Estonia men's national basketball team
The Estonia men's national basketball team represents Estonia in international basketball and is controlled by the Estonian Basketball Association. Estonia first competed internationally at the 1936 Summer Olympics; the team has made five appearances at the European Basketball Championship, the EuroBasket, with best results coming from 1937 and 1939, when the team finished in fifth place. Estonia joined FIBA on 23 November 1934. Coached by Herbert Niiler, Estonia first competed internationally at the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin, the first Olympic tournament to hold basketball as an official medal event. Estonia played in the opening match of the tournament, defeating France 34–29; the team lost the subsequent second round match against the United States 28–52, but passed the consolation round and faced the Philippines in the third round, losing 22–39. Estonia participated in the EuroBasket 1937; the team won their first game against Egypt 44–15, but failed to advance past the group stage after suffering a 15–20 defeat against Lithuania and a 20–30 defeat against Italy.
Estonia placed fifth in the final rankings after defeating Czechoslovakia 30–20 and Latvia 41–19. The EuroBasket 1939 used a different format from the previous championship, with eight teams facing off in a round-robin tournament. Estonia finished the tournament with a 4 -- another fifth place. Heino Veskila was the tournament's scoring leader with 16.7 points per game. In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and the team was disbanded. After the restoration of independence, the Estonian Basketball Association rejoined FIBA in 1991; the team competed in the EuroBasket 1993, held in Germany. Despite missing star players Martin Müürsepp and Tiit Sokk, the team, coached by Jaak Salumets won their group in the preliminary round, finishing ahead of hosts and eventual champions Germany and Belgium. In the second round, Estonia finished third in their group and advanced to the quarter-finals, where the team lost to Russia 61–82 and was knocked out. In the classification rounds, Estonia defeated Bosnia and Herzegovina 99–91 and lost to Spain 80–119, finishing the championship in sixth place with a 6–5 record.
Aivar Kuusmaa was the team's scoring leader with 19.9 points per game. Estonia participated in the EuroBasket 2001, held in Turkey. Coached by Üllar Kerde, Estonia lost all three preliminary round matches against Germany and Croatia, failing to advance past the group stage and finishing the championship with a disappointing 0–3 record and a 14th place. Martin Müürsepp led the team in scoring with 18.3 points per game, while Margus Metstak made 6.0 rebounds per game, Rauno Pehka and Tanel Tein averaged 2.7 assists per game. After 2001, Estonia failed to qualify for another major basketball tournament for 14 years; the team competed in the FIBA EuroBasket 2011 Division B tournament. Coached by Tiit Sokk, Estonia qualified for the EuroBasket 2015, with preliminary round matches held in Riga, Latvia. Estonia's first two performances were poor as the team suffered heavy defeats in games against Czech Republic and Belgium. However, the team bounced back with a 78–71 victory against Ukraine, their first EuroBasket victory since 1993.
The next game saw. In the final group phase game, Estonia played against Latvia, losing 64–75 and failing to advance to the knockout stage. Estonia finished the championship in 20th place with a 1–4 record. Gregor Arbet was the team's scoring leader with 11.6 points per game, while Siim-Sander Vene averaged 6.4 rebounds and Sten Sokk contributed 4.2 assists per game. Roster for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup qualification. Estonia women's national basketball team Official website Estonian Basketball Association website FIBA Profile
Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Iowa. It is the county seat of Polk County. A small part of the city extends into Warren County, it was incorporated on September 22, 1851, as Fort Des Moines, shortened to "Des Moines" in 1857. It is on and named after the Des Moines River, adapted from the early French name, Rivière des Moines, meaning "River of the Monks"; the city's population was 217,521 as of the 2017 population estimate. The five-county metropolitan area is ranked 89th in terms of population in the United States with 634,725 residents according to the 2016 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, is the second largest metropolitan area in the state after that of Omaha, which includes three counties in southwest Iowa. Des Moines is a major center of the U. S. insurance industry, has a sizable financial services and publishing business base. The city was credited as the "number one spot for U. S. insurance companies" in a Business Wire article and named the third-largest "insurance capital" of the world.
The city is the headquarters for the Principal Financial Group, the Meredith Corporation, Ruan Transportation, EMC Insurance Companies, Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield. Other major corporations such as Wells Fargo, Voya Financial, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, ACE Limited, Monsanto, DuPont Pioneer have large operations in or near the metropolitan area. In recent years, Hewlett Packard, Facebook have built data-processing and logistical facilities in the Des Moines area. Forbes ranked Des Moines as the "Best Place for Business" in both 2010 and 2013. In 2014, NBC ranked Des Moines as the "Wealthiest City in America" according to its criteria. Des Moines is an important city in U. S. presidential politics. Many presidential candidates set up campaign headquarters in Des Moines. A 2007 article in The New York Times said, "If you have any desire to witness presidential candidates in the most close-up and intimate of settings, there is arguably no better place to go than Des Moines." Des Moines takes its name from Fort Des Moines, named for the Des Moines River.
This was adopted from the name given by French colonists. "Des Moines" translates to either "from the monks" or "of the monks". The historian Virgil Vogel claimed that the name was derived from Moingona, an Algonquian clan name, which means "Loon"; some historians and researchers lacking linguistic or Algonquianist training concluded that Moingona meant "people by the portage" or something similar, a reference to the Des Moines Rapids. This was where the earliest known encounters between the European explorers took place. One popular interpretation of "Des Moines" ignores Vogel's research, concludes that it refers to a group of French Trappist monks, who in the 17th century lived in huts built on top of what is now known as the ancient Monks Mound at Cahokia, the major center of Mississippian culture, which developed in what is present-day Illinois, east of the Mississippi River and the city of St. Louis; this was some 200 miles from the Des Moines River. Based on archeological evidence, the junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers has attracted humans for at least 7,000 years.
Several prehistoric occupation areas have been identified by archeologists in downtown Des Moines. Discovered in December 2010, the "Palace" is an expansive, 7,000-year-old site found during excavations prior to construction of the new wastewater treatment plant in southeastern Des Moines, it contains numerous graves. More than 6,000 artifacts were found at this site. State of Iowa archaeologist John Doershuk was assisted by University of Iowa archaeologists at this dig. At least three Late Prehistoric villages, dating from about AD 1300 to 1700, stood in or near what developed as downtown Des Moines. In addition, 15 to 18 prehistoric American Indian mounds were observed in this area by early settlers. All have been destroyed during development of the city. Des Moines traces its origins to May 1843, when Captain James Allen supervised the construction of a fort on the site where the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers merge. Allen wanted to use the name Fort Raccoon. S. War Department preferred Fort Des Moines.
The fort was built to control the Sauk and Meskwaki Indians, whom the government had moved to the area from their traditional lands in eastern Iowa. The fort was abandoned in 1846 after the Sauk and Meskwaki were removed from the state and shifted to the Indian Territory; the Sauk and Meskwaki did not fare well in Des Moines. The illegal whiskey trade, combined with the destruction of traditional lifeways, led to severe problems for their society. One newspaper reported: "It is a fact that the location of Fort Des Moines among the Sac and Fox Indians for the last two years, had corrupted them more and lowered them deeper in the scale of vice and degradation, than all their intercourse with the whites for the ten years previous". After official removal, the Meskwaki continued to return to Des Moines until around 1857. Archaeological excavations have shown that many fort-related features survived under what is now Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and First Street. Soldiers stationed at Fort Des Moines opened the first coal mines in the area, mining coal from the riverbank for the fort's blacksmith.
Settlers occupied nearby areas. On May 25, 1846, the state legislature designated Fort Des Moines as the seat of Polk County. Arozina Perkins, a school teacher who spent the winter of 1850–1851 in the
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona, it marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler had a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium built, as well as six gymnasiums and many other smaller arenas; the games were the first to be televised, radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million, her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports. Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism, the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter, wrote in the strongest terms that Jews should not be allowed to participate in the Games.
When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, Hitler appeared to allow athletes of other ethnicities from other countries to participate. However, German Jewish athletes were barred or prevented from taking part by a variety of methods and Jewish athletes from other countries seem to have been side-lined in order not to offend the Nazi regime. Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million ℛℳ. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin or outlays of the German national government. Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events and became the most successful athlete to compete in Berlin while the host country was the most successful country overall with 89 medals total, with the United States coming in second with 56 medals; these were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years due to the disruption of the Second World War. The next Olympic Games were held in 1948.
The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. The vote occurred in 1931, during the final years of the Weimar Republic, two years before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in 1933. Many other cities around the world wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes; the other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Helsinki, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro and Rome. Helsinki, Rome and Rio de Janeiro would go on to host the Olympic Games in 1952, 1960, 1992 and 2016, respectively; the selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively. After the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin.
However, Hitler's regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team. Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organisation of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak and other undesirables". Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Among Diem's ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation; the 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games.
It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a relay system from Greece to the Olympic venue. Leni Riefenstahl filmed the relay for the 1938 film Olympia; the sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It unites the combatants in understanding and respect, it helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's; the games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station, they used three different types of TV cameras, so blackouts would occur when changing from one type to another. The 1936 Olympic village is located at Elstal on the western edge of Berlin; the site, 30 kilometres from the centre of the city, consisted of one and two-floor dormitories, a large dining hall, Dining Hall of the Nations, a swimming facility, gymnasium and other training facilities.
Its layout was designed and cons
Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn. Tartu is considered the intellectual centre of the country since it is home to the nation's oldest and most renowned university, the University of Tartu; the city houses the Supreme Court of Estonia, the Ministry of Education and Research, the new building of the Estonian National Museum, opened to the public in October 2016. It is the birthplace of Estonian Song Festivals. Situated 186 kilometres southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres northeast of Riga, Tartu lies on the Emajõgi, which connects the two largest lakes of Estonia; the city is served by Tartu Airport. Since 1918, the Estonian name Tartu has been used, but as the town has come under control of various rulers throughout its history, there have been various names for it in different languages. Most of them derive from the earliest attested form, the Estonian Tarbatu. In German and Polish the town has been known and is sometimes still referred to as Dorpat, a variant of Tarbatu.
In Russian, the city has been known as Юрьев and as Дерпт. The city has been known as Tērbata in Latvian, while Finnish-speakers use the toponym Tartto. Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD. By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill; the first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, named it Yuryev. Kievan rulers collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia until 1061, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols. Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period up to 1176/1177. In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory. Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town, founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.
His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu. During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — known as the Brothers of the Sword — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders. Subsequently, known as Dorpat, Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat. In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat and destroying the town, his troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.
In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League; as in all of Estonia and Latvia, the German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, architecture and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War.
Forces under the command of Pyotr Shuiski began heavy bombardment. In light of this and without any prospect of external help the town surrendered; the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory; the activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. In late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. In 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the cast
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original