Commonwealth Paraplegic Games
The Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were an international, multi-sport event involving athletes with a disability from the Commonwealth countries. The event was sometimes referred to as the Paraplegic Empire Games and British Commonwealth Paraplegic Games. Athletes were those with spinal injuries or polio; the Games were an important milestone in the Paralympic sports movement as they began the decline of the Stoke Mandeville Games' dominating influence. The event was first held in 1962 and disestablished in 1974; the Games were held in the country hosting the Commonwealth Games for able-bodied athletes. The countries that had hosted the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Six countries — Australia, New Zealand, Northern Ireland and Wales — had been represented at all Commonwealth Paraplegic Games. Australia and England had been the top-ranking nation two times each: 1962, 1974 and 1966, 1970 respectively; the Games were the initiative of George Bedbrook, Director of the Spinal Unit of Royal Perth Hospital.
In Australia, paraplegic sports activities were first held in 1954 with the First Royal Perth Hospital Games in 1954 at the Shenton Park Annex. In 1956, Bedbrook was encouraged during a visit by Ludwig Guttmann, the founder of the Stoke Mandeville Games, to help organise disabled sport in Australia. In 1959, the Paraplegic Association of Western Australia, acting through Royal Perth Hospital, began to publicise the Paraplegic Empire Games just prior to the British Empire Games to be held in Perth in 1962; the first Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held in Perth, Australia in 1962. An Organising Committee was established with Hugh Leslie, Executive Chairman, George Bedbrook, General Secretary and Mrs M. R. Fathers, Secretary; the Games were opened by the Governor of Western Australia, Sir Charles Gairdner on 10 November 1962. Two Perth facilities were used: the Royal Agricultural Showgrounds in Claremont for accommodation and most sporting events and the City of Perth Aquatic Centre, Beatty Park for swimming.
Medals were awarded in the following sports: archery, athletics, weightlifting, snooker, table tennis and basketball. Nine countries participated: England, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Singapore and Australia, there were 93 athletes. A film of the Games was made. Australia was the leading nation in the medal table, followed by Rhodesia; the second Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held in Kingston, Jamaica in 1966. There were 133 athletes from 10 countries; the countries included Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Tobago and Wales. England had the largest delegation at the Games; the games were opened by HRH Prince Philip. Sports on the program included archery, dartchery, snooker, table tennis, weightlifting for men, wheelchair basketball for men and wheelchair fencing. England was the leading nation in the medal table, followed by Scotland; the third Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1970. There were 192 athletes from 14 countries.
Countries at this games that had not participated were Hong Kong, Malaysia and Uganda. The Games were opened by Prime Minister Edward Heath after the Commonwealth Games which were held in Edinburgh; the chairman of the Organising Committee was Lieutenant-Colonel John Fraser. Sporting events were held at Meadowbank Sports Centre and the Royal Commonwealth Pool, the Games Village was based at RAF Turnhouse located at Edinburgh Airport. Sports on the program included archery, dartchery, lawn bowls, shooting, table tennis, weightlifting for men, wheelchair basketball for men and wheelchair fencing. England was the leading nation in the medal table, followed by Scotland; the fourth Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1974. The Games were opened by Governor General of New Zealand; the competing countries were: Australia, Fiji, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Malaysia, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Singapore and Wales. Main venues were Caledonian Ground, Logan Park, University of Otago Physical Education Gymnasium, RSA Hall, Moana Pool and St Kilda Smallbore Rifle Range.
Sports on the program included archery, dartchery, lawn bowls, shooting, swimming, table tennis, weightlifting for men, wheelchair basketball for men and wheelchair fencing. Australia was the leading nation in the medal table, followed by New Zealand; the Dunedin Games were the final Commonwealth Paraplegic Games due to travel logistics and costs. The Commonwealth Paraplegic Games Committee recommended to the International Stoke Mandeville Games Committee that the'World Zone Games' be established; these Games did not come into fruition. However, Sir George Bedbrook helped to establish a Pacific Rim competition called the Far East and South Pacific Games for the Disabled. In the Commonwealth Games, athletes with a disability were first included in exhibition events at the 1994 Victoria Games in Canada. At the 2002 Manchester Games in England, they were included as full members of their national teams, making them the first inclusive international multi-sport games; this meant. Twenty countries sent both male and female elite athletes with a disability to compete in ten events across five Para-Sports: Athletics, Lawn Bowls, Table Tennis and Weightlifting.
The inclusion of Para-Sport full medal events continued at the 2006 Melbourne Games in Australia where 189 elite athletes with a disability from 25 nations took part in Athl
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the women's heptathlon; the javelin was part of the pentathlon of the Ancient Olympic Games beginning in 708 BC in two disciplines and target throw. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong, called ankyle wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes would hold the javelin by the thong and when the javelin was released this thong unwound giving the javelin a spiraled flight. Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s; the rules continued to evolve over the next decades. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up. Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.
When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by nine metres and broke his own world record. Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912. In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown. At the Olympics a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912. After that, this version of the javelin faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus. Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory. Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip; the first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909. Women threw the same implement as men. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932.
For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood birch, with a steel tip. The hollow aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; these new javelins flew further, but were less to land neatly point first. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, the world records were reset; the current men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m. Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a recognized official Olympics, has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin. Finland has, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin; the javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s.
The javelin was part of some of the many early forms of women's pentathlon, has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981. The size, minimum weight, center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m in length and 800 g in weight, women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m in length and 600 g in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity. Unlike the other throwing events, the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are
The Paralympics is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee; the Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century. The Paralympics has grown from 400 athletes with a disability from 23 countries in 1960 to thousands of competitors from over 100 countries in the London 2012 Games. Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic athletes.
The Paralympic Games are organized in parallel with the Olympic Games, while the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games include athletes with intellectual disabilities, the Deaflympics include deaf athletes. Given the wide variety of disabilities that Paralympic athletes have, there are several categories in which the athletes compete; the allowable disabilities are broken down into ten eligible impairment types. The categories are impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment; these categories are further broken down into classifications. Athletes with disabilities did compete in the Olympic Games prior to the advent of the Paralympics; the first athlete to do so was German American gymnast George Eyser in 1904, who had one artificial leg. Hungarian Karoly Takacs competed in shooting events in both 1952 Summer Olympics, he could shoot left-handed. Another disabled athlete to appear in the Olympics prior to the Paralympic Games was Lis Hartel, a Danish equestrian athlete who had contracted polio in 1943 and won a silver medal in the dressage event.
The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes that coincided with the Olympic Games took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Jewish-German born Dr. Ludwig Guttmann of Stoke Mandeville Hospital, helped to flee Nazi Germany by the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics in 1939, hosted a sports competition for British World War II veteran patients with spinal cord injuries; the first games were called the 1948 International Wheelchair Games, were intended to coincide with the 1948 Olympics. Dr. Guttman's aim was to create an elite sports competition for people with disabilities that would be equivalent to the Olympic Games; the games were held again at the same location in 1952, Dutch and Israeli veterans took part alongside the British, making it the first international competition of its own kind. These early competitions known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, have been described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. There have been several milestones in the Paralympic movement.
The first official Paralympic Games, no longer open to war veterans, was held in Rome in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games; the Games were open only to athletes in wheelchairs. With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries; the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the Olympic Summer Games, in the same host city, using the same facilities; this set a precedent, followed in 1992, 1996 and 2000. It was formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001, was extended through 2020. On March 10, 2018, the two committees further extended their contract to 2032; the 1992 Winter Paralympics were the first Winter Games to use the same facilities as the Winter Olympics.
The first Winter Paralympic Games were held in 1976 in Sweden. This was the first Paralympics in which multiple categories of athletes with disabilities could compete; the Winter Games were celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart, just as the Olympics were. This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in France; the Paralympic Games were designed to emphasize the participants' athletic achievements and not their disability. Recent games have emphasized that these games are about not disability; the movement has grown since its early days – for example, the number of athletes participating in the Summer Paralympic games has increased from 400 athletes in Rome in 1960 to 4,342 athletes from 159 countries in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. Both the Paralympic Summer and Winter Games are recognized on the world stage; the IPC is the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement. It comprises 176</ref> National Paralympic Committees and four di
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC, is part of the modern decathlon; the sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.
Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, retains a iconic place in the Olympic Games. The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia, he invented this technique. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics. Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games; the men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms and diameter of 22 centimetres, the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram and diameter of 18 centimetres. Under IAAF rules, Youth boys throw the 1.6 kilograms discus, the Junior men throw the unique 1.75 kilograms discus, the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram discus. In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49; the 1.5 kilograms discus is thrown by ages 50–59, men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram discus.
Women throw the 1 kilogram discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw; the typical discus has sides made of plastic, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used. To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m diameter, recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres. The thrower takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw, he spins anticlockwise around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.
The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower; as well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. A faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability; the technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more. The discus technique can be broken down into phases; the purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, speed is built up during the throw. Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.
During the wind-up, weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind-up sets the tone for the entire throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance; this is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle. For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, the athlete'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common; the aim is to land in the'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point.
The left foot should land quickly after the right. Weight shoul
1976 Summer Paralympics
The 1976 Summer Paralympics, branded as Torontolympiad - 1976 Olympiad for the Physically Disabled, was the fifth Paralympic Games to be held. They were hosted by Toronto, from August 4 to 12, 1976, marking the first time a Paralympics was held in Americas and in Canada; the games began three days after the close of the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. This was the first time. "The problem stemmed from the logic that admitting a team from South Africa was to give implicit approval for its government's attitude towards segregation and racism." Although the South African team at the time was a multi-racial one, the Canadian government withdrew its half million dollar contribution and "matching amounts of funds were to be pulled out by the metropolitan government". The provincial government at Queen's Park covered the tab. Two groups, both with the same President - Ludwig Guttmann - were involved in the decision-making: the International Sports Organisation for the Disabled and the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation.
Guttman and Bob Jackson, worked to convince the governments to honour their promises of support and were successful. A number of teams withdrew, following on from the Montreal boycott by 25 countries, were threatened with exclusion from future events. Efforts were made to develop a joint policy with the International Olympic Committee. Rhodesia was not allowed to participate as the Canadian government refused to grant visas for the Rhodesian Paralympic team to attend the competition; the opening of the 1976 games was held at Woodbine Race Track in north Etobicoke. There was no athletes' village, so competitors were housed at York University, University of Toronto, the CNIB. Israeli athletes were housed at an undisclosed hotel due to security concerns. Closing ceremonies and outdoor events took place at Centennial Park Stadium. Centennial Gymnasium and Centennial Park's Olympic Pool were the other venues; the 1976 games marked the first television coverage of Paralympic events. Performances were shown to viewers in Southern Ontario.
Within the Toronto area, a consortium of local cable companies carried the games on channel 10 after CTV and Global TV declined to carry them. At the 1976 games and visually impaired athletes competed for the first time. Within the sport of athletics, new wheelchair racing distances of 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m were added. Shooting and goalball, both demonstration events, were included as official medal sports. Archery Athletics Dartchery Goalball Lawn bowls Shooting Snooker Swimming Table tennis Volleyball Weightlifting Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing The top 10 NPCs by number of gold medals are listed below; the host nation, Canada, is highlighted. Forty-one delegations took part in the Toronto Paralympics. Burma, Ecuador, Guatemala and Luxembourg made their first appearances. South Africa was competing at the Paralympics for the fourth time. Although banned from the Olympic Games due to its policy of apartheid, it was not banned from the Paralympics until 1980, Canada, as host country, did not object to its participation.
These were, however. Canada at the Paralympics World Paralympiads in Canada 1976 Summer Paralympics – Toronto 2010 Winter Paralympics – Vancouver—Whistler 1976 Winter Paralympics 1976 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Paralympics
The 1972 Summer Paralympics, the fourth edition of the Paralympic Games, were held in Heidelberg, West Germany, from August 2 to 11, 1972. As with previous Paralympics, the 1972 games were intended for wheelchair athletes only. However, demonstration events such as goalball and a 100 m sprint for the visually impaired allowed visually impaired competitors to participate for the first time. Archery Athletics Dartchery Goalball Lawn bowls Snooker Swimming Table tennis Weightlifting Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below; the host nation, West Germany, is highlighted. Forty-one delegations took part in the Heidelberg Paralympics. Bahamas, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Malaysia, Peru, Romania and Yugoslavia competed for the first time. South Africa was competing at the Paralympics for the third time. Although banned from the Olympic Games due to its policy of apartheid, it was not banned from the Paralympics until 1980, West Germany, as host country, did not object to its participation.
Rhodesia competed for the last time. Its invitation to take part in the 1972 Summer Olympics was withdrawn by the International Olympic Committee four days before the opening ceremony, in response to African countries' protests against the Rhodesian government, but as the Paralympics that year were held before the Olympics, Rhodesia was able to take part in the 1972 Paralympic Games