Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings
The Encyclopedia of Chess Openings is a classification system for the opening moves in chess. It is presented as a book collection describing chess openings. The moves were taken from hundreds of thousands of games between masters, from published analysis in the Chess Informant since 1966, and compiled by notable chess players, the main editor is Aleksandar Matanović. Both the ECO and the Chess Informant are published by the Serbian company Šahovski Informator and these openings are typically provided in an ECO table that concisely presents the best opening lines. The books contain only an amount of text, which is in eight languages. The bulk of the consists of diagrams of positions and chess moves in International figurine algebraic notation. Instead of the names for the openings, ECO has developed a coding system that has been adopted by other chess publications. There are five categories, A to E, each of which is divided into one hundred subcategories. ECO code is a trademark of Chess Informant.
English Opening Benoni Defense Dutch Defence Réti Opening Benko Gambit Old Indian Defense Birds Opening Irregular openings, sicilian Defence Caro-Kann Defence Pirc Defence Alekhines Defence Modern Defense Scandinavian Defense, etc. Ruy Lopez French Defence Petrovs Defence Kings Gambit Philidor Defence Italian Scotch Game Four Knights Game, Queens Gambit Accepted Declined Grünfeld Defence Queens Pawn Game, etc. Nimzo-Indian Defence Queens Indian Defense Kings Indian Defence Catalan Opening Bogo-Indian Defence, Encyclopedia of Chess Openings, volume B. ECO – Encyclopedia of Chess Openings, archived from the original on 2016-09-13. Archived from the original on 2010-02-20, archived from the original on 2014-10-06. ECO codes with names Chess openings • ECO codes Chess Opening Database Searchable ECO openings
Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein was a Polish chess grandmaster who is considered to have been one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion. He was unable to recreate the form after the War. Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein was born on 1 December 1880 in Stawiski and he learned to play chess at the relatively late age of 16, and his family had planned for him to become a rabbi. Between 1907 and 1912, Rubinstein established himself as one of the strongest players in the world, in 1907, he won the Karlovy Vary tournament and shared first at St. Petersburg. Some believe that he was better than World Champion Emanuel Lasker at this time, ratings from Chessmetrics support this conclusion, placing him as world No.1 between mid-1912 and mid-1914. In the St. Petersburg tournament in 1909, he had tied with Lasker, however, he had a poor showing at the 1914 St. Petersburg tournament, not placing in the top five. A match with Lasker was arranged for October 1914, but it did not take place because of the outbreak of World War I, after the war Rubinstein was still an elite player, but his results lacked their previous consistency.
He he won an Olympic silver at the 1931 Chess Olympiad, after 1932 he withdrew from tournament play as his noted anthropophobia showed traces of schizophrenia during a mental breakdown. In one period, after making a move he would go. Regardless, his strength was recognized by FIDE when he was one of 27 players awarded the inaugural Grandmaster title in 1950. Unlike many other grandmasters, he left no literary legacy. He spent the last 29 years of his suffering from severe mental illness, living at various times at home with his family. It is not clear how the Jewish grandmaster survived World War II in German-occupied Belgium and he was one of the earliest chess players to take the endgame into account when choosing and playing the opening. He was exceptionally talented in the endgame, particularly in rook endings, jeremy Silman ranked him as one of the five best endgame players of all time, and a master of rook endgames. He originated the Rubinstein System against the Tarrasch Defense variation of the Queens Gambit Declined,1. d4 d52.
Nf3 c53. c4 e64. cxd5 exd55. Nc3 Nc66. g3 Nf67. Bg2. He is credited with inventing the Meran Variation, which stems from the Queens Gambit Declined, many opening variations are named for him. According to Grandmaster Boris Gelfand, Most of the openings are based on Rubinstein. The Rubinstein Attack often refers to 1. d4 d52. c4 e63. Nc3 Nf64. Bg5 Be75. e3 0-06. Nf3 Nbd77. Qc2
The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, the weakest. It historically represents infantry, or more particularly, armed peasants or pikemen, each player begins a game of chess with eight pawns, one on each square of the rank immediately in front of the other pieces. Individual pawns are referred to by the file on which they stand, for example, one speaks of Whites f-pawn or Blacks b-pawn, or less commonly, Whites king bishop pawn or Blacks queen knight pawn. It is common to refer to a pawn, meaning any pawn on the a- or h-file, a knight pawn, a bishop pawn, a queen pawn, a king pawn. Unlike the other pieces, pawns may not move backwards, normally a pawn moves by advancing a single square, but the first time a pawn is moved, it has the option of advancing two squares. Pawns may not use the initial advance to jump over an occupied square. Any piece directly in front of a pawn, friend or foe, in the diagram at the right, the pawn on c4 may move to c5, while the pawn on e2 may move to either e3 or e4.
Unlike other pieces, the pawn does not capture in the direction as it moves. A pawn captures diagonally forward one square to the left or right, another unusual rule is the en passant capture. It can occur after a pawn advances two squares using its initial two-step move option, and the passed over is attacked by an enemy pawn. The enemy pawn is entitled to capture the pawn in passing—as if it had advanced only one square. The capturing pawn moves to the square over which the moved pawn passed, the option to capture en passant must be exercised on the move immediately following the double-step pawn advance, or it is lost for the remainder of the game. En passant was added in the 15th century to compensate for the newly added two-square initial move rule. Without en passant, a pawn could safely bypass a square controlled by an enemy pawn. A pawn that advances all the way to the side of the board is promoted to another piece of that players choice. The pawn is immediately replaced by the new piece, since it is uncommon for a piece other than a queen to be chosen, promotion is often called queening.
Underpromotion is used in situations where promoting to a queen would give immediate stalemate, the choice of promotion is not limited to pieces that have been captured. Thus a player could in theory have as many as ten knights, ten bishops, while this extreme would almost never occur in practice, in game 11 of their 1927 world championship match, José Raúl Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine each had two queens in play at once
Ksawery Tartakower was a leading Polish and French chess grandmaster. He was a chess journalist and author of the 1920s and 1930s whose books remain popular even today. Tartakower is remembered for his wit and aphorisms. Tartakower was born on 22 February 1887 in Rostov-on-Don and his parents were killed in a robbery in Rostov-on-Don in 1911. He graduated from the law faculties of universities in Geneva and Vienna and he spoke both German and French perfectly. During his studies he became interested in chess and started attending meetings in various cafés for chess players in Vienna. He met many notable masters of the time, among them Carl Schlechter, Géza Maróczy, Milan Vidmar and his first achievement was first place in a tournament in Nuremberg in 1906. Three years he achieved second place in the tournament in Vienna, during World War I he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army, and served as a staff officer on various posts. He went to the Russian front with the Viennese infantry house-regiment, after the war he emigrated to France, and settled in Paris.
He was the captain and trainer of Polish Chess Team in six international tournaments, in France, he decided to become a professional chess player. He started cooperating with various chess-related magazines, as well as writing several books, the most famous of these, Die Hypermoderne Schachpartie was published in 1924 and has been issued in almost a hundred editions since. Tartakower took part in many of the most important chess tournaments of the epoch, in 1927 and 1928 he won two tournaments in Hastings and shared first place with Aron Nimzowitsch in London. On the latter occasion, he defeated such notable players as Frank Marshall, Milan Vidmar, in 1930 he won the Liège tournament, beating Mir Sultan Khan by two points. Further down the list were, among others, Akiba Rubinstein, Nimzowitsch and he won the Polish Chess Championship twice, at Warsaw 1935 and Jurata 1937. In the 1930s Tartakower represented Poland in six Chess Olympiads, and France in 1950, in 1935 he was one of the main organizers of the Chess Olympiad in Warsaw.
After a short stay in Argentina he decided to return to Europe and he arrived in France shortly before its collapse in 1940. Under the pseudonym Cartier, he joined the forces of general Charles de Gaulle, after World War II and the communist takeover of power in Poland, Tartakower became a French citizen. He played in the first Interzonal tournament at Saltsjöbaden 1948, and he represented France at the 1950 Chess Olympiad
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Chess is played by millions of people worldwide, both amateurs and professionals, each player begins the game with 16 pieces, one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen, the objective is to checkmate the opponents king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a players pieces are used to attack and capture the opponents pieces, in addition to checkmate, the game can be won by voluntary resignation by the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may result in a draw in several ways. Chess is believed to have originated in India, some time before the 7th century, chaturanga is the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. The pieces took on their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century, the first generally recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886.
Since 1948, the World Championship has been controlled by FIDE, the international governing body. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship, online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. There are many variants, with different rules, different pieces. FIDE awards titles to skilled players, the highest of which is grandmaster, many national chess organizations have a title system. However, these are not recognised by FIDE, the term master may refer to a formal title or may be used more loosely for any skilled player. Until recently, chess was a sport of the International Olympic Committee. Chess was included in the 2006 and 2010 Asian Games, since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer IBM Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997, the rise of strong computer programs that can be run on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments.
The official rules of chess are maintained by FIDE, chesss international governing body, along with information on official chess tournaments, the rules are described in the FIDE Handbook, Laws of Chess section. Chess is played on a board of eight rows and eight columns. The colors of the 64 squares alternate and are referred to as light, the chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player
Chess Player's Chronicle
The Chess Players Chronicle, founded by Howard Staunton and extant from 1841–56 and 1859–62, was the worlds first successful English-language magazine devoted exclusively to chess. Various unrelated but identically or similarly named publications were published until 1902, the earliest chess magazine in any language was the French Le Palamède, published in 1836-39 and 1842-47. In 1837 George Walker introduced an English-language magazine, the Philidorian, only six issues of it were published, and it expired in May,1838. The Chess Players Chronicle became the first successful English-language chess magazine, in 1840 or 1841 Staunton bought the fortnightly magazine The British Miscellany and Chess Players Chronicle. In 1841 it became the Chess Players Chronicle, in 1843, the Chess Players Chronicle became a shilling monthly magazine. Staunton made the inclusion of a number of games by himself. He used the magazine as a forum for attacking others, the only sanction give to Walkers puerilities by the Committee is to laugh at them.
His books on Chess are no authority except among the lowest class of players, Staunton was the owner and editor of the magazine until the early 1850s, when he sold it to R. B. Brien. OBrien became editor of the magazine, but was unable to continue its success and discontinued it in 1856 because of financial losses and it reappeared in 1859 under the editorship of Ignatz Kolisch and Josef Kling, but survived only until July 1862. Thereafter, a number of magazines appeared with the same or similar name appeared, arthur Skipworth, assisted by William Wayte and Charles Ranken, wrote The Chess Players Quarterly Chronicle, which was published in York from February 1868 to December 1871. Skipworth, who had left Bilsdale for Tetford Rectory, and John Wisker became the editors of the new The Chess Players Chronicle in February 1872, johann Löwenthal began writing for it in 1873. In January 1876, it was succeeded by The Chess Players Chronicle and its editorial staff consisted of Jenkin, Ranken and Andrew Hunter of Glasgow.
Billed as a record of provincial chess, it was published at Glasgow. Its short run under Jenkins editorship was marked by xenophobia, the February issue stated that the West End Club had cleared away the disturbing foreign element which whilom infected the Divan and referring to Wilhelm Steinitz as the hot-headed little Austrian. Its third and last issue was published in March, the magazine reappeared in January 1877. It was now under Rankens editorship, assisted by J. Crum, Ranken continued to edit the magazine until September 1880. In 1881, the title was enlarged to The Chess Players Chronicle, and Journal of Indoor and Outdoor Sports, and the magazines importance in the chess world was no longer the same
The World Chess Federation, FIDE, awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title. Titles generally require a combination of Elo rating and norms, once awarded, FIDE titles are held for life, though a title may be revoked in exceptional circumstances. Open titles may be earned by all players, whilst the womens titles are restricted to female players, a strong female player may have a title in both systems. A chess title, usually in a form, may be used as an honorific. For example, Viswanathan Anand may be styled as GM Viswanathan Anand, fIDEs first titles were awarded in 1950 and consisted of 27 Grandmasters,94 International Masters, and 17 International Women Masters. FIDEs first GMs were, The standards for FIDE titles were not formally defined, in 1957, FIDE introduced norms for FIDE titles. The term Grandmaster had been in use for strong chess players for several decades before its official institution by FIDE in 1950. At the same time FIDE instituted the lesser rank of International Master, the requirements for each rank have varied over time, but generally require having demonstrated suitably strong skill in rated competition.
The title Grandmaster is awarded to outstanding players by FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain, once achieved, the title is generally held for life. In chess literature it is abbreviated to GM. The abbreviation IGM for International Grandmaster can sometimes be found and this title can be awarded to the players with an Elo rating greater than 2500 who achieve the required three title norms. Players with an Elo rating greater than 2700, such as Viswanathan Anand, Garry Kasparov, Magnus Carlsen, there were 47 players in the May 2014 FIDE ratings list with a rating of at least 2700. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title, since about 2000, most of the top 10 women have held the GM title. This should not be confused with the Woman Grandmaster title, the December 2013 FIDE rating list records 1441 players holding the GM title, of whom 31 are women. The title International Master is awarded to chess players.
Instituted in 1950, it is a title, usually abbreviated as IM in chess literature. Normally three norms in international tournaments involving other IMs and Grandmasters are required before FIDE will confer the title on a player, IMs usually have an Elo rating between 2400 and 2500
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Glossary of chess
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order. Some of these have their own pages, like fork and pin, absolute pin A pin against the king is called absolute since the pinned piece cannot legally move out of the line of attack. Describes a piece that controls a number of squares, or a piece that has a number of available for its next move. An active defense is a defense employing threat or counterattack, adjournment Suspension of a chess game with the intention to finish it later. It was once common in high-level competition, often occurring soon after the first time control. Adjudication Decision by a chess player on the outcome of an unfinished game. This practice is now uncommon in over-the-board events, but does happen in online chess when one refuses to continue after an adjournment. Adjust To adjust the position of a piece on its square without being required to move it, a player may only do this on his or her turn to move, and he or she must first say I adjust, or the French equivalent Jadoube.
Advanced pawn A pawn that is on the side of the board. An advanced pawn may be if it is overextended, lacking support and difficult to defend. An advanced passed pawn that threatens to promote can be especially strong, advantage A better position with the chance of winning the game. Evaluation factors can include space, time and threats, alekhines gun A formation in which a queen backs up two rooks on the same file. Algebraic notation The standard way to record the moves of a chess game, Amateur The distinction between professional and amateur is not very important in chess as amateurs may win prizes, accept appearance fees, and earn any title, including World Champion. In the 19th century, Amateur was sometimes used in published game scores to conceal the name of the player in a Master vs. Amateur contest. It was thought to be impolite to use a name without permission. See NN or N. N. analysis The study of a position to determine best play for both sides, annotation Written commentary on a game using a combination of comments, chess symbols or notation.
Antipositional A move or a plan that is not in accordance with the principles of positional play, antipositional is used to describe moves that are part of an incorrect plan rather than a mistake made when trying to follow a correct plan. Antipositional moves are often pawn moves, since pawns cannot move backwards to return to squares they have left, anti-Sicilian An opening variation that White uses against the Sicilian Defense other than the most common plan of 2. Nf3 followed by 3. d4 cxd44. Nxd4
The Immortal Game was a chess game played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June 1851 in London, during a break of the first international tournament. The bold sacrifices made by Anderssen to secure victory have made it one of the most famous games of all time. Anderssen gave up both rooks and a bishop, his queen, checkmating his opponent with his three remaining minor pieces, the game has been called an achievement perhaps unparalleled in chess literature. Adolf Anderssen was one of the strongest players of his time, Lionel Kieseritzky lived in France much of his life, where he gave chess lessons, and played games for five francs an hour at the Café de la Régence in Paris. His strength was shown most favourably when giving great odds to weak players, against masters, played between the two great players at the Simpsons-in-the-Strand Divan in London, the Immortal Game was an informal one, played during a break in a formal tournament. Kieseritzky was very impressed when the game was over, and telegraphed the moves of the game to his Parisian chess club, the French chess magazine La Régence published the game in July 1851.
This game was nicknamed The Immortal Game in 1855 by the Austrian Ernst Falkbeer and these games, with their rapid attacks and counter-attacks, are often entertaining to review, even if some of the moves would no longer be considered the best by todays standards. In this game, Anderssen wins despite sacrificing a bishop, both rooks, and the queen to produce checkmate against Kieseritzky who only lost three pawns and he offered both rooks to show that two active pieces are worth a dozen inactive pieces. Anderssen demonstrated the kind of approach in the Evergreen Game. Some published versions of the game have errors, as described in the annotations, Adolf Anderssen Black, Lionel Kieseritzky Opening, Bishops Gambit 1. F4 This is the Kings Gambit, Anderssen offers his pawn in exchange for faster development, although this was a common opening in the nineteenth century, it is less common today, as defensive techniques have improved since Anderssens time. Exf4 Kieseritzky accepts the gambit, this variant is called the Kings Gambit Accepted.
Blacks move will force White to move his king and White will not be able to castle, but this places Blacks queen in peril. This is the Bryan Counter-gambit, deeply analysed by Kieseritzky, and it is not considered a sound move by most players today. Nf3 This is a developing move, but in addition the knight attacks Blacks queen. D3 With this move, White solidifies control of the center of the board. German grandmaster Robert Hübner recommends 7. Nc3 instead, nh5 This move threatens Ng3+, and protects the pawn at f4, but it sidelines the knight to a poor position at the edge of the board, where knights are the least powerful. Nh4 Qg5 Better was 8. g6, according to Kieseritzky, nf5 c6 This simultaneously unpins the queen pawn and attacks the bishop
Paul Lipke was a German chess master. In 1889, he tied for 5–6th in Breslau, and took 4th in Dessau, in 1892, he won in Dresden, and he took 2nd in Halle. In 1893, he took 3rd in Kiel, in 1898, he tied for 8–9th in Vienna. Lipke retired early from active chess and worked as a lawyer in Halle, estimated ranking of Lipke Paul Lipke player profile and games at Chessgames. com
Wilhelm Steinitz was an Austrian and American chess Master player, and the first undisputed world chess champion from 1886 to 1894. He was an influential writer and chess theoretician. When discussing chess history from the 1850s onwards, commentators have debated whether Steinitz could be considered the champion from an earlier time. Steinitz lost his title to Emanuel Lasker in 1894, and lost a rematch in 1896–97, statistical rating systems give Steinitz a rather low ranking among world champions, mainly because he took several long breaks from competitive play. However, a based on one of these rating systems shows that he was one of the most dominant players in the history of the game. Steinitz was unbeaten in match play for 32 years, from 1862 to 1894 and his new style was controversial and some even branded it as cowardly, but many of Steinitzs games showed that it could set up attacks as ferocious as those of the old school. Steinitz was a writer on chess, and defended his new ideas vigorously.
The debate was so bitter and sometimes abusive that it became known as the Ink War, Steinitz was the target of anti-Semitic abuse, and moved to the United States to escape this. By the early 1890s, Steinitzs approach was accepted. Most notably from 1888 to 1889 he co-operated with the American Chess Congress in a project to define rules governing the conduct of world championships. Steinitz was unskilled at managing money, and lived in poverty all his life, Steinitz was born on May 17,1836, in the Jewish ghetto of Prague. The youngest of a tailors thirteen sons to survive, he learned to play chess at age 12 and he began playing serious chess in his twenties, after leaving Prague in 1857 to study mathematics in Vienna, at the Vienna Polytechnic. Steinitz spent two years at the university and he improved rapidly in chess during the late 1850s, progressing from third place in the 1859 Vienna City championship to first in 1861, with a score of 30/31. During this period he was nicknamed the Austrian Morphy and this achievement meant that he had become the strongest player in Austria.
Steinitz was sent to represent Austria in the London 1862 chess tournament and he placed sixth, but his win over Augustus Mongredien was awarded the tournaments brilliancy prize. He immediately challenged the fifth-placed contestant, the strong veteran Italian Master Serafino Dubois, to a match and this encouraged him to turn professional, and he took up residence in London. In 1862–63 Steinitz scored a win in a match with Joseph Henry Blackburne, who went on to be one of the worlds top ten for 20 years. Steinitz beat some leading UK players in matches, Frederic Deacon and Augustus Mongredien in 1863, Steinitz won with eight wins and six losses, but it was a hard fight, after 12 games the scores were level at 6–6, Steinitz won the last two games