Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (film)
Saturday Night and Sunday Morning is a 1960 British drama film directed by Karel Reisz and produced by Tony Richardson. It is an adaptation of the 1958 novel of the same name by Alan Sillitoe, who wrote the screenplay adaptation; the film is about a young machinist who spends his weekends drinking and partying, all the while having an affair with a married woman. The film is one of a series of "kitchen sink drama" films made in the late 1950s and early 1960s, as part of the British New Wave of filmmaking, from directors such as Reisz, Jack Clayton, Lindsay Anderson, John Schlesinger and Tony Richardson and adapted from the works of writers such as Sillitoe, John Braine and John Osborne. A common trope in these films was the working-class "angry young man" character, who rebels against the oppressive system of his elders. In 1999, the British Film Institute named Saturday Night and Sunday Morning the 14th greatest British film of all time on their Top 100 British films list. Arthur Seaton is a young machinist at the Raleigh bicycle factory in Nottingham.
He is determined not to be tied down to living a life of domestic drudgery like the people around him, including his parents, whom he describes as "dead from the neck up". He spends his wages at weekends on having a good time. Arthur is having an affair with the wife of an older colleague, he begins a more traditional relationship with Doreen, a beautiful single woman closer to his age. Doreen, who lives with her mother and aspires to be married, avoids Arthur's sexual advances, so he continues to see Brenda as a sexual outlet. Brenda becomes pregnant by Arthur, who offers to help raise the child or terminate the unwanted pregnancy. Arthur takes her to see his Aunt Ada for advice. Ada has Brenda sit in a hot drink gin, which does not work. Brenda asks Arthur for £40 to get an abortion from a doctor. After Doreen complains about not going anywhere public with Arthur, he takes her to the fair where he sees Brenda. Arthur pulls Brenda aside, she reveals that she has decided to have the child; as Arthur clings to her, she wriggles free.
Arthur gets in a car with her. Brenda's brother-in-law and his friend notice her enter the ride and follow her, shocked to see Arthur riding with his arm around Brenda. Arthur escapes the ride, but he is caught and beaten. Arthur is visited by Doreen. After recovering, Arthur returns to work, realises his affair with Brenda is finished after her husband tells him to stay away from Brenda. Arthur decides to marry Doreen; the film ends with Arthur and Doreen discussing the prospect of a new home together, with Arthur showing that he still has mixed feelings about settling down into domestic life. Saturday Night and Sunday Morning was at the forefront of the British New Wave, portraying British working class life in a serious manner for the first time and dealing realistically with sex and abortion, it was among the first of the "kitchen sink dramas" that followed the success of the play Look Back in Anger. Producer Tony Richardson directed another such film, The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, adapted from an Alan Sillitoe book of the same name.
Saturday Night and Sunday Morning received an X rating from the BBFC upon its theatrical release. It was submitted for re-rating for the home video release and given a PG rating. Much of the exterior location filming was shot in Nottingham, though some scenes were shot elsewhere; the night scene with a pub named "The British Flag" in the background was filmed along Culvert Road in Battersea, the pub being at the junction of Culvert Road and Sheepcote Lane. The closing scenes show Arthur and Doreen on a grassy slope overlooking a housing estate with new construction going on. According to an article in the Nottingham Evening News on 30 March 1960, this was shot in Wembley with the assistance of Nottingham builders Simms Sons & Cooke who set up a staged "building site" on location. Saturday Night and Sunday Morning opened at the Warner cinema in London's West End on 27 October 1960 and received favourable reviews; the film entered general release on the ABC cinema circuit from late January 1961 and was a box-office success, being the third most popular film in Britain that year.
