Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. It is believed. More than half of all Europeans claim to speak at least one language other than their mother tongue. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to information facilitated by the Internet, individuals' exposure to multiple languages is becoming possible. People who speak several languages are called polyglots. Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language; the first language is acquired without formal education, by mechanisms about which scholars disagree. Children acquiring two languages from these early years are called simultaneous bilinguals. In the case of simultaneous bilinguals, one language is dominant. People who know more than one language have been reported to be more adept at language learning compared to monolinguals.
Multilingualism in computing can be considered part of a continuum between internationalization and localization. Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always uses it. All commercial software is available in an English version, multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original; the definition of multilingualism is a subject of debate in the same way as that of language fluency. On one end of a sort of linguistic continuum, one may define multilingualism as complete competence and mastery in another language; the speaker would have complete knowledge and control over the language so as to sound native. On the opposite end of the spectrum would be people who know enough phrases to get around as a tourist using the alternate language. Since 1992, Vivian Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers fall somewhere between minimal and maximal definitions. Cook calls these people multi-competent. In addition, there is no consistent definition of.
For instance, scholars disagree whether Scots is a language in its own right or a dialect of English. Furthermore, what is considered a language can change for purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian was created as a standard language on the basis of the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect to function as umbrella for numerous South Slavic dialects, after the breakup of Yugoslavia was split into Serbian, Croatian and Montenegrin, or when Ukrainian was dismissed as a Russian dialect by the Russian tsars to discourage national feelings. Many small independent nations' schoolchildren are today compelled to learn multiple languages because of international interactions. For example, in Finland, all children are required to learn at least two foreign languages: the other national language and one alien language. Many Finnish schoolchildren select further languages, such as German or Russian. In some large nations with multiple languages, such as India, schoolchildren may learn multiple languages based on where they reside in the country.
In major metropolitan areas of Central and Eastern India, many children may be fluent in four languages. Thus, a child of Telugu parents living in Bangalore will end up speaking his or her mother tongue at home and the state language and English in school and life. In many countries, bilingualism occurs through international communications and English being the global lingua franca, which sometimes results in majority bilingualism when the countries have just one domestic official language; this is occurring in Germanic regions such as Scandinavia, the Benelux and among Germanophones, but it is expanding into some non-Germanic countries. Many myths and much prejudice has grown around the notions of bi- and multilingualism in some Western countries where monolingualism is the norm. Researchers from the UK and Poland have listed the most common misconceptions: that bi- or multilinguals are exceptions to the ‘default’ monolingual ‘norm’; that the children would be confused with having the ability to speak two languages and the “tip-of-the-tongue states” For instance, where one knows the meaning and the specific details of a word, but cannot retrieve a word.
Those bilingual individuals tend to have fewer vocabularies and weaker in “verbal fluency tasks” than the monolingual counterpartThese are all harmful convictions which have long been debunked, yet still persist among many parents. One view is that of the linguist Noam Chomsky in what he calls the human language acquisition device—a mechanism which enables an individual to recreate correctly
Haren is an old municipality of Brussels in Belgium, merged into the municipality of the City of Brussels in 1921. It is an outlying part of the municipality of the city and is situated at the north-eastern edge of the Brussels Capital Region. In contrast to most of Brussels, Haren has been remaining nearly as much Dutch-speaking as French-speaking and has preserved a somewhat rural appearance. Dutch: French Haren has three railway stations, Buda on line 25 between Brussels and Antwerp, Haren on line 26 between Halle and Vilvoorde, Haren Zuid/Sud on the line 36 Brussels–Leuven; the marshalling yard of the National Railway Company of Belgium, sometimes referred to as "Schaarbeek Vorming", is located on the territory of Haren municipality. Haren's postal code is 1130. Haren is host to the headquarters of NATO, EUROCONTROL, as well as those of many large international companies; the first Brussels airport was located in Haren, between 1914 and the early 1950s. The site, used by the Belgian Air Force, is serves since 2018 as the new NATO HQ located 20 meters South.
The current Brussels Airport site is located several kilometres to the east. Between 1932 and 1997 Haren was the location of a Renault automobile factory, which in 1969, for the first time, produced more than 100,000 cars in a single year. At that time it was concentrating on the assembly of Renault 4 and Renault 6 models for sale in Benelux and Scandinavia. Renault assembled AMC's Rambler automobiles there for sale in European markets. Belgium Railway Details
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Societé Anonyme Belge d'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne, better known internationally by the acronym Sabena or SABENA, was the national airline of Belgium from 1923 to 2001, with its base at Brussels National Airport. After its bankruptcy in 2001, the newly formed SN Brussels Airlines took over part of Sabena's assets in February 2002, which became Brussels Airlines after a merger with Virgin Express in March 2007; the airline's corporate headquarters were located in the Sabena House on the grounds of Brussels Airport in Zaventem. Sabena began operations on 23 May 1923 as the national carrier of Belgium; the airline was created by the Belgian government after its predecessor SNETA - formed in 1919 to pioneer commercial aviation in Belgium - ceased operations. Sabena operated its first commercial flight from Brussels to London on 1 July 1923, via Ostend. Services to Rotterdam and Strasbourg were launched on 1 April 1924; the Strasbourg service was extended to Basle on 10 June 1924. Amsterdam was added on 1 September 1924, Hamburg followed on 1 May 1929 via Antwerp, Düsseldorf, Essen.
When Sabena was created, the airline was funded by Belgians in the Belgian Congo colony who lost their air service, an experimental passenger and cargo company between Léopoldville and Stanleyville a year earlier and who expected the new Belgian national airline to fill this gap. On 12 February 1925, Sabena pioneered a long haul across Africa to Leopoldville, capital of the Belgian Congo. Throughout its history, Sabena had a long tradition of service to African destinations and for a long time these were the only profitable routes served by the airline. Sabena used landplanes for its Congo operations and a program of aerodrome construction was initiated in the Congo; this was finished in 1926 and Sabena began flights within the Belgian colony, the main route being Boma-Léopoldville-Élisabethville, a 2,288 km route over dense jungle. First, flights were operated with De Havilland DH.50s, although these were replaced by the larger Handley Page W.8f which had three engines and offered ten seats.
By 1931 Sabena's fleet, including the aircraft used on the Congo network, totalled 43 aircraft. Its mainstay type was the Fokker F. VIIB with a lesser number of smaller Fokker VIIA and 14 Handley-Page types, it flew British Westland Wessex aircraft. Sabena flew to tropical Africa, Belgium's Congo colony, but these aircraft were shipped out. There was no direct flight yet between the colony; as the 1930s progressed, Sabena cooperated with Air France and Deutsche Luft Hansa, which had interests in routes to destinations across Africa. Sabena's first long-haul flight to the Congo occurred on 12 February 1935 and took five and a half days, for which Sabena used a Fokker F-VII/3m aircraft; the following year, Sabena purchased the Savoia-Marchetti SM.73 airliner. With a speed of 300 km/h, it reduced the journey time taken to only four days, the Sabena service ran on alternate weeks to an Air Afrique service. In Europe, Sabena opened services to Copenhagen and Malmö in 1931 and a route to Berlin was initiated in 1932.
The mainstay pre-war airliner that Sabena used in Europe was the successful Junkers Ju 52/3m airliner. The airline's pre-war routes covered 6,000 km within Europe. While the Brussels Haren airport was Sabena's main base, the company operated services from other Belgian airports, had a domestic network, used by businessmen who wanted to be in their coastal villas for the weekend. In 1938, the airline purchased the new Savoia-Marchetti SM.83, a development of the S. M. 73 with a speed of 435 km/h, although it flew services at a cruising speed of about 400 km/h. At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Sabena's fleet totalled 18 aircraft, its mainstay fleet type was the Junkers Ju 52/3m airliner. Sabena had just taken delivery of two Douglas DC-3s. During the war the airline managed to maintain its Belgian Congo routes, but all European services ceased. After the war, in 1946 Sabena resumed operating a network of intra-European scheduled services; the fleet consisted of Douglas DC-3s. There were thousands of surplus Douglas C-47 Skytrains available to help airlines restart operations after the war.
The airline now flew under the name of SABENA - Belgian World Airlines. Sabena started its first transatlantic route to New York City on 4 June 1946 using unpressurised Douglas DC-4 airliners which were augmented and replaced by Douglas DC-6Bs; the DC-4s restarted the airline's traditional route to the Belgian Congo. Sabena was the first airline to introduce transatlantic schedules from the north of England, when one of its DC-6Bs inaugurated the Brussels-Manchester-New York route on 28 October 1953; the Convair 240 was introduced in 1949 to replace the DC-3s that until had flown most European services. As of 1956, improved Convair 440 "Metropolitan" twins began replacing the Convair 240 twins and were used well into the 1960s between European regional destinations. In 1957, the long-range Douglas DC-7C was introduced for long-haul routes but this plane would begin to be supplanted after only three years by the jet age, it remained in service on the transatlantic route until 1962. On 3 June 1954, a Soviet Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 attacked a Sabena-operated Douglas DC-3 on a cargo flight from the
Bordet railway station
Bordet railway station is a railway station in Brussels, Belgium. It is located on the line 26 between the stations of Evere; the station is located in the municipality of Evere, next to the border with the City of Brussels, at the crossroad between the Chaussée de Haecht/Haachtsesteenweg and the Avenue Jules Bordet/Jules Bordetlaan. The railway station is located under street level. At street level, there are the last stops of tram route 55 and bus route 59, which offer a connection with regional transport. Bus routes 45 and 69 stop at the Bordet railway station. There multiple large employers in the Bordet station area. Together with its location near the center of Evere and near the crossing of the Avenue Bordet with important roads like the Avenue Leopold III and the Chaussée de Haecht, it makes the Bordet station area one of the most busy locations in the Evere municipality; the station is served by the following service: Brussels RER services Vilvoorde - Merode - Etterbeek - Brussels-Luxembourg - Denderleeuw - Aalst Brussels RER services Mechelen - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Halle - Enghien Brussels RER services Mechelen - Merode - Halle Brussels RER services Leuven - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Braine-l'Alleud 55 - Da Vinci - Rogier 32 - Da Vinci - Drogenbros Chateau 45 - Roodebeek - Sint-Vincentius 59 - Bordet station - Elsene-Etterbeek Hospital 80 - Porte De Namur - Maes 69 - Schaarbeek station - Jules Bordet 270 - Brussels-North - Keerbergen 271 - Brussel-Noord - Kampenhout 272 - Brussel-Noord - Haacht 471 - Brussel-Noord - Keiberg
Evere railway station
Evere railway station is a railway station in Brussels, Belgium, in the municipality of Evere. The station opened on 19 July 1926 and is located under street level, can be accessed via the Rue Auguste De Boeck/Auguste De Boeckstraat; the station lies on line 26 between the stations of Meiser. The station is served by the following service: Brussels RER services Vilvoorde - Merode - Etterbeek - Brussels-Luxembourg - Denderleeuw - Aalst Brussels RER services Mechelen - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Halle - Enghien Brussels RER services Mechelen - Merode - Halle Brussels RER services Leuven - Brussels-Luxembourg - Etterbeek - Braine-l'Alleud
Charles Augustus Lindbergh was an American aviator, military officer, inventor and environmental activist. At age 25 in 1927, he went from obscurity as a U. S. Air Mail pilot to instantaneous world fame by winning the Orteig Prize: making a nonstop flight from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, New York, to Paris, France. Lindbergh covered the 33 1⁄2-hour, 3,600-statute-mile flight alone in a single-engine purpose-built Ryan monoplane, the Spirit of St. Louis. Lindbergh's flight was not the first transatlantic flight. Lindbergh's flight was, the first solo, non-stop transatlantic flight, one made between two major cities, by a man 25 years of age. Lindbergh was an officer in the U. S. Army Air Corps Reserve, he received the United States' highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for the feat, many other awards and other forms of recognition from many countries. Lindbergh's achievement spurred interest in both commercial aviation and air mail, he devoted much time and effort to promoting such activity.
Lindburgh's historic flight and extraordinary celebrity status led to tragedy. In March 1932, his infant son, Charles Jr. was kidnapped and murdered in what American media called the "Crime of the Century" and was described by H. L. Mencken as "the biggest story since the Resurrection"; the case prompted the United States Congress to establish kidnapping as a federal crime once the kidnapper had crossed state lines with their victim. By late 1935, the hysteria surrounding the case had driven the Lindbergh family into voluntary exile in Europe, from which they returned in 1939. Before the United States formally entered World War II, Lindbergh was an advocate of non-interventionism, he supported the antiwar America First Committee, which opposed American aid to Britain in its war against Germany, resigned his commission in the United States Army Air Forces in 1941 after President Franklin Roosevelt publicly rebuked him for his views. He publicly supported the U. S. war effort after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and flew fifty combat missions in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a civilian consultant, though Roosevelt refused to reinstate his Air Corps colonel's commission.
In his years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer and environmentalist. Lindbergh and his wife, the former Anne Morrow, were the parents of six children, he fathered seven more children as a result of several covert adulterous affairs with three German women beginning in 1957 when he was 55 years old. In 2003, twenty-nine years after Lindbergh's death and two years after his wife died, one of those children, Astrid Hesshaimer, revealed the story of Lindbergh's affairs. Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, on February 4, 1902, spent most of his childhood in Little Falls and Washington, D. C, he was the third child of Charles August Lindbergh who had emigrated from Sweden to Melrose, Minnesota as an infant, his only child with his second wife, Evangeline Lodge Land Lindbergh, of Detroit. Charles' parents separated in 1909. Lindbergh's father, a U. S. Congressman from 1907 to 1917, was one of the few Congressmen to oppose the entry of the U. S. into World War I.
His book, Why Is Your Country at War, which criticized the US' entry into the first World War, was seized by federal agents under the Comstock Act. It was posthumously reprinted and issued in 1934, under the title Your Country at War, What Happens to You After a War. Lindbergh's mother was a chemistry teacher at Cass Technical High School in Detroit and at Little Falls High School, from which her son graduated on June 5, 1918. Lindbergh attended over a dozen other schools from Washington, D. C. to California, during his childhood and teenage years, including the Force School and Sidwell Friends School while living in Washington with his father, Redondo Union High School in Redondo Beach, while living there with his mother. Although he enrolled in the College of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in late 1920, Lindbergh dropped out in the middle of his sophomore year and went to Lincoln, Nebraska, in March 1922 to begin flight training. From an early age, Lindbergh had exhibited an interest in the mechanics of motorized transportation, including his family's Saxon Six automobile, his Excelsior motorbike.
By the time he started college as a mechanical engineering student, he had become fascinated with flying, though he "had never been close enough to a plane to touch it". After quitting college in February 1922, Lindbergh enrolled at the Nebraska Aircraft Corporation's flying school in Lincoln and flew for the first time on April 9, as a passenger in a two-seat Lincoln Standard "Tourabout" biplane trainer piloted by Otto Timm. A few days Lindbergh took his first formal flying lesson in that same machine, though he was never permitted to solo because he could not afford to post the requisite damage bond. To gain flight experience and earn money for further instruction, Lindbergh left Lincoln in June to spend the next few months barnstorming across Nebraska, Colorado and Montana as a wing walker and parachutist, he briefly worked as an airplane mechanic at the Billings, municipal airport. Lindbergh left flying with the onset of winter