Carmen de Lavallade
Carmen de Lavallade is an American actress and choreographer. Carmen de Lavallade was born in Los Angeles, California, on March 6,1931, to black Creole parents from New Orleans and she was raised by her aunt, who owned one of the first African-American history bookshops on Central Avenue. De Lavallades cousin, Janet Collins, was the first African-American prima ballerina at the Metropolitan Opera, De Lavallade began studying ballet with Melissa Blake at the age of 16. After graduation from Thomas Jefferson High School in Los Angeles was awarded a scholarship to dance with Lester Horton. De Lavallade became a member of the Lester Horton Dance Theater in 1949 where she danced as a dancer until her departure for New York City with Alvin Ailey in 1954. Like all of Hortons students, de Lavallade studied other art forms, including painting, music, set design and costuming, as well as ballet and other forms of modern and she studied dancing with ballerina Carmelita Maracci and acting with Stella Adler.
In 1954, de Lavallade made her Broadway debut partnered with Alvin Ailey in Truman Capotes musical House of Flowers, in 1955, she married dancer/actor Geoffrey Holder, whom she had met while working on House of Flowers. It was with Holder that de Lavallade choreographed her signature solo Come Sunday, the following year, de Lavallade danced as the prima ballerina in Samson and Delilah, and Aida at the Metropolitan Opera. She made her debut in John Butlers ballet Flight. She appeared in several productions, including Othello and Death of a Salesman. An introduction to 20th Century Fox executives by Lena Horne led to acting roles between 1952 and 1955. She appeared in films, including Carmen Jones with Dorothy Dandridge. De Lavallade was a principal guest performer with the Alvin Ailey Dance Company on the tour of Asia. Other performances included dancing with Donald McKayle and appearing in Agnes de Milles American Ballet Theatre productions of The Four Marys and she joined the Yale School of Drama as a choreographer and performer-in-residence in 1970.
She staged musicals and operas, and eventually became a professor, between 1990 and 1993, de Lavallade returned to the Metropolitan Opera as choreographer for Porgy and Bess and Die Meistersinger. In 2003, de Lavallade appeared in the rotating cast of the staged reading of Wit & Wisdom. In 2010, she appeared in a one-night-only concert semi-staged reading of Evening Primrose by Stephen Sondheim, De Lavallade had resided in New York City with her husband Geoffrey Holder until his death on October 5,2014. Their lives were the subject of the 2005 Linda Atkinson and Nick Doob documentary Carmen, the couple had one son, Léo
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, movement, since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, musicals. These were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan. Musicals are performed around the world and they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller fringe theatre, Off-Broadway or regional theatre productions, musicals are often presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia, the three main components of a book musical are its music and book. The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its team, which includes a director. A musicals production is characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties, lighting.
The creative team and interpretations generally change from the production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the production, for example. There is no fixed length for a musical, while it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are usually presented in two acts, with one intermission, and the first act is frequently longer than the second. A book musical is usually built four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show. Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades, moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are often performed in song. Proverbially, when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing, many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length.
Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the characters, the material presented in a musical may be original, or it may be adapted from novels, classic legends, historical events or films. On the other hand, many musical theatre works have been adapted for musical films, such as West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oliver
Dame Cleo Laine, Lady Dankworth, DBE is an English jazz and pop singer and an actress, known for her scat singing and for her vocal range. Though her natural range is that of a contralto, she is able to produce a G above high C, Laine is the only female performer to have received Grammy nominations in the jazz and classical music categories. She is the widow of jazz composer Sir John Dankworth, the family moved round constantly, but most of Laines childhood was spent in Southall. She attended the Board School there on Featherstone Road and was sent by her mother for singing and dancing lessons at an early age. She went on to attend Mellow Lane Senior School in Hayes before going to work as a hairdresser, a hat-trimmer. In 1946, under the name Clementina Dinah Campbell, Laine married George Langridge, Laine did not take up singing professionally until her mid-twenties. She auditioned successfully, at the age of 24, for John Dankworths small group, the Dankworth Seven and Laine married that year in secret at Hampstead Register Office.
The only witnesses were the couples friend, pianist Ken Moule, the couple had two children, who are both successful musicians in their own right, Alec who lives in the US, and Jacqui, a British singer who has released a number of albums. Laine began her career as a singer and actress and she played the lead in a new play at Londons Royal Court Theatre, home of the new wave of playwrights of the 1950s such as John Osborne and Harold Pinter. Show Boat had its longest run to date in that London season with 910 performances staged, during this period, she had two major recording successes. In 1964 her Shakespeare and All that Jazz album with Dankworth was well received, Laines international activities began in 1972, with a successful first tour of Australia. Shortly afterwards, her career in the United States was launched with a concert at New Yorks Lincoln Center, coast-to-coast tours of the US and Canada soon followed, and with them a succession of record albums and television appearances, including The Muppet Show in 1977.
This led, after several nominations, to her first Grammy award and she has continued to tour periodically, including in Australia in 2005. She has collaborated with many classical musicians including James Galway, Nigel Kennedy, Julian Lloyd Webber. Other important recordings during that time were duet albums with Ray Charles as well as Arnold Schoenbergs Pierrot Lunaire, Laines relationship with the musical theatre started in Britain and continued in the United States with starring performances in Sondheims A Little Night Music and The Merry Widow. In 1980 she starred in Colette, a new musical by Dankworth, the show originally opened at the Stables theatre, Wavendon, in 1979 and transferred to the Comedy Theatre, London, in September 1980. In 1979, Laine was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to music, in 1983, Laine won the Grammy Award – Best Female Jazz Vocalist, for Cleo at Carnegie, The 10th Anniversary Concert. In 1991, she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the US recording industry in Los Angeles, in May 1992, Laine appeared with Frank Sinatra for a week of concerts at the Royal Albert Hall, London
Betty Lynn Buckley is an American stage and television actress, and singer. Her other musical roles include playing Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard from 1994 to 1996 and she is a 2012 American Theater Hall of Fame inductee. Buckley made her Broadway debut in 1969 playing Martha Jefferson in the production of the musical 1776. Other Broadway musical credits include Pippin and Drood and her other film roles include Dixie Scott in Tender Mercies, Sondra Walker in Frantic, Kathy in Another Woman and Mrs. Jones in The Happening. She had a role in the HBO series Oz. In 2017, she received a Saturn Award nomination for her role as Dr. Karen Fletcher in the film Split and she is the oldest of their four children. She has three brothers—Norman Buckley is an editor and TV director, and Patrick and Michael Buckley are engineers. While a student at Texas Christian University, she was a member of Zeta Tau Alpha and she was crowned Miss Fort Worth in 1966 and was runner-up in the Miss Texas competition. Buckley was invited to perform at the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City, after returning to TCU to earn her college degree, she toured Asia to visit soldiers wounded in the Vietnam War.
After this, she worked for a time as a reporter for the Fort Worth Press, but went to New York City in 1969, where she landed the role of Martha Jefferson in 1776 her first day in town. Buckley made her Broadway debut in 1969 in the production of the musical 1776. She is perhaps best known for the 1977–81 TV dramedy Eight Is Enough and she joined the show in its second season when the original star, Diana Hyland, died after the first four episodes of season one. Hylands character died, and Buckley was cast as the new romantic interest, Sandra Sue Abbott. Buckley appeared in the movie version of Carrie in 1976, playing Miss Collins. She would go on to appear as Margaret White in the 1987 musical adaptation of the film on Broadway, in 1977, she recorded an uncredited solo on the song Walking in Space, in the movie Hair. In 1982, Buckley starred as Grizabella in the original Broadway production of the musical Cats and she would stay with the production for eighteen months. For this role, she won a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical, screen roles during the 1980s include Bruce Beresfords film Tender Mercies, where she played a country singer and sang the Academy Award nominated song Over You.
She appeared in the Woody Allen film Another Woman, Roman Polanskis Frantic, Lawrences Kasdens Wyatt Earp, Buckley starred in both London and New York as Norma Desmond in the musical Sunset Boulevard
Color television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set. It is an improvement on the earliest television technology, monochrome or black and white television, Television broadcasting stations and networks in most parts of the world upgraded from black and white to color transmission in the 1960s and 1970s. The invention of color television standards is an important part of the history of television, in its most basic form, a color broadcast can be created by broadcasting three monochrome images, one each in the three colors of red and blue. When displayed together or in succession, these images will blend together to produce a full color image as seen by the viewer. The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the eye to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image, the NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement. Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U. S.
in 1953, high prices, the first national color broadcast occurred on January 1,1954, but during the next ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. The first all-color prime-time season came just one year later, early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop versions nearly as bulky and heavy, so in practice they remained firmly anchored in one place. The introduction of GEs relatively compact and lightweight Porta-Color set in the spring of 1966 made watching color television a more flexible, in 1972, sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of black-and-white sets. Also in 1972, the last holdout among daytime network programs converted to color, Color broadcasting in Europe was not standardized on the PAL format until the 1960s. By the late 1980s even these areas switched to color sets, the human eyes detection system in the retina consists primarily of two types of light detectors, rod cells that capture light and shapes/figures, and the cone cells that detect color. A typical retina contains 120 million rods and 4.5 million to 6 million cones and this means that the eye has far more resolution in brightness, or luminance, than in color.
The eye has limited bandwidth to the rest of the visual system and this illusion starts to work at about 16 frame/s, and common motion pictures use 24 frame/s. Experiments in television systems using radio broadcasts date to the 19th century, a key problem was the need to convert a 2D image into a 1D radio signal, some form of image scanning was needed to make this work. Early systems generally used a known as a Nipkow disk. A single photodetector behind the disk captured the image brightness at any given spot, a similar disk was used at the receiver side, with a light source behind the disk instead of a detector. A number of systems were being used experimentally in the 1920s. The best-known was John Logie Bairds, which was used for regular public broadcasting in Britain for several years. Indeed, Bairds system was demonstrated to members of the Royal Society in London in 1926 in what is recognized as the first demonstration of a true
An anthology series is a radio or television series that presents a different story and a different set of characters in each episode or season/series. Some anthology series, such as Studio One, began on radio, many popular old-time radio programs were anthology series. On some series, such as Inner Sanctum Mysteries, the constant was the host. One of the earliest such programs was The Collier Hour, broadcast on the NBC Blue Network from 1927 to 1932, as radios first major dramatic anthology, it adapted stories and serials from Colliers Weekly in a calculated move to increase subscriptions and compete with The Saturday Evening Post. Weird The Haunting Hour The Sealed Book Mystery in the Air The Weird Circle Quiet, the stars would own the studio and the program, as Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz had done successfully with Desilu studio. Powell had intended for the program to feature himself, Charles Boyer, Joel McCrea, when Russell and McCrea backed out, David Niven came on board as the third star.
The fourth star was initially a guest star, CBS liked the idea, and Four Star Playhouse made its debut in fall of 1952. It ran on alternate weeks only during the first season, alternating with Amos n Andy and it was successful enough to be renewed and became a weekly program from the second season until the end of its run in 1956. Ida Lupino was brought on board as the de facto fourth star, though unlike Powell, American television networks would sometimes run summer anthology series which consisted of unsold television pilots. Beginning in 1971, the long-run Masterpiece Theatre drama anthology series brought British productions to American television. k. a. Billy Roses Playbill Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre The Bold Ones Broadway Television Theatre Buick-Electra Playhouse Cameo Theatre Camera Three The Campbell Playhouse, Campbell Soundstage and Campbell Summer Soundstage Cavalcade of America CBS Playhouse CBS Summer Playhouse CBS Television Workshop CBS Workshop, a. k. a. CBS Repertoire Workshop Celanese Theatre Celebrity Playhouse Center Stage Cheer Television Theatre The Chevrolet Tele-Theatre a. k.
a, Chevrolet on Broadway Chevron Hall of Stars Chevron Theatre Climax. Gruen Guild Theatre The Gulf Playhouse Hallmark Hall of Fame Hollywood Opening Night Hollywood Premiere Theatre, Hollywood Theatre Time International Playhouse John Waters Presents Movies That Will Corrupt You The Joseph Cotten Show, a. k. a. k. a. Max Liebman Presents Medallion Theatre, a. k. a, grimms Fairy Tale Classics Happily Ever After, Fairy Tales for Every Child The Harveytoons Show KaBlam. Late Night and White Legends of Bikini Bottom Liquid Television The Looney Tunes Show Mickey Mouse Works Mickeys Mouse Tracks O Canada Off the Air Oh Yeah. Cartoons The Pink Panther Show The Popeye Show The Porky Pig Show Princes et princesses Random. M. k. a. Terribles House of Horrible The Eddie Cantor Comedy Theatre El Chapulín Colorado Ripping Yarns George Burns Comedy Week Good Heavens Human Remains Inside No. k. a. k. a. k. a. k. a, orson Welles Great Mysteries Out of the Fog Panic. Way of Life Family Theater Insight Lamp Unto My Feet Look Up, the Fisher Family Alcoa Presents, One Step Beyond Amazing Stories American Horror Story Are You Afraid of the Dark. L. k. a
Bernadette Peters is an American actress and childrens book author. Over the course of a career that has spanned five decades, she has starred in theatre and television, as well as performing in solo concerts. She is one of the most critically acclaimed Broadway performers, having received nominations for seven Tony Awards, four of the Broadway cast albums on which she has starred have won Grammy Awards. Peters first performed on the stage as a child and an actress in the 1960s. In the 1980s, she returned to the theatre, where she one of the best-known Broadway stars over the next three decades. She has recorded six albums and several singles, as well as many cast albums. In the 2010s, Peters continues to act on stage, in films and on television in series as Smash. She has been nominated for three Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards, winning once, Peters was born into a Sicilian American family in Ozone Park, New York, the youngest of three children. Her father, Peter Lazzara, drove a delivery truck.
Her siblings are casting director Donna DeSeta and Joseph Lazzara and she appeared on the television shows Name That Tune and several times on The Horn and Hardart Childrens Hour at age five. In January 1958, at age nine, she obtained her Actors Equity Card in the name Bernadette Peters to avoid ethnic stereotyping, with the stage name taken from her fathers first name. She made her stage debut the same month in This is Goggle. She first appeared on the New York stage at age 10 as Tessie in the New York City Center revival of The Most Happy Fella. In her teen years, she attended the Quintanos School for Young Professionals, at age 13, Peters appeared as one of the Hollywood Blondes and was an understudy for Dainty June in the second national tour of Gypsy. During this tour, Peters first met her long-time accompanist and arranger Marvin Laird, who was the assistant conductor for the tour. In 1964, she played Liesl in The Sound of Music and Jenny in Riverwind in summer stock at the Mt. Gretna Playhouse, and Riverwind again at the Bucks County Playhouse in 1966.
She made her Broadway debut in Johnny No-Trump in 1967, Peters performance as Ruby in the 1968 Off-Broadway production of Dames at Sea, a parody of 1930s musicals, brought her critical acclaim and her first Drama Desk Award. She had appeared in an earlier 1966 version of Dames at Sea at the Off-Off-Broadway performance club Caffe Cino, Peters had starring roles in her next Broadway vehicles—Gelsomina in La Strada and Hildy in On the Town, for which she received her first Tony Award nomination
Judith Marjorie Judy Collins, affectionately known as Judy Blue Eyes, is an American singer and songwriter known for her eclectic tastes in the material she records and for her social activism. The single hit the Top 10 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart and she enjoyed further success with her recordings of Someday Soon, Chelsea Morning, Amazing Grace, and Cook with Honey. Collins experienced the biggest success of her career with her recording of Stephen Sondheims Send in the Clowns from her best-selling 1975 album Judith, Collins was born the eldest of five siblings in Seattle, where she spent the first ten years of her life. Her father, a singer and radio disc jockey, took a job in Denver, Colorado, in 1949. Collins studied classical piano with Antonia Brico, making her debut at age 13. Brico took a dim view and later, of Collins developing interest in music, which led her to the difficult decision to discontinue her piano lessons. Years later, after she became known internationally, she invited Brico to one of her concerts in Denver, when they met after the performance, Brico took both of Collins hands in hers, looked wistfully at her fingers and said, Little Judy—you really could have gone places.
Still later, Collins discovered that Brico herself had made a living when she was playing jazz. In her early life, Collins had the fortune of meeting many professional musicians through her father. It was the music of Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and the songs of the folk revival of the early 1960s, however. Three years after her debut as a prodigy, she was playing guitar. Her first public appearances as a folk artist after her graduation from Denvers East High School were at Michaels Pub in Boulder and her music became popular at the University of Connecticut, where her husband taught. She performed at parties and for the radio station along with David Grisman. She eventually made her way to Greenwich Village, New York City, where she played in clubs like Gerdes Folk City until she signed with Elektra Records, in 1961, Collins released her first album, A Maid of Constant Sorrow, at age 22. At first she sang traditional songs or songs written by others – in particular the protest songwriters of the time, such as Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs.
She recorded her own versions of important songs from the period, such as Dylans Mr. Tambourine Man, Collins was instrumental in bringing little-known musicians to a wider public. For example, she recorded songs by Canadian poet Leonard Cohen and she recorded songs by singer-songwriters such as Eric Andersen, Ian Tyson, Joni Mitchell, Randy Newman, Robin Williamson and Richard Fariña long before they gained national acclaim. Mark Abramson produced and Joshua Rifkin arranged the album, adding lush orchestration to many of the numbers, the album was a major departure for a folk artist and set the course for Collins subsequent work over the next decade
Paley Center for Media
The Paley Center for Media & Paleyfest Location, formerly the Museum of Television & Radio and the Museum of Broadcasting, founded in 1975 by William S. With an ever-growing collection of content broadcast on radio and television, the New York City branch is in the heart of Midtown Manhattan at 25 West 52nd Street between 5th and 6th Avenues. The Los Angeles branch is located at 465 N Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills and this was adjacent to the Doubleday Book Store on Fifth Avenue. The Museum of Broadcastings name was changed to The Museum of Television & Radio with the September 12,1991 move into the William S. Paley Building. Designed by Philip Johnson and located at 25 West 52nd Street and it has two front entrances, the one on the left is for office staff, and the main entrance on the right for the general public. The Alexander Mackendrick film Sweet Smell of Success has a location scene with different angles revealing how the neighborhood looked in the years before the building was constructed.
Reservations to use the Library are made at the front desk, in addition to the elevator, a staircase on the first floor leads down to the large basement-level theater. The fourth floor has numerous Macintosh computers, used by visitors to scan titles in the collection, when a selection is made, it can be watched on the computer. Computers are available both for individuals and for groups, on another floor, visitors can hear pre-programmed channels in the Ralph Guild Listening Room, named for Ralph C. Guild, Chairman of the Board for Interep, the largest independent national sales and marketing organization specializing in radio, in the rear of the Listening Room is the museums radio broadcasting studio. The Museum of Television & Radio in Los Angeles at 465 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, opened March 18,1996 in a new building designed by Richard Meier and named for Leonard H. Goldenson. When the Los Angeles building opened, it featured a collection duplicated from the tapes in the New York collection, rooms are named for the celebrity sponsors, the Danny Thomas Lobby, the Aaron Spelling Reception Area and the Garry Marshall Pool.
Screenings are held in the 150-seat John H. Mitchell Theatre, the Ahmanson Radio Listening Room has headphones for use with five pre-programmed channels. The Paley Center for Media is committed to the idea that many television and radio programs are significant works, instead of collecting artifacts and memorabilia, the Paley Center comprises mostly screening rooms, including two full-sized theaters. Some television programs are from the 1940s with radio programs dating back to the 1920s, the museum does not sell the material or permit it to leave the premises. Viewing copies of programs are Hi-8mm video tape dubs. The originals are kept in a vault outside of New York City, the Paley Center has acquired many lost episodes of classic television shows and has produced documentary features about the history and impact of television and radio. In recent years, the Center has sponsored advance viewing of the episodes of each networks new programs
Candice Patricia Bergen is an American actress and former fashion model. She won five Emmy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards for her ten seasons as the character on the CBS sitcom Murphy Brown. She is known for her role as Shirley Schmidt on the ABC drama Boston Legal and she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Starting Over, and for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Gandhi. Bergen began her career as a model and appeared on the front cover of Vogue magazine. She went on to star in The Sand Pebbles, Soldier Blue, Carnal Knowledge and The Wind and she made her Broadway debut in the 1984 play Hurlyburly. From 2000 to 2002, she appeared in three episodes of the HBO series Sex and the City and her other film roles include Miss Congeniality, Sweet Home Alabama, The Women and Bride Wars. In the 2010s, she returned to Broadway to star in the revivals of The Best Man, Bergen was born in Beverly Hills, California. She weighed seven pounds,12 ounces and her mother, Frances Bergen, was a Powers model who was known professionally as Frances Westcott.
Her father, Edgar Bergen, was a famous ventriloquist and her paternal grandparents were Swedish-born immigrants who anglicized their surname, which was originally Berggren. As a child, Candice was irritated at being described as Charlie McCarthys little sister. She began appearing on her fathers radio program at a young age and she said that when she grew up, she wanted to design clothes. She ultimately received a doctorate from Penn in May 1992. She worked as a model before she took up acting. In 1966, Bergen made her screen debut playing a university student in The Group, the same year, she played the role of Shirley Eckert, an assistant school teacher in The Sand Pebbles opposite Steve McQueen. The movie was nominated for several Academy Awards and she was featured in a 1970 political satire, The Adventurers, playing a frustrated socialite. In 1975 she starred with Sean Connery in The Wind and the Lion, Bergen had roles in Western films including The Hunting Party and Bite the Bullet, both of which starred Gene Hackman.
Another Western she starred in was the highly controversial Soldier Blue, a worldwide hit and it led to Bergens being voted by British exhibitors as the seventh most popular star at the British box office in 1971. She was the love interest of Ryan ONeal in the Love Story sequel, Olivers Story, in 1982, Bergen appeared in the Oscar-winning film Gandhi in which she portrayed documentary photographer Margaret Bourke-White
Beverly Hills, California
Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658, sometimes referred to as 90210, one of its primary ZIP codes, it was home to many actors and celebrities throughout the 20th century. The city includes the Rodeo Drive shopping district and the Beverly Hills Oil Field, gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would become Beverly Hills on August 3,1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard. The area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828 and they called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. in 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Wilson and Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles. Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker acquired most of it, at this point, the area was known as the Hammel and Denker Ranch.
By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings and they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property Beverly Hills, subdivided it, the development was named Beverly Hills after Beverly Farms in Beverly and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907, although sales remained slow, Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents and it was forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911, the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills and that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business.
The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921, the glamor associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue, in 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Will Rogers, the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved an issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA. The cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice issued bonds to pay for the new campus
Sarah Brightman is an English classical crossover soprano, musician and dancer. She has sung in languages, including English, French, German, Italian, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese. Brightman began her career as a member of the dance troupe Hot Gossip, in 1981, she made her West End musical theatre debut in Cats and met composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, whom she married. She went on to star in several West End and Broadway musicals, including The Phantom of the Opera, the Original London Cast Album of the musical was released in CD format in 1987 and sold 40 million copies worldwide, making it the biggest-selling cast album of all time. After retiring from the stage and divorcing Lloyd Webber, Brightman resumed her career with former Enigma producer Frank Peterson. It subsequently became a success selling 12 million copies worldwide. She has now collected over 180 gold and platinum awards in 38 different countries. Also, since 2010, Brightman is Panasonics global brand ambassador, apart from music, Brightman has begun a film career, making her debut in Repo.
The Genetic Opera, a rock opera-musical film directed by Darren Lynn Bousman, Brightman is the worlds richest female classical performer with a fortune of £36m. In 2014, she began training for a journey to the International Space Station set for 2015, in May 2015, she postponed the flight until further notice, citing personal reasons. Brightman was awarded the decoration Cavaliere in the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic on 2 June 2016, Brightman is the oldest of six children of businessman Grenville Geoffrey Brightman and Paula Brightman. Her younger siblings are Nicola, Jay and she was raised in Little Gaddesden near Berkhamsted, England. At the age of three she began taking dance and piano classes and went on to perform in local festivals, at age 11, she successfully auditioned for the Arts Education School in Tring Park, a school specialising in performing arts. She received her education at Elmhurst Ballet School, Arts Educational School, in 1973, at the age of 13, Brightman made her theatrical debut in the musical I and Albert at the Piccadilly Theatre, playing one of Queen Victorias daughters.
In 1976 she was recruited into Arlene Phillips troupe Hot Gossip in 1977, the group had a disco hit in 1978 with I Lost My Heart to a Starship Trooper, which sold half a million and reached number six on the UK charts. Brightman, now solo, released more singles under her own label, Whisper Records, such as Not Having That. In 1979, Brightman appeared on the soundtrack of the movie The World Is Full of Married Men, in 1981, Brightman auditioned for the new musical Cats, by composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, and was cast as Jemima. In that year she left to play the role in Charles Strouses childrens opera