Eric William Ravilious was an English painter, book illustrator and wood-engraver. He grew up in East Sussex, is known for his watercolours of the South Downs and other English landscapes, which examine English landscape and vernacular art with an off-kilter, modernist sensibility and clarity, he served as a war artist, died when the aircraft he was in was lost off Iceland. Ravilious was born on 22 July 1903 in Churchfield Road, London, the son of Frank Ravilious and his wife Emma. While he was still a small child the family moved to Eastbourne in Sussex, where his parents ran an antique shop. Ravilious was educated at Eastbourne Grammar School. In 1919 he won a scholarship to Eastbourne School of Art and in 1922 another to study at the Design School at the Royal College of Art. There he became close friends with Edward Bawden and, from 1924, studied under Paul Nash. Nash, an enthusiast for wood engraving, encouraged him in the technique, was impressed enough by his work to propose him for membership of the Society of Wood Engravers in 1925, helped him to get commissions.
In 1925 Ravilious received a travelling scholarship to Italy and visited Florence and the hill towns of Tuscany. Following this he began teaching part-time at the Eastbourne School of Art, from 1930 taught at the Royal College of Art. In the same year he married Eileen Lucy "Tirzah" Garwood an artist and engraver, they would have three children together: John Ravilious. In 1928 Ravilious and Charles Mahoney painted a series of murals at Morley College in South London on which they worked for a whole year, their work was described by J. M. Richards as "sharp in detail, clean in colour, with an odd humour in their marionette-like figures" and "a striking departure from the conventions of mural painting at that time", but was destroyed by bombing in 1941. Between 1930 and 1932 Ravilious and Garwood lived in Hammersmith, where there is a blue plaque on the wall of their house at the corner of Upper Mall and Weltje Road; when Ravilious and Bawden graduated from the RCA they began exploring the Essex countryside in search of rural subjects to paint.
Bawden rented Brick House in Great Bardfield as a base and when he married Charlotte Epton, his father bought it for him as a wedding present. Ravilious and Garwood lodged in Brick House with the Bawdens until 1934 when they purchased Bank House at Castle Hedingham, now marked by a blue plaque. There were several other Great Bardfield Artists. In 1933 Ravilious and his wife painted murals at the Midland Hotel in Morecambe. In November 1933, Ravilious held his first solo exhibition at the Zwemmer Gallery in London and 20 of the 37 works displayed were sold. Ravilious engraved more than 400 illustrations and drew over 40 lithographic designs for books and publications during his lifetime, his first commission, in 1926, was to illustrate a novel for Jonathan Cape. He went on to produce work both for large companies such as the Lanston Corporation and smaller, less commercial publishers, such as the Golden Cockerel Press, the Curwen Press and the Cresset Press, his woodcut of two Victorian gentlemen playing cricket has appeared on the front cover of every edition of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack since 1938.
His style of wood-engraving was influenced by that of Thomas Bewick. He in turn influenced other wood engravers, such as Gwenda Morgan who depicted scenes in the South Downs and was commissioned by the Golden Cockerel Press. In the mid-1930s Ravilious took up lithography, making a print of Newhaven Harbour for the "Contemporary Lithographs" scheme, a set of full-page lithographs of shop interiors, for a book called High Street, with text by J. M. Richards. Following a trip in a submarine in the war he produced a set of 11 lithographs. In February 1936, Ravilious held his second exhibition at the Zwemmer Gallery and again it was a success, with 28 out of the 36 paintings shown being sold; this exhibition led to a commission from Wedgwood for ceramic designs. His work for them included a commemorative mug to mark the abortive coronation of Edward VIII. Other popular Ravilious designs included the Alphabet mug of 1937, the china sets, Afternoon Tea and Garden Implements, plus the Boat Race Day cup in 1938.
Production of Ravilious' designs continued into the 1950s, with the coronation mug design being posthumously reworked for the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953. He undertook glass designs for Stuart Crystal in 1934, graphic advertisements for London Transport and furniture work for Dunbar Hay in 1936. Ravilious and Bawden were both active in the campaign by the Artists' International Association to support the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War. Throughout 1938 and 1939, Ravilious spent time working in Wales, the south of France and at Aldeburgh to prepare works for his third one-man show, held at the Arthur Tooth & Sons Gallery in 1939. Apart from a brief experimentation with oils in 1930 – inspired by the works of Johan Zoffany – Ravilious painted entirely in watercolour, he was inspired by the landscape of the South Downs around Beddingham. He returned to Furlongs, the cottage of Peggy Angus, he said that his time there "altered my whole outlook and way of painting, I think because the colour of the landscape was so lovely and the design so beautifully obvious... that I had to abandon my tinted dr
J. M. Dent
Joseph Malaby Dent was a British book publisher who produced the Everyman's Library series. Dent was born in Darlington in. After a short and unsuccessful stint as an apprentice printer he took up bookbinding. At the age of fifteen he gave a talk on James Boswell's Life of Johnson which would be the first book printed in the Everyman's Library. Around 1896 he began publishing high-quality limited editions of literary classics under the Temple Classics imprint. In 1888 he founded the publishing firm of Company. Between 1889 and 1894 Dent published the works of Charles Lamb, Oliver Goldsmith, Jane Austen, Chaucer and like authors. Printed in small runs on handmade paper, these early editions enjoyed modest commercial success. Dent established the successful Temple Shakespeare series in 1894. In 1904, Dent began to plan Everyman's Library, a series of one thousand classics to be published in an attractive format and sold at one shilling. To meet demand, Dent built the Temple Press in Letchworth founded as the first Garden City.
The publication of the Everyman Library began in 1906 and 152 titles were issued by the end of the first year. However, it was soon confronted by a double blow: the Copyright Act 1911 which extended protection to fifty years after the author's death thus reducing the availability of Victorian texts, World War I which brought with it inflation and shortages of supplies. In A Sinking Island, Hugh Kenner wrote: "Destiny beckoned J. M. Dent toward the kingdom of books, without learning to spell he became an influential bookman, he was small, tight-fisted, apt to weep under pressure, a performance that could disconcert authors and employees. When his temper had risen like a flame he'd scream, his paroxysms were famous. For editing the Library he paid Ernest Rhys three guineas a volume—what senior office-boys might earn in two weeks. Dent's ungovernable passion was for bringing Books to the People, he remembered. Yes, you could make the world better, he thought cheap books might prevent wars."Although not a new idea, what set Everyman's apart from earlier series was its scope.
He was able to build a new offices in Covent Garden with the profits. Despite having an impressive range of literature, Dent prevented classics of dubious morals, such as Moll Flanders, from being printed; the First World War slowed the production of books and Dent did not live to see the one thousand volume mark reached in 1956. Among the impressive volumes that came from Dent was The Pilgrim's Regress, the spiritual autobiography of C. S. Lewis, published in 1933. J. M. Dent, his sons Hugh and Jack, Jack's son F. J. Martin Dent, constituted the board of directors in the 1920s. Hugh Dent functioned as an editor for Everyman's Library. After J. M. Dent's death, W. G. Taylor, the secretary of the firm since 1916, joined the board. Hugh R. Dent served as the chairman from 1926 to 1938, followed by Taylor from 1938 to 1963. Taylor was managing director from 1934 to 1955. F. J. Martin Dent followed Taylor as managing chairman. Weidenfeld & Nicolson purchased J. M. Dent & Sons in January 1988, it now forms an imprint of the Orion Publishing Group.
The registered companies of J. M. Dent & Sons and Everyman's Library were retained by the Dent family and are now an investment company, Malaby Holdings Ltd, Malaby Martin Ltd, a niche development company. A new sister company Malaby Biogas Ltd was created in 2009 as a pioneering renewable energy and sustainable development business. J. M. and Hugh R. Dent, The House of Dent 1888-1938: being the memoirs of J. M. Dent with additional chapters covering the last 16 years by Hugh R Dent, London: J. M. Dent, 1938. Ernest Rhys, Everyman Remembers, London: J. M. Dent and Sons Limited, 1931. Works by or about J. M. Dent in libraries Works published by Dent, at Internet Archive J. M. Dent & Sons Records, 1834-1986, unc.edu. "Archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill"
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Sir Simon Michael Schama is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, Jewish history and French history. He is a University Professor of Art History at Columbia University, New York, he first came to public attention with his history of the French Revolution titled Citizens, published in 1989. In the United Kingdom, he is best known for writing and hosting the 15-part BBC television documentary series A History of Britain broadcast between 2000 and 2002. Schama was knighted in the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours List. Schama was born in London, his mother, was from an Ashkenazi Jewish family, his father, Arthur Schama, was of Sephardi Jewish background moving through Moldova and Romania. In the mid-1940s, the family moved to Southend-on-Sea in Essex before moving back to London. Schama writes of this period in the introduction to his 1996 book Landscape & Memory:I had no hill, but I did have the Thames, it was not the upstream river. It was the low, gull-swept estuary, the marriage bed of salt and fresh water, stretching as far as I could see from my northern Essex bank, toward a thin black horizon on the other side.
That would be Kent, the sinister enemy who always seemed to beat us in the County Cricket Championship. In 1956, Schama won a scholarship to the private Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School in Cricklewood, he studied history at Christ's College, where he was taught by John H. Plumb, he graduated from the University of Cambridge with a Starred First in 1966. Schama worked for short periods as a lecturer in history at Cambridge, where he was a Fellow and Director of Studies in History at Christ's College, he taught for some time at Oxford, where he was made a Fellow of Brasenose College in 1976, specialising in the French Revolution. At this time, Schama wrote his first book and Liberators, which won the Wolfson History Prize; the book was intended as a study of the French Revolution, but as published in 1977, it focused on the effect of the Patriottentijd revolution of the 1780s in the Netherlands, its aftermath. His second book, Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel, is a study of the Zionist aims of Edmond and James Rothschild.
In 1980, Schama took up a chair at Harvard University. His next book, The Embarrassment of Riches, again focused on Dutch history. Schama interpreted the ambivalences that informed the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, held in balance between the conflicting imperatives, to live richly and with power, or to live a godly life; the iconographic evidence that Schama draws upon, in 317 illustrations, of emblems and propaganda that defined Dutch character, prefigured his expansion in the 1990s as a commentator on art and visual culture. Citizens, written at speed to a publisher's commission saw the publication of his long-awaited study of the French Revolution, won the 1990 NCR Book Award, its view that the violence of the Terror was inherent from the start of the Revolution, has received serious negative criticism. He appeared as an on-screen expert in Michael Wood's 1989 PBS series, "Art of the Western World" as a presenting art historian, commenting on paintings by Diego Velázquez and Johannes Vermeer.
In 1991, he published Dead Certainties, a slender work of unusual structure and point-of-view in that it looked at two reported deaths a hundred years apart, that of British Army General James Wolfe in 1759 – and the famous 1770 painting depicting the event by Benjamin West – and that of George Parkman, murdered uncle of the better known 19th-century American historian Francis Parkman. Schama mooted some possible connections between the two cases, exploring the historian's inability "ever to reconstruct a dead world in its completeness however thorough or revealing the documentation", speculatively bridging "the teasing gap separating a lived event and its subsequent narration." Not all readers absorbed the nuance of the title: it received a mixed critical and academic reception. Traditional historians in particular denounced Schama's integration of fact and conjecture to produce a seamless narrative, but assessments took a more relaxed view of the experiment, it was an approach soon taken up by such historical writers as Peter Ackroyd, David Taylor, Richard Holmes.
Sales in hardback exceeded those of Schama's earlier works, as shown by relative rankings by amazon.com. Schama's next book and Memory, focused on the relationship between physical environment and folk memory, separating the components of landscape as wood and rock, enmeshed in the cultural consciousness of collective "memory" embodied in myths, which Schama finds to be expressed outwardly in ceremony and text. More personal and idiosyncratic than Dead Certainties, this book was more traditionally structured and better-defined in its approach. Despite mixed reviews, the book was won numerous prizes. Plaudits came from the art world rather than from traditional academia. Schama became art critic for The New Yorker in 1995, he held the position for three years, dovetailing his regular column with professorial duties at Columbia University. During this time, Schama produced a lavishly illustrated Rembrandt's Eyes, another critical and commercial success. Despite the book's title, it contrast
Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books. Since 1991 it has been a division of the Orion Publishing Group. George Weidenfeld and Nigel Nicolson founded Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 1949 with a reception at Brown's Hotel, London. Among many other significant books published Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and Nicolson's Portrait of a Marriage, a frank biography of his mother, Vita Sackville-West and father Harold Nicolson. In its early years Weidenfeld published nonfiction works by Isaiah Berlin, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rose Macaulay, novels by Mary McCarthy and Saul Bellow, it published titles by world leaders and historians, along with contemporary fiction and glossy illustrated books. Weidenfeld & Nicolson acquired the publisher Arthur Baker Ltd in 1959 and ran it as an imprint into the 1990s. Weidenfeld was one of Orion's first acquisitions after the group's founding in 1991, formed the core of its offerings. At that time Weidenfeld imprints included its own establishment much earlier.
Orion was acquired in turn by Hachette Livre in 1998. The hardcover rights to Everyman Library were sold in 1991, survive as a Random House property, paperbacks Everyman Classics continued under Orion. Late in 2013, W&N published the British edition of I Am Malala, the memoir of Pakistani-born teenager Malala Yousafzai with Christina Lamb. Malala Yousafzai is a female education activist, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2014. Illustrated Novel Library Lives Pleasures and Treasures The Young Historian Books World University Library Weidenfeld & Nicolson blog The Orion Publishing Group A brief history of the Orion Publishing Group at the Wayback Machine Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishing Archives