Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins or wrongs. Buddhism has been from its inception a tradition of renunciation and monasticism. Within the monastic framework of the sangha regular confession of wrongdoing to other monks is mandatory. In the suttas of the Pali Canon Bhikkhus sometimes confessed their wrongdoing to the Buddha himself; that part of the Pali Canon called the Vinaya requires that monks confess their individual sins before the bi-weekly convening for the recitation of the Patimokkha. In Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance is the method of the Church by which individual men and women confess sins committed after baptism and have them absolved by God through the administration of a Priest; the Catholic rite, obligatory at least once a year for serious sin, is conducted within a confessional box, booth or reconciliation room. This sacrament is known by many names, including penance and confession. While official Church publications refer to the sacrament as "Penance", "Reconciliation" or "Penance and Reconciliation", many laypeople continue to use the term "Confession" in reference to the Sacrament.
For the Catholic Church, the intent of this sacrament is to provide healing for the soul as well as to regain the grace of God, lost by sin. A perfect act of contrition, wherein the penitent expresses sorrow for having offended God and not out of fear of eternal punishment outside of confession removes the eternal punishment associated with mortal sin but a Catholic is obliged to confess his or her mortal sins at the earliest opportunity. In theological terms, the priest acts in persona Christi and receives from the Church the power of jurisdiction over the penitent; the Council of Trent quoted John 20:22-23 as the primary Scriptural proof for the doctrine concerning this sacrament, but Catholics consider Matthew 9:2-8, 1 Corinthians 11:27, Matthew 16:17-20 to be among the Scriptural bases for the sacrament. The Catholic Church teaches that sacramental confession requires three "acts" on the part of the penitent: contrition, disclosure of the sins, satisfaction; the basic form of confession has not changed for centuries, although at one time confessions were made publicly.
The penitent begins sacramental confession by saying, "Bless me Father, for I have sinned. It has been since my last confession." The penitent must confess what he/she believes to be grave and mortal sins, in both kind and number, in order to be reconciled with God and the Church. The sinner may confess venial sins. According to the Catechism, "without being necessary, confession of everyday faults is strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more through this sacrament the gift of the Father's Mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as He is merciful". "When Christ's faithful strive to confess all the sins that they can remember, they undoubtedly place all of them before the divine mercy for pardon." As a result, if the confession was good, "the sacrament was valid" the penitent inadvertently forgot some mortal sins, which are forgiven as well.
As a safeguard not to become something like "subconsciously inadvertent" to avoid saying some sins, these must be confessed in the next confession. It is allowed, however allowed, except for certain devotional purposes sensible to concentrate in one's examination of conscience on the time since the last Confession. In general, Eastern Catholic and Orthodox Christians choose an individual to trust as his or her spiritual guide. In most cases this may be a starets; this person is referred to as one's "spiritual father". Once chosen, the individual turns to their spiritual guide for advice on their spiritual development, confessing sins, asking advice. Orthodox Christians tend to confess only to this individual and the closeness created by this bond makes the spiritual guide the most qualified in dealing with the person, so much so that no one can override what a spiritual guide tells his charges. What is confessed to one's spiritual guide is protected by the same seal as would be any priest hearing a confession.
Only an ordained priest may pronounce the absolution. Confession does not take place in a confessional, but in the main part of the church itself before an analogion set up near the iconostasion. On the analogion is placed a Gospel Book and a blessing cross; the confession takes place before an icon of Jesus Christ. Orthodox understand that the confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ, the priest stands only as witness and guide. Before confessing, the penitent venerates the Gospel Book and cross, places the thumb and first two fingers of his right hand on the feet of Christ as he is depicted on the cross; the confessor will read an admonition warning the penitent to make a full confession, holding nothing back. As with administration of other sacraments, in cases of emergency confession may be heard anywhere. For this reason in the Russian Orthodox Churc
A ledger is the principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type, with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account. The ledger is a permanent summary of all amounts entered in supporting journals which list individual transactions by date; every transaction flows from a journal to one or more ledgers. A company's financial statements are generated from summary totals in the ledgers. Ledgers include: Sales ledger, records accounts receivable; this ledger consists of the financial transactions made by customers to the company. Purchase ledger records money spent for purchasing by the company. General ledger representing the five main account types: assets, income and Capital. For every debit recorded in a ledger, there must be a corresponding credit so that the debits equal the credits in the grand totals; the three types of ledgers are the general and creditors.
The general ledger accumulates information from journals. Each month all journals are posted to the General Ledger; the purpose of the General Ledger is therefore to organize and summarize the individual transactions listed in all the journals. The Debtor Ledger accumulates information from the sales journal; the purpose of the Debtors Ledger is to provide knowledge about which customers owe money to the business, how much. The Creditors Ledger accumulates information from the purchases journal; the purpose of the Creditors Ledger is to provide knowledge about which suppliers the business owes money to, how much. A ledger can have the following two formats; this type of ledger is made up of paper. It can be physically touched. Ledgers were invented several centuries ago and this used to be the only available form until the widespread adoption of computers, in the mid to late 20th century; this type of ledger is collection of files, or a database. It can be manipulated only by means of computer programs.
The term ledger stems from the English dialect forms liggen or leggen, meaning "to lie or lay". A ledger was a large volume of scripture or service book kept in one place in church and accessible. According to Charles Wriothesley's Chronicle, "The curates should provide a booke of the bible in Englishe, of the largest volume, to be a ledger in the same church for the parishioners to read on." In application of this original meaning the commercial usage of the term is for the "principal book of account" in a business house. Bookkeeping Debits and credits Specialized journals Distributed ledger, sometimes called a shared ledger, is a consensus of replicated and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, and/or institutions; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ledger". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Business Owner's Toolkit: General Ledger from Wolters Kluwer General Ledger Entries from NetMBA Business Knowledge Center
John Bunyan was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress. In addition to The Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan wrote nearly sixty titles, many of them expanded sermons. Bunyan came near Bedford, he had some schooling and at the age of sixteen joined the Parliamentary Army during the first stage of the English Civil War. After three years in the army he returned to Elstow and took up the trade of tinker, which he had learned from his father, he became interested in religion after his marriage, attending first the parish church and joining the Bedford Meeting, a nonconformist group in Bedford, becoming a preacher. After the restoration of the monarch, when the freedom of nonconformists was curtailed, Bunyan was arrested and spent the next twelve years in jail as he refused to give up preaching. During this time he wrote a spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, began work on his most famous book, The Pilgrim's Progress, not published until some years after his release.
Bunyan's years, in spite of another shorter term of imprisonment, were spent in relative comfort as a popular author and preacher, pastor of the Bedford Meeting. He is buried in Bunhill Fields; the Pilgrim's Progress became one of the most published books in the English language. He is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 30 August, on the liturgical calendar of the United States Episcopal Church on 29 August; some other churches of the Anglican Communion, such as the Anglican Church of Australia, honour him on the day of his death. John Bunyan was born in 1628 to Thomas and Margaret Bunyan at Bunyan's End in the parish of Elstow, Bedfordshire. Bunyan's End is about halfway between the hamlet of Elstow High Street. Bunyan's date of birth is not known, but he was baptised on 30 November 1628, the baptismal entry in the parish register reading "John the sonne of Thomas Bunnion Jun. the 30 November". The name Bunyan had its origins in the Norman-French name Buignon. There had been Bunyans in north Bedfordshire since at least 1199.
Bunyan's father was a brazier or tinker who travelled around the area mending pots and pans, his grandfather had been a chapman or small trader. The Bunyans owned land in Elstow, so Bunyan's origins were not quite as humble as he suggested in his autobiographical work Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners when he wrote that his father's house was "of that rank, meanest and most despised in the country"; as a child Bunyan was given some rudimentary schooling. In Grace Abounding Bunyan recorded few details of his upbringing, but he did note how he picked up the habit of swearing, suffered from nightmares, read the popular stories of the day in cheap chap-books. In the summer of 1644 Bunyan lost both his sister Margaret; that autumn, shortly before or after his sixteenth birthday, Bunyan enlisted in the Parliamentary army when an edict demanded 225 recruits from the town of Bedford. There are few details available about his military service, which took place during the first stage of the English Civil War.
A muster roll for the garrison of Newport Pagnell shows him as private "John Bunnian". In Grace Abounding, he recounted an incident from this time, as evidence of the grace of God: When I was a Souldier, I, with others, were drawn out to go to such a place to besiege it. Bunyan's army service provided him with a knowledge of military language which he used in his book The Holy War, exposed him to the ideas of the various religious sects and radical groups he came across in Newport Pagnell; the garrison town gave him opportunities to indulge in the sort of behaviour he would confess to in Grace Abounding: "So that until I came to the state of Marriage, I was the ringleader of all the Youth that kept me company, in all manner of vice and ungodliness". Bunyan spent nearly three years in the army, leaving in 1647 to return to Elstow and his trade as a tinker, his father had remarried and had more children and Bunyan moved from Bunyan's End to a cottage in Elstow High Street. Within two years of leaving the army, Bunyan married.
The name of his wife and the exact date of his marriage are not known, but Bunyan did recall that his wife, a pious young woman, brought with her into the marriage two books that she had inherited from her father: Arthur Dent's Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven and Lewis Bayly's Practice of Piety. He recalled that, apart from these two books, the newly-weds possessed little: "not having so much household-stuff as a Dish or a Spoon betwixt us both"; the couple's first daughter, was born in 1650, it soon became apparent that she was blind. They would have three more children, Elizabeth and John. By his own account, Bunyan had as a youth enjoyed bell-ringing and playing games including on Sunday, forbidden by the Puritans, who held a high view of Sunday, called the Lord's Day. One Sunday the vicar of Elstow preached a sermon against Sabbath breaking, Bunyan took this sermon to heart; that afternoon, as he was playing tip-cat (a game in which a small piece of wood is hit with a
Sir Philip Barling Greet, known professionally as Ben Greet, was a Shakespearean actor and impresario. The younger son of Captain William Greet RN and his wife, Sarah Barling, Greet was born on board HMS Crocodile, a Royal Navy recruiting ship tied up at the Tower of London, he was the youngest of two brothers. He was educated at New Cross, his parents planned to make him a naval officer or a clergyman, but instead he became a schoolmaster at a private school at Worthing. His brother, William Greet, was a theatre manager while his other brother Thomas was the only sibling to continue on to have a career in the Royal Navy. Ben Greet would visit the Greenwich and Woolwich theatres to watch the exciting productions of Victorian melodrama, Shakespearean plays and pantomimes; some of the productions he might have seen as a young child were Light in the Dark, Mariner's Compass and Shakespeare's Othello around the year 1867. Greet was exposed to many dramas as a child, he performed in plays at school.
According to Isaac, Greet would "have tested his histrionic powers, giving his family and friends a taste of his quality, interpreting of Shakespeare's plays…". Yet, Greet did not perform on the professional stage until four years after his father's death in 1879. Greet performed in his first appearance as a professional actor in J. W. Gordon's Stock Company at the Theatre Royal in Southampton, he performed in an Irish melodrama and within the next day, he was assigned to play over twenty Shakespearean parts for an additional season. For the next three years, Greet performed at the Theatre Royal in Margate, England where he was given the opportunity to work with the best artists of that time. After his three years performing in Margate, he went back to London to join Miss Wallis's Company at The Gaiety Theatre where they performed Cymbeline. Ben Greet played, as ‘Caius Lucius' in the show, it was this role that claimed to be Greet's first real debut in 1883; that year, Greet became a member of Minnie Palmer's Company at the Grand Theatre in Islington where he played ‘Dudley Harcourt' in My Sweetheart.
Although, his first major breakthrough role was the ‘Apothecary' in Mary Anderson's production of Romeo and Juliet at the Lyceum Theatre, which opened in 1884. The play ran for over one hundred nights, the production was remembered as one of the most stunning performances of that time. From 1884 to until 1897, Greet played so many roles and moved to so many companies and theatres that it is hard to record them all. In just five years, Greet would have played over 300 roles in plays. In 1883 Greet launched his career by first creating his own company, they would perform open-air productions of the classic English stage repertory. They first produced tours throughout England, performing in college gardens, the parks of great houses, village greens. Popularity rose for The Ben Greet Players, after twenty years of touring with outdoor productions of Shakespeare in England, Ben Greet was traveling with his troupe to tour in America. In May of 1914, the "Ben Greet Players" presented two Shakespearean plays on the campus of the College of Industrial Arts, a women's college in Denton Texas.
According to a letter dated May 5, 1914 by a student at the college, "...one of them will be given in the afternoon and the other at night. The "Ben Greet Players" is a traveling company that goes to the various colleges and universities of the country to play."Greet's alfresco productions were the first tours organized to bring professional actors to college campuses in America. The American tour was rewarding enough for The Ben Greet Players to perform for President Roosevelt on the White House front lawn. Greet returned to England in 1903 for a short time and managed more tours before beginning another American tour in 1904, they performed plays such as Everyman, Twelfth Night, The Merchant of Venice and The Star of Bethlehem in locations including Boston and New York. By 1914, the year that Greet returned to England, before the First World War, Greet commenced in the management of the Old Vic Theatre. In his four seasons at the Old Vic, Greet produced and directed 35 plays, including 23 by Shakespeare, plus Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer, Sheridan's The Rivals and The School for Scandal, the Medieval mystery play The Star of Bethlehem, Everyman among other works.
When Greet was still a director at the Old Vic, he focused on changing the perspectives of children on their views of Shakespeare. During Greet's years working at the Old Vic, there were over 400 schools that worked in connection with the theatre; the Education Committee of Britain, in 1929, declared that theatre facilities should be renewed to allow children to experience Shakespeare performances "as a reinforcement of the school curriculum and a stimulus to literary appreciation". Over 20,000 elementary school students, along with their teachers, were given the chance to see one Shakespeare show during their school term. Due to this arrangement, Greet was able to share the spectacle, Shakespeare with over a million children; the program continued for many years. Greet was knighted in 1929 by King George V for his works involving the Old Vic theatre and his overall devotion to Shakespeare, he is commemorated by a blue plaque on the façade of 160 Lambeth Road, where he lived from 1920 until his death in 1936.
Victory and Peace Halliday, F. E.. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore: Penguin. Isaac, Winifred F. E. C.. Ben Greet and the Old Vic: A Biography of Philip Ben Greet. London. Rowell, George; the Old Vic Theatre: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pr
A scourge is a whip or lash a multi-thong type, used to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification. It is made of leather; the word is most considered to be derived from Old French escorgier - "to whip", going further back to the Vulgar Latin excorrigiare: the Latin prefix ex- "out, off" with its additional English meaning of "thoroughly", plus corrigia - "thong", or in this case "whip". Some connect it to Latin: excoriare, "to flay", built of two Latin parts, ex- and corium, "skin". A scourge consists of several thongs fastened to a handle. A well known configuration of a scourge is the cat o' nine tails; the cat o' nine tails has two versions: the navy version is made of thick ropes with knotted ends, the army and civil prison versions are made of leather. The scourge, or flail, the crook are the two symbols of power and domination depicted in the hands of Osiris in Egyptian monuments; the shape of the flail or scourge is unchanged throughout history. However, when a scourge is described as a'flail' as depicted in Egyptian mythology, it may be referring to use as an agricultural instrument.
A flail was used to thresh wheat, not implement corporal punishment. The priests of Cybele scourged others; such stripes were considered sacred. Hard material can be affixed to multiple thongs to give a flesh-tearing "bite". A scourge with these additions is called a scorpion. Scorpio is Latin for a Roman flagrum and is referred to in the Bible: 1 Kings 12:11: "... My father scourged you with whips; the name testifies to the pain caused by the arachnid. Testifying to its generous Roman application is the existence of the Latin words Flagrifer'carrying a whip' and Flagritriba'often-lashed slave'. According to the Gospel of John, Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea, ordered Jesus to be scourged. Scourging was soon adopted as a sanction in the monastic discipline of the fifth and following centuries. Early in the fifth century it is mentioned by Palladius of Galatia in the Historia Lausiaca, Socrates Scholasticus tells us that, instead of being excommunicated, offending young monks were scourged.
Thenceforth scourging is mentioned in monastic rules and councils as a preservative of discipline. Its use as a punishment was general in the seventh century in all monasteries of the severe Columban rule. Canon law recognized it as a punishment for ecclesiastics. Though doubtless at an early date a private means of penance and mortification, such use is publicly exemplified in the tenth and eleventh centuries by the lives of St. Dominic Loricatus and St. Peter Damian; the latter wrote a special treatise in praise of self-flagellation. From on the practice appeared in most medieval religious orders and associations; the practice was, of course, capable of abuse, as demonstrated in the thirteenth century by the rise of the fanatical sect of the Flagellants, though in the same period we meet with the private use of the "discipline" by such saintly persons as King Louis IX of France and Elisabeth of Hungary. Semi-literal usages such as "the scourge of God" for Attila the Hun led to metaphoric uses to mean a severe affliction, e.g. "the scourge of drug abuse".
The scourge is described as one of the tools used in Wicca in the Gardnerian Tradition. The purpose of using the scourge is not to cause pain or to torture, but for purification purposes for Initiates; the scourge is a reminder to the coven members. During the Initiation, the Initiate is scourged by the Initiator to follow the Three-Fold Law, it is used during the Drawing Down the Moon Rite by the High Priestess. In the Legend of the Descent of the Goddess, the Goddess is described as being scourged by the God for rebuffing his love when she goes to the Underworld to learn about death. Flagellation, includes flogging Knout Skin Whip This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Tierney, John j.. "Flagellation". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton. H. H. Mallinckrodt, Latijn-Nederlands woordenboek
Time Out (magazine)
Time Out is a global magazine published by Time Out Group. Time Out started its publication in 1968 and has expanded its editorial recommendations to 315 cities in 58 countries worldwide. In 2012, the magazine became a free publication with a weekly readership of over 307,000. Time Out's global market presence includes partnerships with Nokia and mobile apps for iOS and Android operating systems, it was the recipient of the International Consumer Magazine of the Year award in both 2010 and 2011 and the renamed International Consumer Media Brand of the Year in 2013 and 2014. Time Out was first published in 1968 as a London listings magazine by Tony Elliott, who used birthday money to produce a one-sheet pamphlet. With Bob Harris as co-editor; the first product was titled "Where It's At", before being inspired by Dave Brubeck's album Time Out. Time Out began as an alternative magazine alongside other members of the underground press in the UK, but by 1980 it had abandoned its original collective decision-making structure and its commitment to equal pay for all its workers, leading to a strike and the foundation of a competing magazine, City Limits, by former staffers.
By now its former radicalism has all but vanished. As one example of its early editorial stance, in 1976 London's Time Out published the names of 60 purported CIA agents stationed in England. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000 and would evolve to a weekly circulation of 110,000 as it shed its radical roots; the flavour of the magazine was wholly the responsibility of its designer, Pearce Marchbank. Marchbank was invited by Tony Elliott to join the embryonic Time Out in 1971. Turning it into a weekly, he produced its classic logo, established its strong identity and its editorial structure—all still used worldwide to this day, he conceived and designed the first of the Time Out guide books.... He continued to design for Time Out for many years; each week, his witty Time Out covers became an essential part of London life. Elliott launched Time Out New York, his North American magazine debut, in 1995; the magazine procured young and upcoming talent to provide cultural reviews for young New Yorkers at the time.
The success of TONY led to the introduction of Time Out New York Kids, a quarterly magazine aimed at families. The expansion continued with Elliott licensing the Time Out brand worldwide spreading the magazine to 40 cities including Istanbul, Beijing, Hong Kong and Lisbon. Additional Time Out products included travel magazines, city guides, books. In 2010, Time Out became the official publisher of travel guides and tourist books for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Time Out's need to expand to digital platforms led to Elliott, sole owner of the group until November 2010, to sell half of Time Out London and 66 percent of TONY to private equity group Oakley Capital, valuing the company at £20million; the group, founded by Peter Dubens, was owned by Tony Elliott and Oakley Capital until 2016, the agreement provided capital for investment to expand the brand. Time Out has subsequently launched websites for an additional 33 cities including Delhi, Washington D. C. Boston and Bristol; when it was listed on London's AIM stock exchange.
In June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an IPO and is listed on London's AIM stock exchange trading under the ticker symbol'TMO'. The London edition of Time Out became a free magazine in September 2012. Time Out's London magazine was hand distributed at central London stations, received its first official ABC Certificate for October 2012 showing distribution of over 305,000 copies per week, the largest distribution in the history of the brand; this strategy increased revenue by 80 percent with continued upsurge. Time Out has invited a number of guest columnists to write for the magazine; the columnist as of 2014 was Giles Coren. In April 2015, Time Out switched its New York magazine to the free distribution model to increase the reader base and grow brand awareness; this transition doubled circulation by increasing its Web audience, estimated around 3.5 million unique visitors a month. Time Out increased its weekly magazine circulation to over 305,000 copies complementing millions of digital users of Time Out New York.
Time Out New York is now available for free every other Wednesday in vending boxes and newsstands across New York City. In addition to magazines and travel books and websites, Time Out launched Time Out Market, a food and cultural market experience based wholly on editorial creation, starting with the Time Out Market Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami, New York, Boston and Montreal in 2019 and in London-Waterloo and Prague in 2021 – all featuring the cities’ best and most celebrated chefs, restaurateurs and cultural experiences. Time Out Global Homepage "Time Out to cut about 40 staff in UK and US" Time Out Time Out Dubai Time Out Time Out Abu Dhabi Time Out Time Out Bahrain Time Out Time Out Doha
Arthur Clare Cawley
Arthur Clare Cawley was an English literature academic. Cawley graduated from University College London in 1934, he went to the Education Department at the University of Hull for a year and in 1935 returned to UCL for three years as a part-time Lecturer whilst he completed his MA on John of Trevisa's version of Ralph Higden's Polychronicon. In 1938, Cawley went to Harvard on a Commonwealth Fellowship and, on his return to England, joined the British Council, he went as Professor of English to Iași in Romania until the German invasion forced him to leave and he spent 1941 to 1945 in Egypt and in Benghazi, Libya. Still with the British Council, he taught in Reykjavík, Iceland. In 1946 Cawley returned to England and after a year at the University of Sheffield was appointed to a Lectureship at the University of Leeds in 1947, he completed his PhD in 1952. His thesis for London University was a scholarly edition of six of the thirty-six Wakefield Pageants. In 1959 Cawley left Leeds to go to the Darnell Chair of English at the University of Queensland, Australia.
He remained there for six years before returning to Leeds as Professor of English Language and Medieval English Literature in 1965. He retired from his chair in 1979 with the title Emeritus Professor; the university offers a post-graduate scholarship in his name. A noted Mediaevalist, Cawley has commentated and edited numerous works including "Everyman", mediaeval miracle plays, the Canterbury Tales, the Wakefield Mystery Plays. In 1939 Cawley and fellow University College London postgraduate student Winifred Cawley were married. Arthur Clare Cawley died in 1993