Leukerbad is a municipality in the district of Leuk in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. The story of Leukerbad dates back to the 4th century B. C. Graves and ceramics attest the presence of habitation in Leukerbad. From the 5th century, the pass of the Gemmi, a unique link between the cantons of Valais and Bern, has been in use. In 1229, Leukerbad is mentioned for the first time and called "Boez". French is the locally spoken language at that time. In 1315, the commune becomes independent and the oldest known document about Leukerbad mentions the baths. In 1501, the Bishop and Cardinal Matthäus Schiner acquires the rights for the baths and speaks of the health resort during his visits. By that time, German is spoken locally. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, several major avalanches hit the village but the inhabitants rebuilt it each time. During the early history of tourism in Switzerland, a number of notable guests visited Leukerbad, including Isabelle de Charrière, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Guy de Maupassant and Mark Twain.
In 1908, the Company “Chemin de Fer Electric Leukerbad” was founded but the road dominated the access to the village and the trains stopped in 1967. The cable-car to the top of Gemmi Pass was built in 1957 and the one to Torrent Alp in 1970-72. Beginning in the 1980s, the municipality under president Otto G. Loretan began to undertake massive investments into infrastructure. In 1980, the community's thermal centre, The Burgerbad, was opened; the sports centre followed in 1990 and the thermal centre Alpentherme in 1993. In 1998, Leukerbad offered for the first time a "fixed-rope climbing" route of the Daubenhorn, the longest in Switzerland. By 1998, the municipality had accumulated debts of CHF 346 million, as the first municipality in the history of Switzerland had to file for bankruptcy; as a consequence, Leukerbad was placed under cantonal administration during 1998 to 2004. Former president Loretan was convicted to a five-year prison sentence for fraud in August 2004. Leukerbad has an area, as of 2009, of 67.2 square kilometers.
Of this area, 9.52 km2 or 14.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 5.99 km2 or 8.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.91 km2 or 1.4% is settled, 1.32 km2 or 2.0% is either rivers or lakes and 49.47 km2 or 73.6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 0.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.3%. Out of the forested land, 6.2% of the total land area is forested and 1.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 0.0% is used for growing crops and 2.6% is pastures and 11.6% is used for alpine pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 1.1% is in lakes and 0.9% is in rivers and streams. Of the unproductive areas, 9.0% is unproductive vegetation, 53.8% is too rocky for vegetation and 10.8% of the land is covered by glaciers. Leukerbad is situated in the canton of Valais in the south of Switzerland at 1,411 m above sea level; the location is impressive because of the cliffs which surround Leukerbad: To the east, the Daubenhorn at 2,942 m above sea level.
The road which leads to Leukerbad comes into the secluded valley from the south and the town of Leuk in the Rhone valley. The Gemmi Pass is famous in the history of the Valais because it had for a long time been a busy route between Valais and Bern; the Gemmi is accessible with the cable-car which connects Leukerbad to the highest point on the pass From the pass, there are extensive views of the Alps. The region is well known in summer for its hiking trails to Kandersteg, Adelboden or the Wildstrubel, it is visited by the families too because of the small lake called "Daubensee", surrounded by easy walks and provides a popular place for picnics. In winter, this same lake is ideal for the cross-country skiers but you can go there for a snow-shoe trail, a run downhill with a sledge or just a walk on prepared, signposted hikes; the cable-car to Torrent Alp brings to the Rinderhütte at 2,313 m above sea level. In winter it is the paradise of skiers who have 50 km of runs at their disposal. In summer it offers a huge network of mountain bike trails.
The panoramic views from the Rinderhütte of the 4,000 m peaks of the Valais and Italian Alps is breath taking. The history of the springs of Leukerbad dates back to Roman times. People then, were aware of the therapeutic effect of the thermal water. Today, 3,900,000 litres of thermal water - up to 51 °C - flow from the springs and feed 22 thermal pools. Several baths are at the disposal of guests in private hotels, in the Rehabilitation centre and in the Volksheilbad, but the biggest public baths are the Leukerbad Therme and the Lindner Alpentherme; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, standing on Coupeaux Vert a Griffin rampant coward Argent and Or holding in dexter a Chalice of the last pouring water of the third in chief crowned of the fourth. Leukerbad has a population of 1,413; as of 2008, 39.5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 0.9%. It has changed at a rate of -7.1% due to migration a
Sierre is the capital of the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of 16,332. Sierre is nicknamed City of the Sun for its average of 300 days of sunshine a year, it is the last official French speaking city in Valais before the French–German language border of the canton located at the forêt de Finges, few kilometres after the town. A German-speaking minority lives in Sierre. Sierre is first mentioned about 800 as Sidrium, though a 12th-century document refers to the village being founded in 515. In 1179 it was mentioned in 1393 as Syder; the area around the modern town Gerunden hill, was settled early. Archeological sites on Gerunden hill have produced neolithic objects and grave goods, Bronze Age weapons and jewelry, Early Iron Age objects and Roman era inscriptions, jars and coins. A soapstone pot from the Early Middle Ages and a gold signet ring with the name Graifarius from the 6th century have been found. Other sites on nearby hills and near the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the Château de Villa, the churches of Sainte-Croix, Grands-Prés, Muraz and Bernunes have yielded up graves originating from the Bronze Age to the Carolingian era.
In Grands-Prés there is a fire pit from the beginning of the Late Iron Age. During the Roman era it appears that there was no major population center, but rather several scattered groupings of separate, upper class dwellings. Under the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the remains of a Roman era house or estate have been discovered. Other Roman ruins have been found near the Château de Villa, in the church of Sainte-Croix, in Grands-Prés by Muraz another house and in Gerunden the remains of buttress reinforced masonry indicate that a public or government building once stood there. Five altars were found in Saint-Ginier, along with another two in the scattered settlements, one of, dedicated to Mercury. During the early imperial period, the duumvir or mayor of the Civitas Vallensium, Caius Cominus Chiu, lived in Sierre. In the late imperial period, the family of the senator of Vinelia Modestina lived in the area; the chapel of Saint-Félix was built in the beginning of the 6th century on Gerunden hill. In 515 the estate at Sierre was given by the King of Burgundy Sigismund to the Abbey of Saint-Maurice to hold as a fief.
By the 11th century, the fief of Sierre was owned by the Bishop of Sion. The aristocratic families and the residents of the fief lived on the Gerunden, Vieux-Sierre and Plantzette hills. On each of these hills there was a castle that served as the residence for the Bishop's representatives and as a refuge for the population; the castles were razed in the mid-14th century when the noble families stood with the Bishop in his war with the Zenden of the Upper Valais and Counts of Savoy. The demolished castles and villages were abandoned and most residents settled farther north, in plan-Sierre; the only castle that survived the wars of the 14th century was Goubing Castle, southeast of Sierre, which belonged to the lords of Granges. The Contrée of Sierre was a group the managed the commons; as vassals of the Bishop, they had the right to assemble twice a year to regulate the management of the common lands and the affairs of the local police. In the 14th and 15th century this cooperative adopted a larger political role as they started to administer more of the daily affairs in the villages and acquired the right to appoint their own judges.
This grew into the Noble Contrée which formed the core of Sierre Zenden from which the city of Sierre developed. The town of Plan-Sierre soon took over the leadership role in the Noble Contrée; until 1798, the Noble Contrée was appointed by a council of village representatives, under the leadership of the Bishop's representative. In 1559, Plan-Sierre divided into four quarters Monderèche, La Salla and Glarey. In 1620, the town hall was built; as the capital of a Zenden, Sierre fought the French in the 1798–99 invasion. In 1799, the city was occupied by Vaudois troops; the French set up their headquarters in Sierre. In the conflicts between the conservative Upper Valais and the liberal Lower Valais, Sierre served as the seat of government in 1839–40. After 1848, the villages of the Noble Contrée became municipalities under the Valais cantonal constitution; the Zenden of Sierre became the District of Sierre with Sierre as the capital. The new city executive council had nine members, while of the General Council had 60.
The majority of the power was held by the Conservatives. In 1913, they were joined in 1945 the Social Democrats and in 2004 the Greens. At the beginning of the 20th century, Sierre became economically important as early aluminium smelting is enabled by its access to hydroelectricity. Today the aluminium industry Novelis and Alcan employs 1,200 workers in Sierre. In 2007, the agglomeration of Sierre/Crans-Montana was formed to address created to common problems in the fields of tourism and transportation. Sierre has an area, as of 2009, of 19.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 6.61 km2 or 34.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.1 km2 or 21.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.6 km2 or 34.4% is settled, 1.31 km2 or 6.8% is either rivers or lakes and 0.6 km2 or 3.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.4% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 10.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.3%. Powe
Sion is a Swiss town, a municipality, the capital of the canton of Valais and of the district of Sion. As of December 2017 it had a population of 34,599. On 17 January 1968, the former municipality of Bramois merged into the municipality of Sion. On 1 January 2013, the former municipality of Salins merged into the municipality of Sion, on 1 January 2017, Les Agettes did the same. Landmarks in Sion include the Basilique de Château de Tourbillon. Sion has an airfield for civilian and military use, where it serves as a base for air rescue missions. Sion is one of the most important pre-historic sites in Europe; the alluvial fan of Sionne, the rocky slopes above the river and, to a lesser extent and Tourbillon hills have been settled nearly continuously since antiquity. The oldest trace of human settlement comes from 6200 BC during the late Mesolithic. Around 5800 BC early Neolithic farmers from the Mediterranean settled in Sion; the settlements remained small until about 4500 BC, during the middle Neolithic, when the number of settlements increased sharply.
To support the population increase and grazing spread throughout the valley. They began burying their dead in Chablandes-type stone burial cists with engraved anthropomorphic stelae; the individual graves changed at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC in large, dry stone wall communal tombs. During the Beaker culture period in the second half of the third Millennium, dolmens were built once again, but they were smaller and had no podium. Stelae continued to be carved, though these were rich with geometric patterns and sometimes built out of old dolmen. At the beginning of the Early Bronze Age the last stelae were erected; the early settlements have been well documented. There are huts from the Middle Neolithic period found under Ritz Avenue. Late Neolithic sites have been found at Bramois and the early Early Bronze Age site is at Le Petit Chasseur; the Middle Bronze Age, however, is poorly documented. From the subsequent epochs, the great necropolis of Don Bosco and the necropolis of Sous-le-Scex from the La Tène culture.
At the end of the 1st century BC, Sion was the capital of the Seduni, one of the four Celtic tribes of the Valais Julius Caesar mentions them as Nantuates Sedunos Veragrosque. They were conquered by the Romans in the 10s BC. By 8–7 BC, Emperor Augustus praised the tribe of the Seduni with an inscription; the town-hall is said to contain several Roman inscriptions, one of which found at Sion commemorates the Roman presence: Civitas Sedunorum Patrono. Under the Romans it was known as Sedunum; the Roman settlement stretched from what is now St. Theodul, between the Sionne and to the west side of the hill, Valeria. Under the church, a large bath complex was discovered and excavated. Near La Sitterie, Sous-le-Scex and in the upper part of the Avenue du Petit Chasseur, portions of several villae suburbana were found. In the 1st century AD, the Claudii Vallensium Forum, in what is now Martigny, became the capital of the civitas Vallensium. Sedunum still remained the home of many notable families. Grave stelae attest to the presence of duumviri, of flamines, a Roman knight and a former consuls in the town.
In the 4th century praesides are mentioned living in Sedunum, including a man named Pontius Asclepiodotus, who rebuilt an imperial building and, according to an inscription, converted to Christianity in 377. The Roman Catholic diocese of Sion is the oldest in Switzerland and one of the oldest north of the Alps. At first the see was sited at Octodurum, now called Martigny/Martinach; the first authentically historical bishop was Saint Theodore or Theodolus, present at the Council of Aquileia in 381. He founded the Abbey of Saint-Maurice in Agaunum, with a small church in honor of Saint Maurice, martyred there c. 300, when he united the local hermits in a common life, thus beginning the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, the oldest north of the Alps. Theodore rebuilt the church at Sion, destroyed by Emperor Maximinus at the beginning of the 4th century. At first the new diocese was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Vienne. In 589 the bishop, St. Heliodorus, transferred the see to Sion, leaving the low-lying, flood-prone site of Octodurum, where the Drance joins the Rhône.
Though the early bishops were abbots of Saint-Maurice, the monastic community was jealously watchful that the bishops should not extend their jurisdiction over the abbey. Several of the bishops united both offices: Wilcharius archbishop of Vienne, whence he had been driven by the Moors; the first cathedral dates from the 6th century. It was halfway up the hill, where the church of St. Peter stood, until the 19th century when that church was demolished; the fortunes of the city grew. In 999, King Rodolphe III of Burgundy granted the entire County of Valais to the Bishop, Sion became the capital of this County; the Prince-Bishop had the rights of high and low justice, the right to his own regalia and to appoint his own vassals. The residents of Sion were ruled by three appointees of the Bishop, the maior, the vice dominus or Viztum and the salterus; as a result of the decline of the feudal
Continental Reformed church
A Continental Reformed church is a Reformed church that has its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed, the Swiss Reformed, the French Reformed, the Hungarian Reformed, the Waldensian Church in Italy; the term is used to distinguish these churches from Presbyterian, Congregational or other Calvinist churches, which can trace their origin to the British Isles or elsewhere in the world. Continental Reformed churches are descended from the Protestant Reformation in respective European countries. Notably, their theology is derived from the Swiss Reformation, as Switzerland was a base for the most influential Reformed theologians of the era, it was inaugurated by Huldrych Zwingli. Swiss Reformation was more articulated by Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger and John Calvin. In the sixteenth century, the movement spread to most of continental Europe, sometimes aligning and secured by monarchs and other nobles, like in Switzerland and France; the first Reformed churches were established in Europe after 1519 and were part of the Protestant Reformation.
Reformed doctrine is expressed in various confessions. A few confessions are shared by many denominations. Different denominations use different confessions based on historical reasons; the following is a chronological list of confession and theological doctrines of the Reformed churches: First Helvetic Confession Consensus Tigurinus French Confession Scots Confession Three forms of Unity Heidelberg Catechism Belgic Confession Canons of Dordrecht Second Helvetic Confession Helvetic Consensus Second London Baptist Confession Barmen Declaration In contrast to the episcopal polity of the Anglican and many Lutheran and Methodist churches, continental Reformed churches are ruled by assemblies of "elders" or ordained officers. This is called Synodal government by the continental Reformed, but is the same as presbyterian polity, with the elders forming the consistory, the regional governing body known as the classis, the highest court of appeal being the general synod; the Reformed Church in Hungary, its sister church in Romania, the Hungarian Reformed Church in America, the Polish Reformed Church are the only continental Reformed churches to have retained the office of bishop.
Many churches in the Reformed tradition spread either by European immigration, or European and North American missionary work. A comprehensive list of Continental Reformed churches can be found here. Category:Reformed church seminaries and theological colleges Community of Protestant Churches in Europe Congregationalist polity World Alliance of Reformed Churches World Communion of Reformed Churches North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council List of Reformed denominations World Communion of Reformed Churches Reformed Ecumenical Council Reformed Online - Comprehensive resource International Conference of Reformed Churches - 25 Reformed member churches from 14 countries Association Of Reformed Charismatic Churches
Visp is the capital of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Visp lies at the confluence of the Vispa and the Rhône, 9 km west of Brig-Glis. Visp has an area, as of 2011, of 13.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 17.0 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 19.5% is settled and 3.9% is unproductive land. The proposed merger of the municipalities of Eggerberg, Ausserberg, Bürchen, Baltschieder and Visperterminen was rejected by the residents; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per pale Argent and Gules, two Lions rampant reguardant counterchanged. Visp has a population of 7,891; as of 2008, 19.3% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 5.8%. It has changed at a rate of 1.1 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common and Albanian is the third. There are 107 people who speak 3 people who speak Romansh.
As of 2008, the population was 50.5 % female. The population was made up of 713 non-Swiss men. There were 650 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 2,556 or about 39.0% were born in Visp and lived there in 2000. There were 2,138 or 32.6% who were born in the same canton, while 588 or 9.0% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 1,033 or 15.8% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 23.4% of the population, while adults make up 61.6% and seniors make up 15%. As of 2000, there were 2,730 people who never married in the municipality. There were 378 widows or widowers and 251 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 2,536 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 721 households that consist of only one person and 171 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 2,349 apartments were permanently occupied, while 257 apartments were seasonally occupied and 66 apartments were empty.
As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 5.4 new units per 1000 residents. As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Visp was 923.95 Swiss francs per month. The average rate for a one-room apartment was 436.43 CHF, a two-room apartment was about 610.65 CHF, a three-room apartment was about 833.36 CHF and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 936.90 CHF. The average apartment price in Visp was 82.8% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.95%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The entire small city of Visp is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SP, the SVP and the FDP. In the federal election, a total of 2,732 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 60.1%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 2,235 votes were cast, of which 239 or about 10.7% were invalid.
The voter participation was 49.3%, much less than the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 2,731 votes were cast, of which 74 or about 2.7% were invalid. The voter participation was 60.6%, similar to the cantonal average of 59.88%. The major employer in the town is LONZA AG, which employs about 2,550 people. Visp is the economic center of the region and draws workers from many surrounding towns and from Italy; this leads to a unique situation. As of 2010, Visp had an unemployment rate of 2.2%. As of 2008, there were 63 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 21 businesses involved in this sector. 4,288 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 93 businesses in this sector. 3,901 people were employed with 420 businesses in this sector. There were 3,178 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 40.4% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 7,188.
The number of jobs in the primary sector was 34. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 4,110 of which 3,401 or were in manufacturing and 608 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 3,044. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 5,635 workers who commuted into the municipality and 881 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 6.4 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 3.2% of the workforce comi
Crans-Montana is a municipality in the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. On 1 January 2017 the former municipalities of Chermignon, Mollens and Randogne merged to form the new municipality of Crans-Montana. Crans-Montana is a ski resort, created through the fusion of the two centers of Crans and Montana and belonged to six municipalities, four of which merged to form the municipality of Crans-Montana. Chermignon is first mentioned in 1228 as Chirminon, it became an independent municipality in 1905. Mollens is first mentioned about 1250 as Molaen. In 1286 it was mentioned as Moleing; the municipality was known by its German name Molei, that name is no longer used. Montana is first mentioned in 1243 as Montana. In 1905 it separated from Lens to form an independent municipality. Randogne is first mentioned in 1224 as Randonni; the resort is located in the heart of the Swiss Alps in the French-speaking part of the canton of Valais. It is located on a plateau above Sierre at an elevation of about 1,500 m above sea level, allowing good view over the Valais Alps and Weisshorn in particular.
The resort belongs to 6 municipalities. The skiing area of Crans-Montana is composed of 140 km of pistes, includes the Plaine Morte Glacier, it is topped by the Pointe de la Plaine Morte at 2,927 m. Crans-Montana is famous in alpine ski racing for the 1987 World Championships and is on the World Cup schedule for women's speed events, it hosts the only winter mountain pop rock festival Caprices Festival and the second largest European golf event Omega European Masters, which takes place each September. The resort has been used for bicycle racing, hosting stage finishes of the Tour de Suisse seven times and of the Tour de Romandie eight times as of 2013. In addition Crans-Montana hosted the finish of the 20th stage of the 1984 Tour de France, won by Laurent Fignon, who took the overall race win that year. Crans-Montana has an area, as of 2009, of 59.66 km2. The new municipality has a population of 10,565; the historical population is given in the following chart: The Roches des Fées and the Hotel Bella Lui are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance.
Between 1961 and 1990 Montana had an average of 110.5 days of rain or snow per year and on average received 982 mm of precipitation. The wettest month was December during which time Montana received an average of 120 mm of rain or snow. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 9.9 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was January, with an average of 10.4, but with only 108 mm of rain or snow. The driest month of the year was September with an average of 51 mm of precipitation over 6.8 days. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Montana has a marine west coast. English actor Roger Moore owned a chalet at the ski resort for many years after moving from Gstaad, he lived there until his death in 2017. Vojislav Stanimirović, journalist businessman from NYC, father of Pavle "PUNCH" Stanimirović & Alex Olmsted. Sophia Loren had an apartment overlooking the 8th green of the resort's golf course, Crans-Sur-Sierre. Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg French chef and restaurateur Michel Roux Golfers Adam Scott, Ángel Gallardo, Sergio García along with Francesco and Edoardo Molinari are residents.
Elizabeth von Arnim, Australian-born British novelist, lived in Randogne 1910–1930 Media related to Crans-Montana at Wikimedia Commons Official website Crans-Montana ski resort Cordona in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland