Paul Davis Ryan is an American politician who served as the 54th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from October 2015 to January 2019. He was the 2012 vice presidential nominee of the Republican Party, running unsuccessfully alongside Mitt Romney. Ryan, a native of Janesville, graduated from Miami University in 1992, he spent five years working for Republicans in Washington, D. C. and returned to Wisconsin in 1997 to work at his family's construction company. He ran for Congress to represent Wisconsin's 1st congressional district the following year, replacing an incumbent Republican who ran for Senate. Ryan would represent the district for 20 years, he chaired the House Budget Committee from 2011 to 2015 and chaired the House Ways and Means Committee in 2015 prior to being elected Speaker of the House following John Boehner's retirement. A self-proclaimed deficit hawk, Ryan was a major proponent of privatizing Social Security in the mid-2000s. In the 2010s, his proposals "The Path to Prosperity" and "A Better Way" advocated for the privatization of Medicare, block granting of Medicaid, repeal of the Affordable Care Act, significant tax cuts.
As Speaker, he had a role in passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. His other major piece of legislation, the American Health Care Act of 2017, passed the House but failed in the Senate by a single vote. Ryan's tenure as Speaker of the House--most of which coincided with a period of unified Republican control of the federal government--saw a massive increase in government spending and deficits. Ryan declined to run for re-election in the 2018 midterm elections. With the Democratic Party taking control of the House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi succeeded Ryan as Speaker of the House. Paul Davis Ryan was born in Janesville, the youngest of four children of Elizabeth "Betty" Ann, who became an interior designer, Paul Murray Ryan, a lawyer, he is a fifth-generation Wisconsinite. His father was of his mother of German and English descent. One of Ryan's paternal ancestors settled in Wisconsin prior to the Civil War, his great-grandfather, Patrick William Ryan, founded an earthmoving company in 1884, which became P. W. Ryan and Sons and is now known as Ryan Incorporated Central.
Ryan's grandfather, Stanley M. Ryan, was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Wisconsin. In 2018, while filming a segment for the PBS series Finding Your Roots, Ryan learned that he is 3 percent Ashkenazi Jewish. Ryan attended St. Mary's Catholic School in Janesville attended Joseph A. Craig High School, where he was elected president of his junior class, thus became prom king; as class president Ryan was a representative of the student body on the school board. Following his second year, Ryan took a job working the grill at McDonald's, he was on his high school's ski and varsity soccer teams and played basketball in a Catholic recreational league. He participated in several social clubs including the Model United Nations. Ryan and his family went on hiking and skiing trips to the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Although Ryan's father was not a lifelong heavy drinker, staying sober for nearly twenty years after his first stint in rehabilitation, he had become an alcoholic by the time Ryan was a teenager.
Ryan commented that his relationship with his father, whom he revered as a young child, had grown distant due to his drinking, stating that " made him more distant and stressed... whiskey had washed away some of the best parts of the man I knew." When he was 16, Ryan found his 55-year-old father lying dead in bed of a heart attack, something Ryan partially attributed to heavy alcohol consumption. Following the death of his father, Ryan's grandmother moved in with the family; as she had Alzheimer's, Ryan helped care for her while his mother commuted to college in Madison, Wisconsin. From the time of his father's death until his 18th birthday, Ryan received Social Security survivors benefits, which were saved for his college education, his mother married widower Bruce Douglas. Ryan has a bachelor's degree in economics and political science from Miami University in Oxford, where he became interested in the writings of Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Milton Friedman, he visited the office of libertarian professor Richard Hart to discuss the theories of these economists and of Ayn Rand.
Hart introduced Ryan to National Review, with Hart's recommendation Ryan began an internship in the D. C. office of Wisconsin U. S. Senator Bob Kasten. Ryan attended the Washington Semester program at American University, he once got to drive the Wienermobile. Ryan was a member of the College Republicans, volunteered for the congressional campaign of John Boehner, he was a member of the Delta Tau Delta social fraternity. Betty Ryan urged her son to accept a congressional position as a legislative aide in Senator Kasten's office, which he did after graduating in 1992. In his early years working on Capitol Hill, Ryan supplemented his income by working as a waiter, as a fitness trainer, at other jobs. A few months after Kasten lost to Democrat Russ Feingold in the November 1992 election, Ryan became a speechwriter for Empower America, a conservative advocacy group founded by Jack Kemp, Jeane Kirkpatrick, William Bennett. Ryan worked as a speechwriter for Kemp, the Republican vice presidential candidate in the 1996 United States presidential election.
Kemp became Ryan's mentor, Ryan has said he had a "huge influence". In 1995, Ryan became the legislative director for then-U. S. Congressman Sam Brownback
A standardized test is a test, administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner. Any test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers, graded in the same manner for everyone, is a standardized test. Standardized tests do not need to be high-stakes tests, time-limited tests, or multiple-choice tests; the questions can be complex. The subject matter among school-age students is academic skills, but a standardized test can be given on nearly any topic, including driving tests, personality, professional ethics, or other attributes; the opposite of standardized testing is non-standardized testing, in which either different tests are given to different test takers, or the same test is assigned under different conditions or evaluated differently. Most everyday quizzes and tests taken by students meet the definition of a standardized test: everyone in the class takes the same test, at the same time, under the same circumstances, all of the students are graded by their teacher in the same way.
However, the term standardized test is most used to refer to tests that are given to larger groups, such as a test taken by all adults who wish to acquire a license to have a particular kind of job, or by all students of a certain age. Because everyone gets the same test and the same grading system, standardized tests are perceived as being fairer than non-standardized test; such tests are thought of as fairer and more objective than a system in which some students get an easier test and others get a more difficult test. That perception, which may or may not be accurate, depends on the purpose for the test. If a teacher wishes to determine individual children's skills with respect to a specific activity, tests other than those that are standardized are more effective. Standardized tests are designed to permit reliable comparison of outcomes across all test takers, because everyone is taking the same test. While that point is granted the children tested have not been exposed to the same materials found on those standardized tests.
Such tests are constructed by individuals who have no knowledge of the test-takers beyond their age and/or grade level. Age and/or grade level, are poor indicators of what children have learned; as a result, conclusions drawn from the results can be wrong. The prevalence of standardized testing in formal education has been criticized for many reasons; the definition of a standardized test has changed somewhat over time. In 1960, standardized tests were defined as those in which the conditions and content were equal for everyone taking the test, regardless of when, where, or by whom the test was given or graded; the purpose of this standardization is to make sure that the scores reliably indicate the abilities or skills being measured, not other things, such as different instructions about what to do if the test taker does not know the answer to a question. By the beginning of the 21st century, the focus shifted away from a strict sameness of conditions towards equal fairness of conditions. For example, a test taker with a broken wrist might write more because of the injury, it would be more fair, produce a more reliable understanding of the test taker's actual knowledge, if that person were given a few more minutes to write down the answers to a most test.
However, if the purpose of the test is to see how the student could write this would become a modification of the content, no longer a standardized test. The earliest evidence of standardized testing was in China, during the Han Dynasty, where the imperial examinations covered the Six Arts which included music, horsemanship, arithmetic and knowledge of the rituals and ceremonies of both public and private parts; these exams were used to select employees for the state bureaucracy. Sections on military strategies, civil law and taxation, agriculture and geography were added to the testing. In this form, the examinations were institutionalized for more than a millennium. Today, standardized testing remains used, most famously in the Gaokao system. Standardized testing was introduced into Europe in the early 19th century, modeled on the Chinese mandarin examinations, through the advocacy of British colonial administrators, the most "persistent" of, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, Thomas Taylor Meadows.
Meadows warned of the collapse of the British Empire if standardized testing was not implemented throughout the empire immediately. Prior to their adoption, standardized testing was not traditionally a part of Western pedagogy, it is because of this, that the first European implementation of standardized testing did not occur in Europe proper, but in British India. Inspired by the Chinese use of standardized testing, in the early 19th century, British "company managers hired and promoted employees based on competitive examinations in order to prevent corruption and favoritism." This practice of standardized testing was adopted in the late 19th century by the British mainland. The parliamentary debates that ensued made many references to the "Chinese mandarin system", it was from B
Higher education in the United States
Higher education in the United States is an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education. Higher education referred to as post-secondary education, third-stage, third-level, or tertiary education occurs most at one of the 4,360 Title IV degree-granting institutions, either colleges or universities in the country; these may be public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, or for-profit colleges. US higher education is loosely regulated by a number of third-party organizations varying in quality. High visibility issues include rising tuition and increasing student loan debt, unfair admissions and academic cheating, greater use of online education, competency-based education, free speech and hate speech, bullying of students in higher education,fraternity hazing, campus sexual assault, cutbacks in state and local spending, the adjunctification of academic labor, student poverty and hunger. According to the National Center for Education Statistics and National Student Clearinghouse, college enrollment has declined since a peak in 2010–11 and is projected to continue declining or be stagnant for the next two decades.
In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the US first globally for overall higher education, but only 15th when GDP was factored into the equation. Accounting for GDP, the top 10 nations for higher education in 2018 were Finland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Portugal, South Africa and New Zealand. Strong research funding helped elite American universities dominate global rankings in the early 21st century, making them attractive to international students and researchers. Other countries, are offering incentives to take away researchers; as a result, the US dominance of international tables has lessened. The system has been blighted by fly-by-night schools, diploma mills, visa mills, predatory for-profit colleges. There have been some attempts to reform the system through federal policy such as gainful employment regulations, but they have been met by resistance. According to Pew Research Center and Gallup poll surveys, public opinion about colleges has been declining to Republicans and the white working class.
The higher education industry has been criticized for being unnecessarily expensive, providing a difficult-to-measure service, seen as vital but in which providers are paid for inputs instead of outputs, and, beset with federal regulations which drive up costs, with payments not coming from users but from third parties. In a 2018 Pew survey, 61 percent of those polled said that US higher education was headed in the wrong direction. A 2019 Gallup survey found that graduates who felt a purpose in life was important, "only 40 percent said they had found a meaningful career after college."For generations, US education was unique its emphasis on liberal arts education in its higher education curriculum, but this emphasis has been waning for more than five decades, there is growing skepticism about its utility. The US is unique in its investment in competitive NCAA sports in American football and basketball, with large sports stadiums and arenas. Beyond its function as an institution of knowledge, US higher education has had several functions.
Marcus Ford has identified four phases in the development of US higher education based on the primary function that characterized that phase: preserving Christian civilization. It has served as a source for professional credentials, as a vehicle for social mobility, as a social sorter. In The Higher Education Bubble, Glenn Harlan Reynolds states that college functions as a'status marker', "signaling membership in the educated class, a place to meet spouses of similar status". US Educational statistics are provided by the National Center for Education Statistics, part of the Department of Education; the number of Title IV-eligible, degree-granting institutions in the US peaked at a total of 4,726 in 2012: 3,026 4-year institutions and 1,700 2-year institutions. Fall enrollment at postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV peaked at just over 21.5 million students in 2010 and had fallen to about 20 million by fall 2016. A US Department of Education longitudinal survey of 15,000 high school students in 2002 and 2012, found that 84% of the 27-year-old students had some college education, but only 34% achieved a bachelor's degree or higher.
Falling birth rates result in fewer people are graduating from high school. The number of high school graduates grew 30% from 1995 to 2013 peaked at 3.5 million and projections show it holding at that level in the next decade. According to the National Student Clearinghouse, higher education enrollment in 2016 was down about 2.4 million from the peak year of 2010-11. The US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, has reported a loss of more than 800,000 students from 2010 to 2014. Enrollment numbers continued to decline in 2017 and 2018; the number of Title-IV-eligible institutions has declined by 17.8% since 2012–13. In 2018, the National Center for Education Statistics projected stagnant enrollment patte
John Kline (politician)
John Paul Kline, Jr. is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Minnesota's 2nd congressional district from 2003 to 2017. The district includes most of the southern suburbs of the Twin Cities, including Apple Valley, Inver Grove Heights, Eagan, Northfield, Prior Lake, New Prague. A member of the Republican Party, Kline served as the Chairman of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce. Kline announced that he would retire from Congress at the end of his term in January, 2017. Kline was born in Allentown, the son of Litta Belle and John Paul Kline, Sr, he is a 1965 graduate of W. B. Ray High School in Corpus Christi, Texas, he earned a B. A. in biology at Rice University, a Master of Public Administration from Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania. Before his election to Congress, Kline was a 25-year career commissioned officer in the United States Marine Corps, where he was a senior military aide to Presidents Carter and Reagan and was responsible for carrying the President's "football".
During his military career, Kline was a Naval Aviator who served as a helicopter pilot in Vietnam, commanded all Marine aviation forces in Operation Restore Hope in Somalia, flew "Marine One," the Presidential helicopter, in HMX-1, served as Program Development Officer at Headquarters Marine Corps. He received numerous medals and commendations, including the Defense Superior Service Medal, four awards of the Legion of Merit, the Meritorious Service Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal, three awards of the Vietnam Service Medal, the Vietnam Campaign Medal, the Presidential Service Badge. Kline retired from the Marine Corps as a colonel. Kline and his second wife, live in Burnsville, Minnesota. Kline has four grandchildren. Kline was married to Christine Lewis. Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities Committee on Education and the Workforce As Chairman of the full committee, Rep. Kline may serve as an ex officio member of all subcommittees of which he is not a voting member.
Subcommittee on Early Childhood and Secondary Education Subcommittee on Workforce Protections Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training Congressional Constitution Caucus Kline supported President Bush's plan to increase troop levels in Iraq in January, 2007. During Kline's 2008 bid for reelection he discussed his opposition to earmarks and his refusal to request them for his district. In 2006, Kline voted to maintain the legal definition of marriage as between one woman, he voted for the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. Kline opposed restrictions on gun ownership, he voted to repeal parts of the firearms ban for Washington, D. C, he described himself as "a collector of antique guns and a staunch supporter of the Second Amendment". Kline stated, "Job creation is our nation's no. 1 challenge and Congress must make it our no. 1 priority." He spoke in support of education reform designed to encourage parent involvement and teacher accountability. He opposed any tax increases and stated that such strategies must be taken "off the table."
In remarks made to fellow representatives, Kline said, "we are watching a massive growth of government power and spending, I deem that unacceptable."In 2013 Kline proposed a bill that, among other adjustments, changed the rate on subsidized Stafford loans from 3.4% to 5.9%. The bill linked the rate of interest to the rate of US borrowing. Kline voted to repeal the Affordable Care Act, his campaign site stated that "he opposed Obamacare because it is a flawed law, too big, was passed too fast, does too much harm." On April 1, 2014, Kline introduced the Success and Opportunity through Quality Charter Schools Act, a bill that would amend and reauthorize both the Charter School Programs and the Credit Enhancement for Charter School Initiatives under Title V of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 through fiscal year 2020 and combine them into a single authorization. It was intended to streamline and improve the grants process and increase the funding for these programs from $250 million to $300 million.
The bill passed in the House on May 7, 2014. Kline made his first run for office in 1998, when he challenged 6th District Democratic incumbent Bill Luther and lost, taking 46% of the vote, he sought a rematch in 2000 and lost by only 5,400 votes, while George W. Bush narrowly carried the district. After the 2000 census, Minnesota's congressional map was radically altered, though the number of districts was unchanged; the old 28-county 2nd District was dismantled, a new 2nd District was created in the Twin Cities' southern suburbs. At the same time, the 6th District was pushed north and made more Republican than its predecessor; the remapping left the home of the 2nd District's freshman incumbent, Republican Mark Kennedy, just inside the reconfigured 6th District. Realizing this, Kline filed for the Republican nomination in the new 2nd District. After some consideration, Luther opted to run in the 2nd as well though it was thought to lean Republican. During the campaign, Luther came under fire when one of his supporters, Sam Garst, filed for the race under the banner of the "No New Taxes Party."
This was done in retaliation for an ad the National Republican Congressional Committee ran in support of Kline that accused Luther of being soft on crime. Luther subsequently admitted. Kline gained considerable momentum from this, won handily, taking 53%
Pre-kindergarten is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States and Turkey. It may be delivered within a reception year in elementary school. Pre-kindergartens play an important role in early childhood education, they have existed in the US since 1922 run by private organizations. The U. S. Head Start program, the country's first federally funded pre-kindergarten program, was founded in 1967; this attempts to prepare children to succeed in school. The term "pre-kindergarten" is used interchangeably with the concepts of "nursery care" and "child care", they could involve academic training, or they could involve socializing activities. Pre-kindergartens differentiate themselves from other child care by focusing on building a child's social development, physical development, emotional development, cognitive development, they follow a set of organization-created teaching standards in shaping curriculum and instructional activities and goals. The term "preschool" more approximates the name "pre-kindergarten", for both focus on harvesting the same four child development areas in subject-directed fashion.
The term "preschool" refers to such schools that are owned and operated as private or parochial schools. Pre-kindergartens refer to such school classrooms that function within a public school under the supervision of a public school administrator and funded by state or federally allocated funds, private donations. Most school districts describe Pre-Kindergarten as "an early learning program to prepare children for kindergarten who are identified as at risk". Pre-kindergarten provides learning to children who are 4 years old on or before September 1. Preschool provides learning to children who are 3 years olds on or before September 1. Most programs are 3 hours but extended day is offered in some schools. "K-2" is used interchangeably with "pre-kindergarten". Although early childhood education experts criticize the use of the term as a way to rationalize utilizing a kindergarten model and teaching kindergarten skills in pre-kindergarten classes, public school districts continue to incorporate the term as a way to integrate pre-kindergarten into the stable of accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act.
In 2013, Michigan and the city of San Antonio, enacted or expanded Pre-K programs. In New York City, mayor Bill de Blasio was elected on a pledge of Pre-K for all city children. A poll conducted in July for an early education nonprofit advocate found that 60 percent of registered Republicans and 84 percent of Democrats supported expanding public preschool by raising the federal tobacco tax. Funding for Pre-K has proven a substantial obstacle for expanding programs; the issue produced multiple approaches. Several governors and mayors targeted existing budgets. San Antonio increased sales taxes, while Maine look to gambling. In Oregon 20% of kids have access to publicly funded Pre-K of any kind, a 2016 campaign is working to fund Pre-K to 12 education, for all kids whose parents want them to have the option of Pre-K. A 2012 review by the National Institute for Early Education Research at Rutgers University identified Oklahoma and West Virginia as among the leaders in public program quality and fraction of enrolled children.
Florida had the highest enrollment in 2012 — four-fifths of all four-year-olds. About 84 percent were in religion-based or family centers; that state's preschool programs did not fare well on quality measures. Other states with more than 50 percent enrollment included Wisconsin, Iowa and Vermont. Florida was one of the first states to establish free prekindergarten; the programs offer a jump start to young children on their education. The program is open to all 4 and 5-year-olds who reside in Florida and have birthdays before September 1st of the current school year. Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these high-quality programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Florida VPK programs offer specialized instruction for children with special needs.
Benefits of the VPK program include better behavior, preparation for Kindergarten, a promoted love of learning for children. The skills children learn at home are enhanced by Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten. A 2018 study in the Journal of Public Economics found in Italy that pre-kindergarten "increased mothers' participation in the labor market and lowered the reservation wage of the unemployed, thus increasing their likelihood of finding a job" but "did not affect children's cognitive development, irrespective of their family background."Pre-Kindergarten gives each child an opportunity to perform better in school and in the future. A strong emphasis is put on literacy skills and smaller class sizes; these programs aid children in becoming strong readers and improving social and developmental skills. There are several different programs for parents to choose from, they differentiate in class size, instructional hours, teacher credentials. Select programs offer specialized instruction for
Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. is an American politician, serving as the senior United States Senator from Tennessee, a seat he has held since 2003. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 45th governor of Tennessee from 1979 to 1987 and the 5th United States Secretary of Education from 1991 to 1993. Born in Maryville, Alexander graduated from Vanderbilt University and the New York University School of Law. After establishing a legal career in Nashville, Alexander ran for Governor of Tennessee in 1974, but was defeated by Democrat Ray Blanton. Alexander ran for governor again in 1978, this time defeated his Democratic opponent, he won re-election in 1982 and served as chairman of the National Governors Association from 1985 to 1986. Alexander served as the president of the University of Tennessee from 1988 until 1991, when he accepted appointment as Secretary of Education under President George H. W. Bush. Alexander sought the presidential nomination in the 1996 Republican primaries, but withdrew before the Super Tuesday primaries.
He sought the nomination again in the 2000 Republican primaries, but dropped out after a poor showing in the Iowa Straw Poll. In 2002, Alexander won election to succeed retiring Senator Fred Thompson. Alexander defeated Congressman Ed Bryant in the Republican primary and Congressman Bob Clement in the general election, he served as Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 2007 to 2012. Alexander has served as chairman of the Senate Health, Education and Pensions Committee since 2015, he introduced the Every Student Succeeds Act, which supplanted the No Child Left Behind Act in 2015. On December 17, 2018, Alexander announced that he would not run for a fourth term in the Senate in 2020. Alexander was born and raised in Maryville, the son of Genevra Floreine, a preschool teacher, Andrew Lamar Alexander Sr. a high school principal. His family is of Scotch-Irish descent, he attended Maryville High School, where he was class president, was elected Governor of Tennessee Boys State U. S. Senator In 1962, Alexander graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Vanderbilt University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Latin American studies.
He was a member of Sigma Chi. Alexander was the editor of The Vanderbilt Hustler, the primary student newspaper on campus, he advocated for the open admission of African Americans. At Vanderbilt, he was a member of the field team. In 1965, he obtained his Juris Doctor from the New York University School of Law. After graduating from law school, Alexander clerked for United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit Judge John Minor Wisdom in New Orleans, from 1965 to 1966. In 1967, Alexander worked as a Legislative Assistant for Senator Howard Baker. While a staffer, he was roommates with future U. S. Senator Trent Lott, met his future wife at a staffer softball game. In 1969, he worked for President Richard Nixon's executive assistant. In 1970, he moved back to Tennessee, serving as campaign manager for Memphis dentist Winfield Dunn's successful gubernatorial bid. Dunn was the first Republican in 50 years to win the governorship. After this campaign, Alexander co-founded and worked as a partner in the Nashville law firm of Dearborn and Ewing.
Meanwhile, Alexander rented a garage apartment to Thomas W. Beasley, a student at the Vanderbilt Law School who co-founded Corrections Corporation of America; the Tennessee State Constitution at the time prevented governors from serving consecutive terms, so with Dunn unable to run, Alexander sought the party's nomination for governor in 1974. He defeated his two chief opponents, Commissioner of Mental Health Nat T. Winston, Jr. and Southwestern Company president Dortch Oldham, 120,773 votes to 90,980 and 35,683, respectively. He faced the Democratic nominee, Ray Blanton, a former Congressman and unsuccessful 1972 senate candidate, in the general election. Blanton attacked Alexander for his service under Nixon, who had resigned in disgrace several months earlier as a result of the Watergate scandal, defeated Alexander on election day, 576,833 votes to 455,467. After the 1974 campaign, Alexander returned to the practice of law. In 1974, TIME Magazine named Alexander one of the 200 Faces of the Future.
In 1977, Alexander once again worked in Baker's Washington office following Baker's election as Senate Minority Leader. Although the Tennessee State Constitution had been amended in early 1978 to allow a governor to succeed himself, Blanton chose not to seek re-election, due to a number of scandals. Alexander once again ran for governor, made a name for himself by walking from Mountain City in the far northeast of the state to Memphis in the far southwest, a distance of 1,022 miles, wearing a red and black flannel shirt that would become something of a trademark for him. Investigative news reports disclosed late during the 1978 Tennessee gubernatorial campaign revealed that Alexander once transferred the non-profit charter of a Christian church to his Ruby Tuesday restaurant in order to sell liquor-by-the-drink in the once "dry town" of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. After winning the Republican nomination with nearly 86% of the vote, he defeated Knoxville banker Jake Butcher in the November 1978 election, 665,847 votes to 523,013.
In early 1979, a furor ensued over pardons made by Governor Blanton, whose administration was under investigation in a cash-for-clemency scandal. Since the state constitution is somewhat vague on when a governor must be sworn in, several political leaders from both parties, including Lieutenant Governor John S. Wilder and State House Speaker Ned McWherter, arranged for Alexander to be sworn in on January 17, 1979, three days earlier than the traditional inauguration day, to prevent Blanton from s
114th United States Congress
The One Hundred Fourteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2015, to January 3, 2017, during the final two full years of Barack Obama's presidency. The 2014 elections gave the Republicans control of the Senate for the first time since the 109th Congress. With 248 seats in the House of Representatives and 54 seats in the Senate, this Congress began with the largest Republican majority since the 71st Congress of 1929–1931. January 6, 2015: Incumbent Speaker of the House John Boehner was re-elected though several members of his own party once again chose not to vote for him, he received 216 votes, a majority of the votes cast, but two votes shy of a majority of the full membership. January 20, 2015: 2015 State of the Union Address March 3, 2015: Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu addressed a joint session of Congress regarding sanctions against Iran.
Netanyahu was invited by Speaker John Boehner without consulting President Obama. March 9, 2015: U. S. Senator Tom Cotton wrote and sent a letter to the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran, signed by 47 of the Senate's 54 Republicans, attempting to cast doubt on the Obama administration's authority to engage in nuclear-proliferation negotiations with Iran. March 25, 2015: Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani addressed a joint session of Congress. April 29, 2015: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe addressed a joint session of Congress, becoming the first Japanese leader to do so. September 24, 2015: Pope Francis addressed a joint session of Congress, becoming the first Pope to do so. September 25, 2015: House Speaker John Boehner announced that he would resign as Speaker and from the House at the end of October 2015. Subsequently, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, the presumptive favorite to succeed John Boehner, unexpectedly withdrew his candidacy for the job. October 29, 2015: Paul Ryan was elected to succeed John Boehner as Speaker of the House receiving 236 votes.
He is the youngest Speaker since James G. Blaine in 1869. January 12, 2016: 2016 State of the Union Address June 8, 2016: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed a joint session of Congress. June 22–23, 2016: In the wake of the 2016 Orlando attacks, Congress debated gun control reform; the U. S. House recessed for the July 4 holiday during a sit-in protest held by Democrats that halted business in the chamber for more than 24 hours. November 8, 2016: Donald Trump and Mike Pence elected as president and vice-president in presidential elections, while the Republicans retain majority at both Senate and House of Representatives. January 12, 2015: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–1 April 16, 2015: Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–10 May 22, 2015: Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–17 June 2, 2015: USA FREEDOM Act: Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ensuring Effective Discipline Over Monitoring Act of 2015, Pub.
L. 114–23 June 29, 2015: Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–27 July 6, 2015: Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications Act, Pub. L. 114–29 November 2, 2015: Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–74 November 5, 2015: Librarian of Congress Succession Modernization Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–86 November 25, 2015: SPACE Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–90 December 4, 2015: Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act, Pub. L. 114–94 December 10, 2015: Every Student Succeeds Act, Pub. L. 114–95 December 18, 2015: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016, Pub. L. 114–113 February 8, 2016: Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–120 February 24, 2016: Internet Tax Freedom Act contained in Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, Pub. L. 114–125 July 20, 2016: Global Food Security Act of 2016, Pub. L. 114–195 September 28, 2016: Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, Pub. L. 114–222 October 7, 2016: Sexual Assault Survivors' Rights Act, Pub. L. 114–236 December 13, 2016: 21st Century Cures Act, Pub.
L. 114–255 February 24, 2015: Keystone XL Pipeline Approval Act March 31, 2015: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the National Labor Relations Board relating to representation case procedures. October 22, 2015: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 December 19, 2015: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a rule submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New and Reconstructed Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units" December 19, 2015: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a rule submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency relating to "Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units" January 8, 2016: The Restoring Americans' Healthcare Freedom Reconciliation Act of 2015 January 19, 2016: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency relating to the definition of "waters of the United States" under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act June 8, 2016: A joint resolution disapproving the rule submitted by the Department of Labor relating to the definition of the term "Fiduciary" July 22, 2016: Preside