The Russian guitar is an acoustic seven-string guitar, developed in Russia toward the end of the 18th century: it shares most of its organological features with the Spanish guitar, although some historians insist on English guitar ascendancy. It is known in Russian as the semistrunnaya gitara, or affectionately as the semistrunka, which translates to "seven-stringer"; these guitars are most tuned to an open G chord as follows: D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4. In classical literature, the lowest string is tuned down to the C. Although in a number of sources the invention of the Russian guitar is attributed to Andrei Sychra, there are strong reasons to believe that the instrument was in use when Sychra began his career, it is true that Sychra was influential in creating the school of Russian guitar playing. He left over a thousand compositions, seventy-five of which were republished in the 1840s by Stellovsky, again in the 1880s by Gutheil; some of these were published yet again in the Soviet Union in 1926.
The Russian version of the seven-string guitar has been used by professionals because of its great flexibility, but has been popular with amateurs for accompaniment due to the relative simplicity of some basic chords and the ease of playing alternating bass lines. Construction of the Russian is similar to that of the western 6-string guitar except for the additional string; the same basic components are present: headstock. Woods used and internal bracing layouts are similar. There are two basic types of Russian guitar: the "gypsy" model; the classical model resembles the western 6-string classical guitar, has nylon or gut strings. The gypsy model is steel strung, resembles the western 6-string steel-string acoustic guitar, although more size and shape variations are found among gypsy guitars. A two-necked version of the Russian guitar was once popular. There are some rare specimens that were built with an oval body; the head or "headstock" is located at the end of the guitar neck farthest from the body.
Modern instruments are fitted with machine head tuners, though older instruments sometimes used friction pegs. The traditional tuner layout is "4+3", with four tuners on the bass-string side of the head and three on the treble string side; the nut is a small strip traditionally of bone, but plastic and other materials are sometimes seen. Headstock and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension which collectively constitutes the neck; the wood used to make the fretboard differs from the wood in the rest of the neck. The neck joint or heel is the point; the fingerboard is made of hardwood, fitted with metal frets of steel. Fret spacing always follows the western twelve tone equal temperament system; the surface of the fingerboard may be flat or curved although the curve on the Russian guitar is somewhat less than that of an equivalent western 6-string guitar. Inlayed position markers are common, appear in the same locations as 6-string guitars; the sound board is made of spruce or cedar, sized and shaped much like that of the 6-string guitar.
Overall proportions of classical seven string instruments nylon string) are similar to those of 6-string guitars. "Gypsy" instruments may be proportioned but may feature a narrower upper bout, an enlarged sound hole. Both traditionally shaped instruments and instruments with cut-away bodies are available; the bridge is made of a hardwood similar to that used for the fingerboard, the bridge saddle is bone or sometimes plastic. A pickguard, or "scratchplate"—usually a piece of laminated plastic—is found on steel-string "gypsy" instruments; as noted above, Russian guitars may have either nylon strings, or steel strings, depending on whether the instrument is a classical or gypsy guitar. On classical instruments the four lower pitched strings are wound, the three higher strings are of plain material. On gypsy instruments five strings are wound, the top two are plain. Proportions of Russian guitars do not differ from those of western 6-string instruments. Since the range of both types of instrument are comparable, this makes acoustical sense.
One notable physical difference, concerns string spacing: since Russian guitars have the same neck width as 6-string guitars, the 7 strings on the Russian instruments are closer together. +Coomparison of dimensions Left-handed Russian guitars exist, but are rare. Traditionally and Spanish guitars are tuned differently. On the Spanish guitar the open-string chord is an Em11. While the Spanish guitar is tuned in fourths with one third, the Russian guitar is tuned in thirds with two fourths: D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4 This tuning is th
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across other geographical boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as by enforced population transfer or the threat of ethnic cleansing. Patterns of emigration have been shaped by numerous economic and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries.
Millions left South China in the Chinese diaspora during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Demographers distinguish factors at the origin that push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in. Motives to migrate can be either incentives attracting people away, known as pull factors, or circumstances encouraging a person to leave. Lack of employment or entrepreneurial opportunities. Lack of freedom to choose religion, or to choose no religion. Favourable letters relatives or informants who have moved. Regarding lists of positive or negative factors about a place, Jose C. Moya writes "one could compile similar lists for periods and places where no migration took place." Unlike immigration, few if any records are maintained in regard to persons leaving a country either on a temporary or permanent basis. Therefore, estimates on emigration must be derived from secondary sources such as immigration records of the receiving country or records from other administrative agencies; some countries restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate to other countries.
After 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, a barrier beyond which the Chinese were prohibited from encroaching on Manchu and Mongol lands; the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union began such restrictions in 1918, with laws and borders tightening until illegal emigration was nearly impossible by 1928. To strengthen this, they set up internal passport controls and individual city Propiska permits, along with internal freedom of movement restrictions called the 101st kilometre, rules which restricted mobility within small areas. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union occupied several Central European countries, together called the Eastern Bloc, with the majority of those living in the newly acquired areas aspiring to independence and wanted the Soviets to leave. Before 1950, over 15 million people emigrated from the Soviet-occupied eastern European countries and immigrated into the west in the five years following World War II.
By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling national movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Restrictions implemented in the Eastern Bloc stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990. However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually immigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement; the emigration resulted in massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. In 1961, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall closing the loophole. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, followed by German reunification and within two years the dissolution of the Soviet Union. By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling international movement was emulated by China and North Korea.
North Korea still restricts emigration, maintains one of the strictest emigration bans in the world, although some North Koreans still manage to illegally emigrate to China. Other countries with tight emigration restrictions at one time or another included Angola, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burma, Democratic
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or military glory. It is used for winners of the Nobel Prize, Gandhi Peace Award and the Student Peace Prize. In ancient Greece, the laurel was sacred to Apollo and as such sprigs of it were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for poets and heroes; this symbolism has been widespread since. "Laureate letters" in old times meant the dispatches announcing a victory. The name of "bacca-laureate" for a bachelor's degree shows a confusion with a supposed etymology from Latin bacca lauri, though incorrect, involves the same idea. From the more general use of the term "poet laureate" arose its restriction in England to the office of the poet attached to the royal household, first held by Ben Jonson, for whom the position was, in its essentials, created by Charles I of England in 1617. Jonson's appointment does not seem to have been formally made as poet laureate, but his position was equivalent to that.
The office was a development of the practice of earlier times, when minstrels and versifiers were part of the retinue of the King. Moreover, the crown had shown its patronage in various ways. Sir William Davenant succeeded Jonson in 1638, the title of poet laureate was conferred by letters patent on John Dryden in 1670 two years after Davenant's death, coupled with a pension of £300 and a butt of Canary Islands wine; the post became a regular institution, though the emoluments varied, Dryden's successors being T. Shadwell, who originated annual birthday and New Year odes; the office took on a new luster from the personal distinction of Southey and Tennyson. However, the undesirability of breaking with tradition for temporary reasons, thus severing the one official link between literature and the state, prevailed over the protests against following Tennyson by any one of inferior genius. Abolition was advocated when Thomas Warton and William Wordsworth died; the poet laureate, being a court official, was considered responsible for producing formal and appropriate verses on birthdays and state occasions.
Wordsworth stipulated, before accepting the honor, that no formal effusions from him should be considered a necessity. The emoluments of the post have varied. To Pye an allowance of £27 was made instead of the wine. Tennyson drew £72 a year from the Lord Chamberlain's department, £27 from the Lord Steward's in lieu of the "butt of sack." Glory
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Bard (Soviet Union)
The term bard came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment to folk singers of the American folk music revival. Because in bard music songwriters perform their own songs, the genre is commonly referred to as author song. Bard poetry differs from other poetry in being sung with simple guitar accompaniment as opposed to being spoken. Another difference is that it focuses more on meaning; this means that fewer stylistic devices are used, the poetry is in the form of a narrative. What separates bard poetry from other songs is that the music is far less important than the lyrics. A far more obvious difference is the commerce-free nature of the genre. Stylistically, the precursors to bard songs were Russian "city romances" known as urban romances, which touched upon common life and were popular throughout all layers of Russian society in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.
These romances were traditionally performed with a guitar accompaniment. Bard poetry may be classified into two main genres: tourist song and political song, although some other subgenres are recognized, such as outlaw song and pirate song; the term "bard" was used by fans of the tourist song genre, outside those circles, the term was perceived as derisive. However, there was a need for a term to distinguish this style of song from the traditional mainstream pop song, the term stuck. Many bards performed their songs for small groups of people using a Russian guitar, if would they be accompanied by other musicians or singers; those who became popular were able to hold modest concerts. Bards were permitted to record their music, given the political nature of many of their songs; as a result, bard tunes made their way around via the copying of amateur recordings made at concerts those songs that were of a political nature. During the Soviet Era of Stagnation and its intense forms such as alpinism, kayaking/canoeing, canyoning, became a form of escapism for young people, who felt that these activities were the only ways of life in which such values as courage, risk, trust and mutual support still mattered.
It is these types of virtues that tourist songs use for their subject matter. Many of the best tourist songs were composed by Yuri Vizbor who participated and sang about all the sports described above, Alexander Gorodnitsky who spent a great deal of time sailing around the world on ships and on scientific expeditions to the far North. A notable subgenre of the Tourist song was the Sea song; as with other tourist songs, the goal was to sing about people in hard conditions where true physical and emotional conflicts appear. Vladimir Vysotsky had several songs of this sort, since his style suited them perfectly. Many of Alexander Gorodnitsky's songs are about the sea since he had the opportunity to experience life at sea. While some songs were about sailors, others were about pirates. With the romanticism of songs like Brigantine by Pavel Kogan, pirate songs are still popular at author song concerts today; every bard has at least one song of this type. Tourist song was tolerated by the government, it existed under the moniker author song, i.e. songs sung by the authors themselves, as opposed to those sung by professional singers.
Another name for this genre was "amateur song". This term reflects the cultural phenomenon of the Soviet Union called "amateur performing arts," or khudozhestvennaya samodeyatelnost, it was a widespread heavily subsidized occupation of Soviet people in their spare time. Every major industrial enterprise and every kolkhoz had a Palace of Culture, or at least a House of Culture, for amateur performers to practice and perform. Many of them, as well as many universities, had Clubs of Amateur Song, which, in fact, were clubs of bard song and which stood quite apart from the mainstream Soviet "samodeyatelnost'". Grushinsky festival traces its origins to tourist song fan meetings, but now includes songs from all genres. Compare: Tramping song, a similar tradition in the Czech Republic. Songs of this kind expressed protest against the Soviet way of life; the genre varied from acutely political, "anti-Soviet" songs to witty satire in the best traditions of Aesop. Some of Bulat Okudzhava's songs touch on these themes.
Vladimir Vysotsky was perceived as a political song writer, although he was part of the mainstream culture. It was not so with Alexander Galich, forced to emigrate. Before emigration, he suffered from KGB persecution, as did Yuliy Kim. Others, like Evgeny Kliachkin and Aleksander Dolsky, maintained a balance between outright "anti-Soviet" and plain romantic material. "songs" from pro-Communist plays by Bertolt Brecht criticizing fascism and capitalist society, could be seen as protest songs, hence were popular among bards. These were called zo