William Thomas Brande
William Thomas Brande FRS FRSE was an English chemist. Brande was born in Arlington Street, England, the youngest son of six children to Augustus Everard Brande an apothecary from Hanover in Germany, he was educated first in Kensington and in Westminster. After leaving Westminster School, he was apprenticed, in 1802, to his brother, an apothecary, with the view of adopting the profession of medicine, he studied medicine at Great Windmill Street Medical School and at St George's Hospital, before being drawn to chemistry following a meeting with Humphry Davy. He began to lecture in chemistry, based on a sound knowledge of which he acquired in his spare time. In 1811 he published the first of what were to be two influential articles on the measurement of alcohol in fermented drinks, including wine and ale; until that point chemists had only been able to measure alcohol in distilled drinks, which many early temperance reformers had assumed to be a poison. By showing that alcohol was present in fermented drinks from the start, Brande undermined the long-standing view that spirits were toxic, while wine and beer were more wholesome.
These findings were propagated by the Temperance movement and used to justify total alcoholic abstinence, or teetotalism. In 1812 he was appointed professor of chemistry to the Apothecaries' Society, delivered a course of lectures before the Board of Agriculture in place of Sir Humphry Davy, whom in the following year he succeeded in the chair of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London. In 1821 he was the first to isolate the element lithium, which he did by electrolysis of lithium oxide. From about 1823 onwards, Brande worked with the Royal Mint becoming Superintendent of the Coining and Die Department. Brande's Manual of Chemistry, first published in 1819, enjoyed wide popularity, among other works he brought out a Dictionary of Science and Art in 1842, he was working on a new edition. He contributed articles to Rees's Cyclopædia on Chemistry. In 1834, 1836, 1839, 1842, 1844, 1847 and 1850 Brande was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on Chemistry. Outlines of Geology Manual of Chemistry Manual of Pharmacy Dictionary of Materia Medica Dictionary of Science and Art Organic Chemistry He married Anna Frederica Hatchett, daughter of the eminent chemist Charles Hatchett in July 1818.
Brande died in Tunbridge Wells in 1866, is buried in West Norwood Cemetery, London. Obituary – from Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, volume XVI, 1868, pages ii – vi "Brande, William Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Material on Brande's life and death by Frank James This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Brande, William Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Thomas Phillips RA was a leading English portrait and subject painter. He painted many of the great men of the day including scientists, writers and explorers. Phillips was born at Dudley in Worcestershire. Having learnt glass-painting in Birmingham under Francis Eginton, he visited London in 1790 with an introduction to Benjamin West, who found him employment on the painted-glass windows of St George's Chapel at Windsor. In 1791 he became a student at the Royal Academy, where, in 1792 he exhibited a view of Windsor Castle, followed in the next two years by the "Death of Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, at the Battle of Castillon", "Ruth and Naomi", "Elijah restoring the Widow's Son", "Cupid disarmed by Euphrosyne", other pictures. After 1796, he concentrated on portrait-painting. However, the field was crowded with the likes of John Hoppner, William Owen, Thomas Lawrence and Martin Archer Shee competing for business. In 1804 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, together with William Owen.
About the same time he moved to 8 George Street, Hanover Square, London the residence of Henry Tresham, R. A. where he lived for the rest of his life. He became a royal academician in 1808, presented as his diploma work "Venus and Adonis" the best of his creative subjects, apart from "Expulsion from Paradise". Meanwhile, he rose in public favour, in 1806, painted the Prince of Wales, the Marchioness of Stafford, the "Marquess of Stafford's Family", Lord Thurlow. In 1807 he sent to the Royal Academy the well-known portrait of William Blake, now in the National Portrait Gallery, engraved in line by Luigi Schiavonetti, etched by William Bell Scott. Phillips is renowned for painting, in 1807, a portrait of the poet and painter William Blake, his contributions to the Academy exhibition of 1809 included a portrait of Sir Joseph Banks, to that of 1814, two portraits of Lord Byron. In 1818 he exhibited a portrait of Sir Francis Chantrey, R. A. and, in 1819, one of the poet George Crabbe. In 1825 he was elected professor of painting at the Royal Academy, succeeding Henry Fuseli, and, in order to qualify himself for his duties, visited Italy and Rome in company with William Hilton, R. A. and Sir David Wilkie, whom they met in Florence.
He resigned the professorship in 1832, in 1833 published his "Lectures on the History and Principles of Painting". Phillips painted portraits of Walter Scott, Robert Southey, George Anthony Legh Keck, Thomas Campbell, Joseph Henry Green, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Henry Hallam, Mary Somerville, Sir Edward Parry, Sir John Franklin, Dixon Denham, the African traveller, Hugh Clapperton. Besides these he painted two portraits of Sir David Wilkie, the Duke of York, Dean William Buckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Samuel Rogers, Michael Faraday, John Dalton, a head of Napoleon I, painted in Paris in 1802, not from actual sittings, but with Empress Josephine's consent, who afforded him opportunities of observing the First Consul while at dinner. Years in Paris, he was to portray his younger colleague Ary Scheffer. A self-portrait, exhibited in 1844, was one of his last works. Phillips wrote many occasional essays on the fine arts for Rees's "Cyclopaedia", a memoir of William Hogarth for John Nichols's edition of that artist's "Works", 1808–17.
He was of the Society of Antiquaries. He was with Chantrey, Turner and others, one of the founders of the Artists' General Benevolent Institution. Phillips died at 8 George Street, Hanover Square, London, on 20 April 1845, was interred in the burial-ground of St. John's Wood chapel, he married Elizabeth Fraser of Fairfield, near Inverness. They had two daughters and two sons, the elder of whom, Joseph Scott Phillips, became a major in the Bengal artillery, died at Wimbledon, Surrey, on 18 December 1884, aged 72, his younger son, Henry Wyndham Phillips was a portrait painter, secretary of the "Artists General Benevolent Institution", captain in the Artists' volunteer corps. Artist and illustrator, John William Wright, was his pupil; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Phillips, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Thomas Phillips online Biography of Thomas Philips 174 paintings by or after Thomas Phillips at the Art UK site.
Works by Thomas Phillips in public British collections
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things, it is an old science. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate and long timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, they are studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences; the discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have improved advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection", anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems and tissues, it includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, position, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology, embryology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels; the term "anatomy" is taken to refer to human anatomy. However the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is sometimes used to refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy; the kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans, they have an internal digestive chamber, with two openings. Metazoans do not include the sponges. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are much smaller than those in the plant cell; the body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles and skin. Each has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers; those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.
All of a triploblastic animal's tissues and organs are derived from the three germ layers of the embryo, the ectoderm and endoderm. Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue holds them in place; the main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of, collagen. Collagen plays a major part in maintaining tissues; the matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle, stiffened by mineralization, as in crustaceans or by the cross-linkin
The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the biological sciences. Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society medal awarded and the oldest surviving scientific award in the world, having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray, for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge"; the medal was created following a donation of £100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years. The conditions for the medal have been changed several times. A second donation of £1666 13s. 4d. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal. The medal in its current format is awarded with a £ 25,000 prize. Since its inception, it has been awarded to many notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize: 17 in Physics, 21 in Physiology or Medicine, 14 in Chemistry.
John Theophilus Desaguliers has won the medal the most winning three times, in 1734, 1736 and 1741. In 1976, Dorothy Hodgkin became the first and, the only female recipient. "Royal Society: Copley Medal"
Anne Hunter was a saloniere and poet in Georgian London. She is remembered now for writing the texts to at least nine of Joseph Haydn's 14 songs in English, she entertained the leading Bluestockings at their house. She was the wife of surgeon John Hunter and his anatomical collections in their marital home formed the basis for the Hunterian Museum. Hunter was the eldest daughter of surgeon Robert Boyne Home of Greenlaw Castle, Berwickshire.. In July 1771 she married John Hunter, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day, her brother Everard Home apprenticed to her husband as surgeon. Her social literary parties were among the most enjoyable of her time, though not always to her husband's taste; the Bluestockings Elizabeth Carter and Mary Delany were her attached friends. Her husband's sister was widowed in 1778, which led indirectly to Dorothea and her children moving to London a few years later. Anne Hunter proved an inspiration to the young Joanna Baillie, who devoted herself to writing poetry and drama.
On John Hunter's death in 1793, his widow was left ill provided for. For some time she was indebted for a maintenance to the queen's bounty and to the generosity of Dr. Maxwell Garthshore, to the sale of her husband's furniture and curiosities, her son-in-law, Sir James Campbell of Inverneill, provided her with a small annuity, in 1799 Parliament voted to give her ₤15,000 for her husband's collections, which placed her in fair circumstances. Anne Hunter had four children, of whom a son and a daughter, survived her, she lived in retirement in London till her death on 7 January 1821. As a young woman she had gained some note as a lyrical poet, her "Flower of the Forest" appearing in The Lark, an Edinburgh periodical, in 1765. Thirty-two years she wrote "Sports of the Genii" to a set of graceful drawings by Susan Macdonald, eldest daughter of Lord-chief-baron Macdonald, she published a volume of poems in 1802. The conservative magazine British Critic suggests that her poems show no depth of thought, but have a natural feeling and simplicity of expression, which make many of them worth reading.
