his disciples and a multitude of his followers over a 40-day period, after which he ascends to Heaven. In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria; the gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a geographical nature. Galilean ministry: Jesus' ministry begins when after his baptism, he returns to Galilee, preaches in the synagogue of Capernaum; the first disciples of Jesus encounter him near the Sea of Galilee and his Galilean ministry includes key episodes such as Sermon on the Mount which form the core of his moral teachings.
Jesus' ministry in the Galilee area draws to an end with the death of John the Baptist. Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the Baptist, about half way through the gospels two key events take place tha
Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus of Nazareth as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels. "And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross." Cyrene was located in northern Africa in eastern Libya. A Greek city in the province of Cyrenaica, it had a Jewish community where 100,000 Judean Jews had been forced to settle during the reign of Ptolemy Soter and was an early center of Christianity; the Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue in Jerusalem. Simon's act of carrying the cross, for Jesus is the fifth or seventh of the Stations of the Cross; some interpret the passage as indicating that Simon was chosen because he may have shown sympathy with Jesus. Others point out that the text itself says nothing, that he had no choice, that there is no basis to consider the carrying of the cross an act of sympathetic generosity. Mark 15:21 identifies Simon as "the dad of Alexander and Rufus".
Tradition states. It has been suggested that the Rufus mentioned by Paul in Romans 16:13 is the son of Simon of Cyrene; some link Simon himself with the "men of Cyrene" who preached the Gospel to the Greeks in Acts 11:20. On the other hand, Simon's name alone does not prove he was Jewish, Alexander and Rufus were both common names and may have referred to others. A burial cave in the Kidron Valley discovered in 1941 by E. L. Sukenik, belonging to Cyrenian Jews and dating before AD 70, was found to have an ossuary inscribed twice in Greek "Alexander son of Simon." It can not, however, be certain. Cyrene was the destination of many "Sicari" who fled the Roman legions at the time of the Jewish Revolt; this was to precipitate further Jewish insurrection in the area in the reign of Hadrian and Trajan. According to the supposed visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, Simon was a pagan; the Romans recognized he wasn't a Jew by his clothes and chose him to oblige him to help Jesus carry the cross. The Cyrenian or Simon movement in the United Kingdom and Ireland, takes its name from Simon of Cyrene.
It has as its guiding principle "sharing the burden" which it uses to explain its approach to providing services to homeless and other disadvantaged groups in society using volunteers. According to some Gnostic traditions, Simon of Cyrene, by mistaken identity, suffered the events leading up to the crucifixion, died on the cross instead of Jesus; this is the story presented in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, although it is unclear whether Simon or another died on the cross. This is part of a belief held by some Gnostics that Jesus was not of flesh, but only took on the appearance of flesh. Basilides in his gospel of Basilides is reported by Irenaeus as having taught a docetic doctrine of Christ's passion, he states the teaching that Christ in Jesus, as a wholly divine being, could not suffer bodily pain and did not die on the cross. He performed miracles, thus he himself did not suffer. Rather, a certain Simon of Cyrene was compelled to carry his cross for him, it was he, ignorantly and erroneously crucified, being transfigured by him, so that he might be thought to be Jesus.
Moreover, Jesus assumed the form of Simon, stood by laughing at them. Irenaeus, Against Heresies Poet Ridgely Torrence wrote. A 1920 YWCA production of this play was directed by Dora Cole, sister of composer Bob Cole, starred Paul Robeson. Sidney Poitier was cast as Simon of Cyrene in The Greatest Story Ever Told, directed by George Stevens and released in 1965; this can be considered believable due to the fact that the Synoptic gospels write of an outsider from North Africa who assists Jesus on the Via Dolorosa. On the other end, the contemporary King of Kings has had an African-American soldier in the scene of Jesus’ flagellation; the film The Passion of the Christ portrays him as a Jew being forced by the Romans to carry the cross, who at first is unwilling, but as the journey to Mount Calvary continues, shows compassion to Jesus and helps him make it to the top. Chapel of Simon of Cyrene
Raising of the son of the widow of Nain
The raising of the son of the widow of Nain is an account of a miracle by Jesus, recorded in the Gospel of Luke. Jesus arrived at the village of Nain during the burial ceremony of the son of a widow, raised the young man from the dead; the location is the village of Nain, two miles south of Mount Tabor. This is the first of three miracles of Jesus in the canonical gospels in which he raises the dead, the other two being the raising of Jairus' daughter and of Lazarus; the miracle is described thus: 11 Soon afterward Jesus went to a town named Nain, accompanied by His disciples and a large crowd. 12 And when He arrived at the gate of the town, a funeral procession was coming out. A young man had died, the only son of his mother, she was a widow, and a large crowd from the town was with her. 13 And when the Lord saw her, His heart was filled with pity for her, He said to her, “Do not weep”. 14 Then He touched the coffin, while the pallbearers stood still. Jesus said to the dead man, “Young man, I say to thee, arise!”
And he, dead, sat up and began to talk, Jesus gave him back to his mother. 16 Then they all praised God. And they said, “A great prophet has risen among us”, “God has visited His people”. 17 This news about Jesus went out through the surrounding territory. The raising of the son of the widow of Zarephath, by the Old Testament prophet Elijah, is seen by Fred Craddock as the model for this miracle, as there are several parallels in the details; the raising of the son of the woman of Shunem by Elisha is similar, including the reaction of the people. In particular, the location of Nain is close to Shunem, identified with modern Sulam. Sinclair Ferguson calls attention to this as an example of a repeated pattern in the history of redemption, he concludes that the pattern repetition "comes to its fullness in the person of Jesus Christ, the great prophet who heals not through delegated authority from God, but on his own authority, without rituals or prayers, but with a simple word of power. Here is the great God and Saviour of Israel in the flesh"...
The woman in the story had lost both her husband and her only son, so that there was no one left to support her. As she could not have inherited the land, the loss of her only son would have left her dependent on the charity of more distant relatives and neighbours. Ministry of Jesus Miracles of Jesus New Testament places associated with Jesus Parables of Jesus Church of the Resurrection of the Widow's Son
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus by critical historical methods, in contrast to Christological definitions and other Christian accounts of Jesus. It considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived. All scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed. Reconstructions of the historical Jesus are based on the Pauline epistles and the Gospels, while several non-Biblical sources bear witness to the historical existence of Jesus. Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and developing new and different research criteria. Scholars differ about the beliefs and teachings of Jesus as well as the accuracy of the biblical accounts, the only two events subject to "almost universal assent" are that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. Historical Jesus scholars contend that he was a Galilean Jew living in a time of messianic and apocalyptic expectations.
Some scholars credit the apocalyptic declarations of the gospels to him, while others portray his "Kingdom of God" as a moral one, not apocalyptic in nature. The portraits of Jesus that have been constructed in these processes have differed from each other, from the image portrayed in the gospel accounts; these portraits include that of Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet, charismatic healer, Cynic philosopher, Jewish messiah and prophet of social change, but there is little scholarly agreement on a single portrait, or the methods needed to construct it. There are, overlapping attributes among the various portraits, scholars who differ on some attributes may agree on others. Most scholars of antiquity agree. Historian Michael Grant asserts that if conventional standards of historical textual criticism are applied to the New Testament, "we can no more reject Jesus' existence than we can reject the existence of a mass of pagan personages whose reality as historical figures is never questioned." There is no indication that writers in antiquity who opposed Christianity questioned the existence of Jesus.
There is no physical or archeological evidence for Jesus, all the sources we have are documentary. The sources for the historical Jesus are Christian writings, such as the gospels and the purported letters of the apostles. All extant sources that mention Jesus were written after his death; the New Testament represents sources that have become canonical for Christianity, there are many apocryphal texts that are examples of the wide variety of writings in the first centuries AD that are related to Jesus. The authenticity and reliability of these sources has been questioned by many scholars, few events mentioned in the gospels are universally accepted; the Synoptic Gospels are the primary sources of historical information about Jesus and of the religious movement he founded. These religious gospels–the Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke–recount the life, ministry and resurrection of a Jew named Jesus who spoke Aramaic and wore tzitzit. There are different hypotheses regarding the origin of the texts because the gospels of the New Testament were written in Greek for Greek-speaking communities, were translated into Syriac and Coptic.
The fourth gospel, the Gospel of John, differs from the Synoptic Gospels. Historians study the historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles when studying the reliability of the gospels, as the Book of Acts was written by the same author as the Gospel of Luke; the seven Pauline epistles considered by scholarly consensus to be genuine are dated to between AD 50 and 60 and are the earliest surviving Christian texts that may include information about Jesus. Although Paul the Apostle provides little biographical information about Jesus and states that he never knew Jesus he does make it clear that he considers Jesus to have been a real person and a Jew. Moreover, he claims to have met with the brother of Jesus. In addition to biblical sources, there are a number of mentions of Jesus in non-Christian sources that have been used in the historical analyses of the existence of Jesus. Biblical scholar Frederick Fyvie Bruce says the earliest mention of Jesus outside the New Testament occurs around 55 CE from a historian named Thallos.
Thallos' history, like the vast majority of ancient literature, has been lost but not before it was quoted by Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian writer, in his History of the World. This book was lost, but not before one of its citations of Thallos was taken up by the Byzantine historian Georgius Syncellus in his Chronicle. There is no means by which certainty can be established concerning this or any of the other lost references, partial references, questionable references that mention some aspect of Jesus' life or death, but in evaluating evidence, it is appropriate to note they exist. There are two passages in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus, one from the Roman historian Tacitus, that are considered good evidence. Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, written around 93–94 AD, includes two references to the biblical Jesus Christ in Books 18 and 20; the general scholarly view is that while the longer passage, known as the Testimonium Flavianum, is most not authentic in its entirety, it is broadly agreed upon that it consisted of an authentic nucleus, subject to Christian interpolation.
Of the other mentio
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, which would mean Luke contributed over a quarter of the text of the New Testament, more than any other author. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius reaffirmed his authorship, although a lack of conclusive evidence as to the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious; the New Testament mentions Luke a few times, the Pauline Epistle to the Colossians refers to him as a physician. Since the early years of the faith, Christians have regarded him as a saint, he is believed to have been a martyr having been hanged from an olive tree, though some believe otherwise. The Roman Catholic Church and other major denominations venerate him as Saint Luke the Evangelist and as a patron saint of artists, bachelors, surgeons and butchers.
Many scholars believe that Luke was a Greek physician who lived in the Greek city of Antioch, Turkey in Ancient Syria, although some other scholars and theologians think Luke was a Hellenic Jew. Bart Koet, a researcher and professor of theology, has stated that it was accepted that the theology of Luke–Acts points to a gentile Christian writing for a gentile audience, although he concludes that it is more plausible that Luke–Acts is directed to a community made up of both Jewish and gentile Christians because there is stress on the scriptural roots of the gentile mission. Gregory Sterling, Dean of the Yale Divinity School, claims that he was either a Hellenistic Jew or a god-fearer, his earliest notice is in Paul's Epistle to Philemon—Philemon 1:24. He is mentioned in Colossians 4:14 and 2 Timothy 4:11, two works ascribed to Paul; the next earliest account of Luke is in the Anti-Marcionite Prologue to the Gospel of Luke, a document once thought to date to the 2nd century, but which has more been dated to the 4th century.
Helmut Koester, claims that the following part, the only part preserved in the original Greek, may have been composed in the late 2nd century: Luke, was born in Antioch, by profession, was a physician. He had become a disciple of the apostle Paul and followed Paul until his martyrdom, he died at the age of 84 years. Epiphanius states that Luke was one of the Seventy Apostles, John Chrysostom indicates at one point that the "brother" Paul mentions in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians 8:18 is either Luke or Barnabas. If one accepts that Luke was indeed the author of the Gospel bearing his name and the Acts of the Apostles, certain details of his personal life can be reasonably assumed. While he does exclude himself from those who were eyewitnesses to Jesus' ministry, he uses the word "we" in describing the Pauline missions in Acts of the Apostles, indicating that he was there at those times. There is similar evidence that Luke resided in Troas, the province which included the ruins of ancient Troy, in that he writes in Acts in the third person about Paul and his travels until they get to Troas, where he switches to the first person plural.
The "we" section of Acts continues until the group leaves Philippi, when his writing goes back to the third person. This change happens again. There are three "we sections" in Acts, all following this rule. Luke never stated, that he lived in Troas, this is the only evidence that he did; the composition of the writings, as well as the range of vocabulary used, indicate that the author was an educated man. A quote in the Epistle to the Colossians differentiates between Luke and other colleagues "of the circumcision." 10 My fellow prisoner Aristarchus sends you his greetings, as does the cousin of Barnabas. 11 Jesus, called Justus sends greetings. These are the only Jews among my co-workers for the kingdom of God, they have proved a comfort to me.... 14 Our dear friend Luke, the doctor, Demas send greetings. Colossians 4:10–11, 14; this comment has traditionally caused commentators to conclude. If this were true, it would make Luke the only writer of the New Testament who can be identified as not being Jewish.
However, not the only possibility. Although Luke is considered to have been a gentile Christian, some scholars believe him to have been a Hellenized Jew; the phrase could just as be used to differentiate between those Christians who observed the rituals of Judaism and those who did not. Luke's presence in Rome with the Apostle Paul near the end of Paul's life was attested by 2 Timothy 4:11: "Only Luke is with me". In the last chapter of the Book of Acts attributed to Luke, there are several accounts in the first person affirming Luke's presence in Rome, including Acts 28:16: "And when we came to Rome..." According to some accounts, Luke contributed to the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Luke died at age 84 in Boeotia, according to a "fairly early and widespread tradition". According to Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos, Greek historian of the 14th century, Luke's tomb was located in Thebes, whence his relics were transferred to Constantinople in the year 357; the Gospel of Luke does not name its author.
The Gospel was not written
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas