A hymnal or hymnary is a collection of hymns in the form of a book, called a hymnbook. Hymnals are used in congregational singing; the earliest hand-written hymnals are from the Middle Ages in the context of European Christianity, although individual hymns such as the Te Deum go back much further. The Reformation in the 16th century, together with the growing popularity of moveable type made hymnals a standard feature of Christian worship in all major denominations of Western and Central Europe; the first hymnal of the Reformation was Achtliederbuch, followed by the Erfurt Enchiridion. An important hymnal of the 17th century was Praxis pietatis melica. List of English-language hymnals by denomination "SDA Hymnal online" "Hymnary.org". — Extensive database of hymns and hymnology resources.
The Evangelisches Kirchengesangbuch was the first common hymnal of German-speaking churches in the Protestant state churches in Germany and the Protestant churches in Austria. It was introduced between 1950 and 1969; the EKG was replaced by the current Evangelisches Gesangbuch between 1993 and 1996. The intention to have a common German Protestant hymnal date back to the mid of the 19th century. A meeting of representatives of German state churches in Eisenach in 1853 resulted in a collection of songs that were known and preferred, Deutsches Evangelisches Kirchen-Gesangbuch in 150 Kernliedern known as Eisenacher Büchlein; the EKG appeared with 394 common songs. Each state church added its special hymns; the current Evangelisches Gesangbuch replaced the EKG between 1993 and 1996, depending on the region. Christhard Mahrenholz, Oskar Söhngen: Handbuch zum Evangelischen Kirchengesangbuch. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1953 ff. Evangelisches Kirchengesangbuch Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek Deutschsprachige Protestantische Gesangbücher Mehrstimmige Chorsätze im EKG Württemberg
Johann Crüger was a German composer of well-known hymns. He was the editor of the most used Lutheran hymnal of the 17th century, Praxis pietatis melica. Crüger was born in Groß Breesen as the son of Georg Crüger, he studied at the nearby Lateinschule until 1613, that school's teaching program included music and singing. He traveled to Sorau and Breslau for further education, to Regensburg, where he received musical training from Paulus Homberger. In 1615 he traveled to Berlin, where he studied theology at the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster. In 1616 he was engaged as a house tutor to the von Blumenthal family. From 1620 he studied theology at the University of Wittenberg and trained himself further in music through private study. From 1622 to his death, a period of 40 years, he was a teacher at the gymnasium Zum Grauen Kloster and cantor of the Nikolaikirche in Berlin. Crüger composed numerous concert wrote extensively on music education. In 1643 he became acquainted with the famous hymn writer Paul Gerhardt, for whom he wrote the music for various hymns.
In 1647 he edited the most important German Lutheran hymnal of the 17th century, Praxis pietatis melica. In 1628, he married the widow of a city councilman. During the Thirty Years' War, Crüger and his family endured many hardships including hunger, he fell ill with plague, died of that disease, losing five children and his wife in 1636. In 1637, having recovered from the disease, he got married a second time, to the 17-year-old daughter of an innkeeper, with whom he had fourteen children, most of whom died at a young age. One of his daughters married the court painter Michael Conrad Hirt, who made a portrait of Crüger in 1663. Crüger died in Berlin. Free scores by Johann Crüger at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Johann Crüger in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores at the Mutopia Project
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Lorraine is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I or King Lothair II, it was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine before the Kingdom of France annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine was an administrative region of France. In 2016, under a reorganization, it became part of the new region Grand Est; as a region in modern France, Lorraine consisted of the four departments Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse and Vosges, containing 2,337 communes. Metz is the regional prefecture; the largest metropolitan area of Lorraine is Nancy, which had developed for centuries as the seat of the duchy. Lorraine borders Germany and Luxembourg, its inhabitants are called "Lorrains" in French and number about 2,356,000. Lorraine's borders have changed in its long history; the location of Lorraine led to it being a paramount strategic asset as the crossroads of four nations.
This, along with its political alliances, marriage alliances, the ability of rulers over the centuries to choose sides between East and West, gave it a tremendously powerful and important role in transforming all of European history. Its rulers intermarried with royal families over all of Europe, played kingmaker, seated rulers on the thrones of the Holy Roman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, others. In 840, Charlemagne's son Louis; the Carolingian Empire was divided among Louis' three sons by the Treaty of Verdun of 843. The middle realm, known as Middle Francia, went to Lothair I, reaching from Frisia in Northern Germany through the Low Countries, Eastern France, Provence, Northern Italy, down to Rome. On the death of Lothair I, Middle Francia was divided in three by the Treaty of Prüm in 855, with the northern third called Lotharingia and going to Lothair II. Due to Lotharingia being sandwiched between East and West Francia, the rulers identified as a duchy from 870 onward, enabling the duchy to ally and align itself nominally with either eastern or western Carolingian kingdoms in order to survive and maintain its independence.
Thus it operated as an independent kingdom. In 870, Lorraine allied with East Francia. In 962, when Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, restored the Empire, Lorraine was designated as the autonomous Duchy of Lorraine within the Holy Roman Empire, it maintained this status until 1766, after which it was annexed under succession law by the Kingdom of France, via derivative aristocratic house alliances. The succession within these houses, in tandem with other historical events, would have restored Lorraine's status as its own duchy, but a vacuum in leadership occurred, its duke François Stephen de Lorraine took the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine became governor of the Austrian Netherlands. For political reasons, he decided to hide those heirs who were not born by his first wife, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, deceased when he took office; the vacuum in leadership, the French Revolution, the political results and changes issuing from the many nationalistic wars that followed in the next 130 years resulted in Lorraine becoming a permanent part of the modern Republic of France.
Because of wars, it came under control of Germany several times as the border between the nations shifted. While Lorrainian separatists do exist in the 21st century, their political power and influence is negligible. Lorraine separatism today consists more of preserving its cultural identity rather than seeking genuine political independence. With enlightened leadership and at a crossroads between French and German cultures, Lotharingia experienced tremendous economic and cultural prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under the Hohenstaufen emperors. Along with the rest of Europe, this prosperity was terminated in Lorraine in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. During the Renaissance, a flourishing prosperity returned to Lotharingia until the Thirty Years' War. France annexed Lorraine by force in 1766, it retains control in the early 21st century. Due to the region's location, the population has been mixed; the north is Germanic, speaking Lorraine Franconian and other Germanic dialects.
Strong centralized nationalism had only begun to replace the feudalist system which had formed the multilingual borders, insurrection against the French occupation influenced much of the area's early identity. In 1871, the German Empire regained a part of Lorraine Bezirk Lothringen, corresponding to the current department of Moselle); the department formed part of the new Imperial German State of Alsace-Lorraine. In France, the revanchist movement developed to recover this territory; the Imperial German administration discouraged the French language and culture in favor of High German, which became the administrative language It required the use of German in schools in areas which it considered or designated as German-speaking, an arbitrary categorisation. French was allowed to remain in use only in primary and secondary schools in municipalities considered Francophone, such as Château-Salins and the surrounding arrondissement, as well and in their local administration, but after 1877, higher education, including state-run colleges, universities an
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht is a scholarly publishing house based in Göttingen, Germany. It was founded in 1735 by Abraham Vandenhoeck in connection with the establishment of the Georg-August-Universität in the same city. After Abraham Vandenhoeck's death in 1750, his English-born widow, Anna Vandenhoeck, née Parry continued the business together with Carl Friedrich Günther Ruprecht, who had entered the business as an eighteen-year-old apprentice in 1748. At the death of Anna Vandenhoeck in 1787, Ruprecht took over the business which he led until his death in 1816, when he was succeeded by his 25-year-old son Carl August Adolf Ruprecht; the management of the company remained in the hands of the Ruprecht family for seven generations. The traditional core areas of the publications of V&R are Theology and Religion, Ancient History and Philology. Current production includes schoolbooks and non-academic publications. In 1935, the Göttingen Academy of Sciences gave Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht responsibility for its publications.
These include the Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, the Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, the Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, the last of, the oldest academic journal in the German-language area. During the Nazi period, V&R published the journal Junge Kirche, the mouthpiece of the anti-Nazi Protestant movement Confessing Church; the periodical was shut down by the authorities in 1941. After the war, it went back to its earlier ambitions to be a comprehensive academic press.: 225 Jahre Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht in Göttingen, Göttingen 1960. Wilhelm Ruprecht: Väter und Söhne: zwei Jahrhunderte Buchhändler in einer deutschen Universitätsstadt, Göttingen 1935. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in Göttingen: 1735–1985 Im Selbstverlag, 1985. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1735–1985. Jubiläumskalender: für das Jahr 1985 mit Kupferstichen aus Büchern d. 18. Jh. Im Selbstverlag, 1985. Official website
Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele
"Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele" is a Lutheran hymn in German, with lyrics by Johann Franck and a melody by Johann Crüger from 1649. It is a song for Lutheran Communion, first appeared in 1649 in Crüger's hymnal Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien also in the 1653 edition of his Praxis pietatis melica; the hymn was set to music to be played or sung under communion. In the current German Protestant hymnal, Evangelisches Gesangbuch, it is EG 218, retaining six of the original nine stanzas. A translation by Catherine Winkworth, "Deck thyself, my soul, with gladness" of 1858, appears in 100 hymnals; the hymn is a song for the Lutheran Communion. The hymn lyrics were written in nine stanzas by Johann Franck, not a minister but a politician and mayor, between 1646 and 1653. Franck compared the unity between Jesus and a Christian receiving communion to the closeness of bridegroom and bride. With a melody by Johann Crüger from 1649, the song appeared first in Crüger's hymnal Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien of 1649, was included, now in nine stanzas in his Praxis pietatis melica in the 1653 edition.
In the 19th century, the hymn became the communion hymn in German-speaking countries. In the current German Protestant hymnal, Evangelisches Gesangbuch, the song is EG 218, rendering six stanzas as follows: The melody, in bar form, has been described as joyful and dance-like: "... the joyful intimacy and wonder expressed by the text.'Leave the gloom haunts of sadness'. Many composers have set it for organ. Johann Sebastian Bach wrote a chorale cantata Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele, BWV 180 in 1724, he composed an organ prelude to be played during communion, BWV 654, in a setting that adorns the melody, as the title requests, with ornamentation. Several English translations have been made of the hymn. Catherine Winkworth wrote in 1858 a version in six stanzas, "Deck thyself, my soul, with gladness", she published it in 1858 in the second series, Christian life, of her Lyra Germanica, revised it in 1863. It appears in 100 hymnals. Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele is the title of a collection of 33 songs from Crüger's Praxis Pietatis Melica, published by the Franckeschen Stiftungen Halle in 2012, in memory of Crüger in the year Reformation und Musik of the Luther Decade 2008–2017.
Based on the critical edition by Hans-Otto Korth and Wolfgang Miersemann, it includes for example "Macht hoch die Tür", "Lobt Gott, ihr Christen alle gleich" and "Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen". Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele was the title of a project of the University of Münster to publish a critical edition of Crüger's hymnal Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien (Sacred church melodies of 1649, completed in 2013. Johannes Kulp: Die Lieder unserer Kirche. Eine Handreichung zum Evangelischen Kirchengesangbuch. Sonderband.