Haydn set a number of her songs to music, including "My Mother bids me bind my Hair," written to an air of Pleyel's. Her relationship with Haydn is ambiguous. Songs by Haydn on her texts include The Mermaid's Song, Pleasing Pain, The Spirit's Song and a libretto for The Creation, based on John Milton's Paradise Lost. "Hunter, Anne". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Anne Hunter at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive Anne Hunter: Poet, Wife Poems. Hunter, Anne Home, 1742-1821
Mary Anning was an English fossil collector and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England. Her findings contributed to important changes in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth. Anning searched for fossils in the area's Blue Lias cliffs during the winter months when landslides exposed new fossils that had to be collected before they were lost to the sea, she nearly died in 1833 during a landslide. Her discoveries included the first ichthyosaur skeleton identified, her observations played a key role in the discovery that coprolites, known as bezoar stones at the time, were fossilised faeces. She discovered that belemnite fossils contained fossilised ink sacs like those of modern cephalopods; when geologist Henry De la Beche painted Duria Antiquior, the first circulated pictorial representation of a scene from prehistoric life derived from fossil reconstructions, he based it on fossils Anning had found, sold prints of it for her benefit.
A Dissenter and a woman, Anning did not participate in the scientific community of 19th-century Britain, who were Anglican gentlemen. She struggled financially for much of her life, her family was poor, her father, a cabinetmaker, died when she was eleven. She became well known in geological circles in Britain and America, was consulted on issues of anatomy as well as about collecting fossils. Nonetheless, as a woman, she was not eligible to join the Geological Society of London and she did not always receive full credit for her scientific contributions. Indeed, she wrote in a letter: "The world has used me so unkindly, I fear it has made me suspicious of everyone." The only scientific writing of hers published in her lifetime appeared in the Magazine of Natural History in 1839, an extract from a letter that Anning had written to the magazine's editor questioning one of its claims. After her death in 1847, her unusual life story attracted increasing interest. An uncredited author in All the Year Round, edited by Charles Dickens, wrote of her in 1865 that "he carpenter's daughter has won a name for herself, has deserved to win it."
It has been claimed that her story was the inspiration for the 1908 tongue-twister "She sells seashells on the seashore" by Terry Sullivan. In 2010, one hundred and sixty-three years after her death, the Royal Society included Anning in a list of the ten British women who have most influenced the history of science. Anning was born in Lyme Regis in England, her father, Richard Anning, was a cabinetmaker who supplemented his income by mining the coastal cliff-side fossil beds near the town, selling his finds to tourists. He married Mary Moore, known on 8 August 1793 in Blandford Forum; the couple lived in a house built on the town's bridge. They attended the Dissenter chapel on Coombe Street, whose worshippers called themselves independents and became known as Congregationalists. Shelley Emling writes that the family lived so near to the sea that the same storms that swept along the cliffs to reveal the fossils sometimes flooded the Annings' home, on one occasion forcing them to crawl out of an upstairs bedroom window to avoid being drowned.
Richard and Molly had ten children. The first child, was born in 1794, she was followed by another girl, who died at once. In December that year, the oldest child four years old, died after her clothes caught fire while adding wood shavings to the fire; the incident was reported in the Bath Chronicle on 27 December 1798: "A child, four years of age of Mr. R. Anning, a cabinetmaker of Lyme, was left by the mother for about five minutes... in a room where there were some shavings... The girl's clothes caught fire and she was so dreadfully burnt as to cause her death." When another daughter was born just five months she was named Mary after her dead sister. More children were born after her. Only Mary and Joseph survived to adulthood; the high childhood mortality rate for the Anning family was not unusual. Half the children born in Britain throughout the 19th century died before the age of 5, in the crowded living conditions of early 19th century Lyme Regis, infant deaths from diseases like smallpox and measles were common.
On 19 August 1800, when Anning was 15 months old, an event occurred. She was being held by a neighbour, Elizabeth Haskings, standing with two other women under an elm tree watching an equestrian show being put on by a travelling company of horsemen, when lightning struck the tree killing all three women below. Onlookers rushed the infant home. A local doctor declared her survival miraculous, her family said she had been a sickly baby before the event but afterwards she seemed to blossom. For years afterward members of her community would attribute the child's curiosity and lively personality to the incident, her education was limited. She was able to attend a Congregationalist Sunday school where she learned to write. Congregationalist doctrine, unlike that of the Church of England at the time, emphasised the importance of education for the poor, her prized possession was a bound volume of the Dissenters' Theological Magazine and Re
St George's Hospital
St George's Hospital is a teaching hospital in Tooting, London. Founded in 1733, it is one of the UK's largest teaching hospitals, it is run by the St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It shares its main hospital site in Tooting in the London Borough of Wandsworth, with the St George's, University of London which trains NHS staff and carries out advanced medical research; the hospital has around 1,300 beds and most general tertiary care such as accident and emergency, maternity services and care for older people and children. However, as a major acute hospital, St George's Hospital offers specialist care for the more complex injuries and illnesses, including trauma, cardiac care, renal transplantation, cancer care and stroke, it is home to one of four major trauma centres and one of eight hyper-acute stroke units for London. St George's Hospital provides care for patients from a larger catchment area in the South East of England, for specialities such as complex pelvic trauma.
Other services treat patients from all over the country, such as family HIV care and bone marrow transplantation for non-cancer diseases. The trust provides a nationwide endoscopy training service. Following a disagreement between medical staff and the Board of Governors over the expansion of the Westminster Infirmary, a mass exodus of medical staff left, in 1733, to set up what became St George's Hospital; the Board of Governors had favoured a house in Castle Lane but the medical staff preferred Lanesborough House at Hyde Park Corner. Lanesborough House built in 1719 by James Lane, 2nd Viscount Lanesborough, was at that time located in open countryside; the new St George's Hospital was arranged on three floors and accommodated 30 patients in two wards: one for men and one for women. The hospital was extended and, by 1744, it had fifteen wards and over 250 patients. By the 1800s, the hospital was slipping into disrepair; the old Lanesborough House at Hyde Park Corner was demolished to make way for a new 350 bed facility designed by architect William Wilkins.
Building began in 1827 and was completed by 1844. By 1859, a critical shortage of beds led to the addition of an attic floor; this was soon insufficient and led to the creation of a new convalescent hospital, Atkinson Morley's in Wimbledon, freeing up beds at St George's for acute patients. A medical school was established in 1834 at Kinnerton Street and was incorporated into the hospital in 1868; the Medical School, now St George's, University of London, was built in the south-west corner of the hospital site in Hyde Park, with the main entrance in Knightsbridge and the back entrance in Grosvenor Crescent Mews. In 1948, the National Health Service was introduced and plans for a new site for St George's at The Grove Fever and Fountain Hospitals at Tooting were agreed upon. In 1954, the Grove Hospital became part of St George's, clinical teaching started in Tooting. In 1973, building began on the new site; the new hospital and school buildings were now well advanced. The School was completed. In 1976, the Medical School opened at Tooting and, in 1980, St George's Hospital at Hyde Park Corner closed its doors for the last time.
In 1981, medical education in London was reorganised to recognise the movement of population away from the centre. There are now larger medical schools in London; the expansion of St George's, University of London has become part of this policy. In 2004, neuroscience services located at Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon moved to the brand new Atkinson Morley Wing on the main St George's site; this addition to the hospital now houses cardiac and cardiothoracic services which have moved from the old fever hospital wards. St George's today provides a total of over 1,000 beds making it one of the biggest in the country. In April 2010 St George's Healthcare became part of the South West Surrey Trauma Network. All Accident and Emergency departments within the network continue to provide trauma services with St George's designated as the major trauma centre, it is one of a small number of A&E departments to benefit from Pearson Lloyd's redesign –'A Better A&E' – which reduced aggression against hospital staff by 50 per cent.
A system of environmental signage provides location-specific information for patients. Screens provide live information about how many cases are being handled and the current status of the A&E department. In October 2010 St George's Healthcare NHS Trust integrated with Community Services Wandsworth, after approval from NHS London. In May 2014 the Trust's application for Foundation Trust status was approved by the NHS Trust Development Authority following a positive rating from the Care Quality Commission. In the last five years the trust has repaid a debt of £ 34m; the TDA identified several areas that the trust will have to work on to ensure it gets through the final stages of FT assessment. These include improving its A&E performance against the four-hour waiting time target and putting together a robust operating plan for the next two years. From October 2014 the hospital's Accident and Emergency department has featured in the Channel 4 documentary series "24 Hours in A&E". In August 2018 it was reported that the average death rate nationally among patients receiving cardiac surgery was 2%, but that the cardiac unit at St George's had experienced 3.7%.
Toxic disputes between surgeons were blamed. Mike Bewick wrote a report claiming "inadequate" internal scrutiny of the department.