It earned over half a million pounds in profit. The film is the origin for the title of the debut album of indie rock band Arctic Monkeys, Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not, it is the origin for the title of the live album Saturday Night, Sunday Morning by The Stranglers. "Saturday Night Sunday Morning" is the title of a song from Madness's 1999 album Wonderful. The run-out groove on the B-side of vinyl copies of The Smiths' 1986 album The Queen Is Dead features the line "Them was rotten days," a line said by Aunt Ada in the film; the line said by Doreen before Arthur takes her to the fair, "Why don't you take me where's it lively and there's people?" Inspired the song "There Is A Light That Never Goes Out" on the same album. Morrissey, the lead singer and lyricist of The Smiths, has stated that the film is one of his favourites. Arthur Seaton is mentioned in the song "Where Are they Now?" by The Kinks, which appears on their album Preservation Act 1. Arthur Seaton is mentioned in the song "From Across the Kitchen Table" by The Pale Fountains.
The film is referenced, not least in the form of the promotional video, using elements of the original cinema poster's graphic design, in the 2013 Franz Ferdinand single "Right Action". Some of the son
Sweet Dreams (1985 film)
Sweet Dreams is a 1985 American biographical film which tells the story of country music singer Patsy Cline. The film was directed by Karel Reisz, it stars Jessica Lange, Ed Harris, Ann Wedgeworth, David Clennon, James Staley, Gary Basaraba, John Goodman, P. J. Soles; the film was nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress. For all the musical sequences, Lange lip-synced to the original Patsy Cline recordings; the soundtrack of the same name was released in September 1985. This film has developed a cult following based on Lange’s acclaimed performance. Patsy Cline is unhappily married and playing small-time gigs in the tri-state area consisting of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland when she meets Charlie Dick, whose charm and aggressive self-confidence catch her attention. Patsy is planning to divorce. After her divorce and Charlie marry, she is free to pursue music, focus on raising their children. After Charlie gets drafted into the U. S. Army, Patsy focuses on singing more, after joining forces with manager Randy Hughes, Patsy becomes a rising star on the country music scene.
However, Patsy's success fuels her self-confidence, much to Charlie's annoyance, he becomes physically and abusive as Patsy attempts to assert her independence. Patsy was at the peak of her popularity as one of the first great female stars of country music when she died in a plane crash on March 5, 1963, at the age of 30. For the scenes at an Army post Fort Bragg, North Carolina, filming took place at Fort Campbell, instead. Other scenes were shot in Nashville, Martinsburg, West Virginia and Hagerstown, Maryland. Many of the sequences depicted in the film are inaccurate: Patsy and her brother were not on their way to pick up beer when she nearly lost her life in a 1961 car crash, they were on their way to pick up material for her mother, a seamstress, to make her new stage clothes. The car crash happened on June 14, not in the winter. Patsy's husband, Charlie Dick, their daughter, have both stated that Charlie had never hit Patsy in front of their daughter. Charlie has said that he had slapped Patsy only once for becoming hysterical Patsy's relatives have said that Patsy is portrayed more as a victim than she was.
"Their fights were always interesting to watch because you always knew Patsy would win", claimed friend Dottie West. However, other family members insist that Patsy was badly beaten and sent to a hospital on numerous occasions. Patsy's airplane crashed at 6:20 p.m. in a forest -- not into a mountain cliff -- near Tennessee. The plane crashed because of pilot disorientation during bad weather, not due to difficulties in restarting the engine after switching from an empty fuel tank to a full one. Randy Hughes, not instrument-rated, became disoriented in the inclement weather and lost control; the plane crashed on the way to Nashville from Dyersburg, TN. They were on the way home from the show in Kansas City, not vice versa; the aircraft in the crash was a Piper Comanche, not a Cessna 172 Skyhawk, as in the film. Patsy's mother, the late Hilda Hensley, once stated: "They told me that they were going to make a love story. I saw the film once; that was enough." Jessica Lange as Patsy Cline Ed Harris as Charlie Dick, Patsy's husband Ann Wedgeworth as Hilda Patterson Hensley, Patsy's mother David Clennon as Randy Hughes, Patsy's manager and pilot of the ill-fated aircraft in which Patsy was killed James Staley as Gerald Cline, Patsy's first husband Gary Basaraba as Woodhouse John Goodman as Otis P. J. Soles as Wanda Jerry Haynes as legendary Nashville producer Owen Bradley Dennis Saylor as an uncredited extra Boxcar Willie as a man in jail with Charlie Lange received critical acclaim for her performance.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs: "Crazy" – NominatedAs of December 2018, the film holds a rating of 90% rating on Rotten Tomatoes from 20 reviews. Sweet Dreams on IMDb Sweet Dreams at AllMovie Sweet Dreams at Rotten Tomatoes Sweet Dreams at Box Office Mojo
Norwich, known as'The Rose of New England,' is a city in New London County, United States. The population was 40,493 at the 2010 United States Census. Three rivers, the Yantic, the Shetucket, the Quinebaug, flow into the city and form its harbor, from which the Thames River flows south to Long Island Sound. Norwichtown was founded in 1659, by settlers from Old Saybrook led by Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch, they purchased the land "nine miles square" that would become Norwich from the local Native Mohegan Sachem Uncas. One of the co-founders of Norwich was Thomas Leffingwell, who had rescued Chief Uncas when surrounded by his Narragansett enemies, whose son founded the Leffingwell Inn. In 1668, a wharf was established at Yantic Cove. Settlement was in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green; the 69 founding families soon divided up the land in the Norwichtown vicinity for farms and businesses. By 1694, the public landing built at the head of the Thames River allowed ships to offload goods at the harbor.
The distance between the port and Norwichtown was serviced by the East and West Roads, which became Washington Street and Broadway. The original center of the town was a neighborhood now called Norwichtown, an inland location chosen to be the center of a agricultural farming community. By the latter 18th century, shipping at the harbor began to become far more important than farming when industrial mills began manufacturing on the three smaller rivers. By the early 19th century, the center of Norwich had moved to the Chelsea neighborhood; the official buildings of the city were located in the harbor area, such as the City Hall and post office, all the large 19th-century urban blocks. The former center is now called Norwichtown to distinguish it from the current city. Norwich merchants were shipping goods directly from England, but the Stamp Act of 1764 forced Norwich to become more self-sufficient. Soon large mills and factories sprang up at the falls on the rivers; the ship captains of Norwich and New London who were skillful at avoiding Imperial taxation during peacetime were just as successful eluding warships during war.
During the American Revolution Norwich supported the cause for independence by supplying soldiers and munitions. Norwich was a center for activity for the Sons of Liberty. Colonial era less noteworthies include Christopher Leffingwell, Daniel Lathrop; the Oxford English Dictionary attests the first recorded use of the term "Hello" to The Norwich Courier on 18 October 1826. Regular steamship service between New York and Boston helped Norwich to prosper as a shipping center through the early part of the 19th century. During the Civil War, Norwich once again rallied and saw the growth of its textile and specialty item manufacturing; this was spurred by the building of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad in 1832–1837 bringing goods and people both in and out of Norwich. By the 1870s the Springfield and New London Railroad was running trains through Norwich. In 1892, the city's first electric trolleys started service to local areas, plus to some cities including Westerly, New London and Putnam. In 1952 the town and city of Norwich were consolidated into one.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 28.3 sq mi is land and 1.2 sq mi is water. Several Norwich neighborhoods maintain independent identities and are recognized by official signs marking their boundaries. Neighborhoods of Norwich are Norwichtown, Bean Hill, Taftville, Occum, East Great Plains, Laurel Hill and Chelsea As of the census of 2000, there were 36,117 people, 15,091 households, 9,069 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,274.7 people per square mile. There were 16,600 housing units at an average density of 585.9 per square mile. Twenty-nine percent of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. Thirty-two percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. In 2012, the population had risen to 40,502 and the racial makeup of the city was 70% White, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 10% Black or African American, 8% Asian, 1% Native American. A significant influx of Chinese Americans has settled in Norwich since 2010; the 2012 median income for a household in the city was $51,300. Fifteen percent of the population were below the poverty line; the AA Eastern League Connecticut Defenders the Norwich Navigators, were a farm team of the San Francisco Giants and they played at Senator Thomas J. Dodd Memorial Stadium from both's inception in 1995 until the team announced its move to Richmond, Virginia for the 2010 season, where they are now known as the Richmond Flying Squirrels.
However, starting in 2010, Dodd Stadium became the home to the Connecticut Tigers in the Class-A short-season New York–Penn League. The ESPN mini-series; this forested area is Norwich's la
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha
Jack Warden was an American character actor of film and television. He was twice nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor—for Shampoo, Heaven Can Wait, he received a BAFTA nomination for the former movie, won an Emmy for his performance in Brian's Song. Warden was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of Laura M. and John Warden Lebzelter, an engineer and technician. He was of Irish ancestry. Raised in Louisville, Kentucky, he was expelled from high school for fighting and fought as a professional boxer under the name Johnny Costello, he earned little money. Warden worked as a nightclub bouncer, tugboat deckhand and lifeguard before joining the United States Navy in 1938, he was stationed for three years in China with the Yangtze River Patrol. In 1941, he joined the United States Merchant Marine but he tired of the long convoy runs, in 1942, he moved to the United States Army, where he served as a paratrooper in the 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, with the 101st Airborne Division in World War II.
In 1944, on the eve of the D-Day invasion, Warden a staff sergeant, shattered his leg when he landed in a tree during a night-time practice jump in England. He spent eight months in the hospital recuperating, during which time he read a Clifford Odets play and decided to become an actor. Warden portrayed a paratrooper from the 101st's rivals—the 82nd Airborne Division—in That Kind of Woman. After leaving the military, he moved to New York City, studied acting on the G. I. Bill, he performed on stage for five years. In 1948, he made his television debut on the anthology series The Philco Television Playhouse, appeared on the series Studio One, his first film role, was in the 1951 film You're in the Navy Now, a film that featured the screen debuts of Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson. Warden appeared in his first credited film role in the 1951 in The Man with My Face. From 1952 to 1955, Warden appeared in the television series Mister Peepers with Wally Cox. In 1953, Warden was cast as a sympathetic corporal in From Here to Eternity.
Warden's breakthrough film role was Juror No. 7, a salesman who wants a quick decision in a murder case, in 12 Angry Men. Warden guest-starred in many television series over the years, including two 1960 episodes of NBC's The Outlaws, on Marilyn Maxwell's ABC drama series, Bus Stop, on David Janssen's ABC drama, The Fugitive, he received a supporting actor Emmy Award for his performance as Chicago Bears coach George Halas in the television movie, Brian's Song, was twice nominated for his starring role in the 1980s comedy/drama series Crazy Like a Fox. Warden was nominated for Academy Awards as Best Supporting Actor for his performances in Shampoo and Heaven Can Wait, he had notable roles in Bye Bye Braverman, All the President's Men... And Justice for All, Being There, Used Cars, The Verdict, Problem Child and its sequel, as well as While You Were Sleeping, Guilty as Sin and the Norm Macdonald comedy Dirty Work, his final film was The Replacements in 2000, opposite Keanu Reeves. Warden had one son, Christopher.
Although they separated in the 1970s, the couple never divorced. Warden suffered from declining health in his last years, which resulted in his retirement from acting in 2000, he died of heart and kidney failure in a New York hospital on July 19, 2006, at the age of 85. Jack Warden on IMDb Jack Warden at the Internet Broadway Database Jack Warden at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Jack Warden at Find a Grave Cinema2000 obituary
Pauline Kael was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. Kael was known for her "witty, biting opinionated and focused" reviews, her opinions contrary to those of her contemporaries, she was one of the most influential American film critics of her era. She left a lasting impression on many other prominent film critics. Roger Ebert argued in an obituary that Kael "had a more positive influence on the climate for film in America than any other single person over the last three decades." The critic, he said, "had no rules, no guidelines, no objective standards. You couldn't apply her'approach' to a film. With her it was all personal." Owen Gleiberman said. She reinvented the form, pioneered an entire aesthetic of writing." Kael was born on a chicken farm in Petaluma, California, to Isaac Paul Kael and Judith Kael, Jewish emigrants from Poland. Her parents lost their farm when Kael was eight, the family moved to San Francisco. In 1936 she matriculated at the University of California, where she studied philosophy and art, but dropped out in 1940.
Kael had intended to go on to law school, but fell in with a group of artists and moved to New York City with the poet Robert Horan. Three years Kael returned to San Francisco and "led a bohemian life," writing plays, working in experimental film. In 1948, Kael and the filmmaker James Broughton had a daughter, whom Kael would raise alone. Gina had a serious illness through much of her childhood. In 1953, the editor of City Lights magazine overheard Kael arguing about films in a coffeeshop with a friend and asked her to review Charlie Chaplin's Limelight. Kael dubbed the film "Slimelight" and began publishing film criticism in magazines. Kael explained her writing style: "I worked to loosen my style—to get away from the term-paper pomposity that we learn at college. I wanted the sentences to breathe, to have the sound of a human voice." Kael disparaged the supposed critic's ideal of objectivity, referring to it as "saphead objectivity," and incorporated aspects of autobiography into her criticism.
In a review of Vittorio De Sica's 1946 neorealist film Shoeshine, ranked among her most memorable, Kael described seeing the film... after one of those terrible lovers' quarrels that leave one in a state of incomprehensible despair. I came out of the theater, tears streaming, overheard the petulant voice of a college girl complaining to her boyfriend, "Well I don't see what was so special about that movie." I walked up the street, crying blindly, no longer certain whether my tears were for the tragedy on the screen, the hopelessness I felt for myself, or the alienation I felt from those who could not experience the radiance of Shoeshine. For if people cannot feel Shoeshine, what can they feel?... I learned that the man with whom I had quarreled had gone the same night and had emerged in tears, yet our tears for each other, for Shoeshine did not bring us together. Life, as Shoeshine demonstrates, is too complex for facile endings. Kael broadcast many of her early reviews on the alternative public radio station KPFA, in Berkeley, gained further local profile as the Berkeley Cinema Guild manager from 1955 to 1960.
Kael programmed the films at the two-screen theater, "unapologetically repeat her favorites until they became audience favorites." She wrote "pungent" capsule reviews of the films, which her patrons began collecting. Kael continued to juggle writing with other work until she received an offer to publish a book of her criticism. Published in 1965 as I Lost It at the Movies, the collection sold 150,000 paperback copies and was a surprise bestseller. Coinciding with a job at the high-circulation women's magazine McCall's, Kael "went mass"; that same year, she wrote a blistering review of the phenomenally popular The Sound of Music in McCall's. After mentioning that some of the press had dubbed it "The Sound of Money," Kael called the film's message a "sugarcoated lie that people seem to want to eat." Although according to legend this review led to her being fired from McCall's, both Kael and the magazine's editor, Robert Stein, denied this. According to Stein, he fired her "months after she kept panning every commercial movie from Lawrence of Arabia and Dr. Zhivago to The Pawnbroker and A Hard Day's Night."Her dismissal from McCall's led to a stint from 1966 to 1967 at The New Republic, whose editors continually altered Kael's writing without her permission.
In October 1967, Kael wrote a lengthy essay on Bonnie and Clyde, which the magazine declined to publish. William Shawn of The New Yorker obtained the piece and ran it in the New Yorker issue of October 21. Kael's rave review was at odds with prevailing opinion, that the film was controversial. According to critic David Thomson, "she was right about a film that had bewildered many other critics". A few months after the essay ran, Kael quit The New Republic "in despair." In 1968, Kael was asked by Shawn to join The New Yorker staff. Many considered her colloquial, brash writing style an odd fit with the sophisticated and genteel New Yorker. Kael remembered "getting a letter from an eminent New Yorker writer suggesting that I was trampling through the pages of the magazine with cowb
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter