Valery Salov is a Russian chess grandmaster, once ranked the third best player in the world. Salov was awarded the International Master title in 1984 and the Grandmaster title in 1986, he was the World under-17 Champion in 1980 and the European Junior Champion in 1983–84. He shared first place with Alexander Beliavsky in the 1987 USSR Championship, but he lost the tiebreaker match with Beliavsky. At the 1988 USSR Championship he finished tied for third with Artur Yusupov, behind Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov, he qualified twice for the Candidates Tournament for the World Chess Championship. In the 1988 Candidates Tournament for the 1990 Classical Chess World Championship he was defeated in the round of 16 by Jan Timman. In the Candidates Tournament for the 1996 FIDE World Chess Championship he won his first two matches against Alexander Khalifman and Jan Timman to reach the quarterfinals, where he was defeated by Gata Kamsky. In 1994, he won both the 16-player Tilburg knockout event and the thematic Polugaevsky 60th Birthday Tournament in Buenos Aires, defeating Karpov with both colors in the latter.
A resident of Spain, he tied for 3rd to 5th place in the Category 19 strength Dos Hermanas International Tournament in 1997. He has not played any FIDE-rated tournaments since January 2000. In 2009, at the Chigorin Chess Club in St. Petersburg, Salov delivered lectures in which he took up the role of a current "chess outsider" in order to critique the previous decade in chess. In particular, he discussed the problems raised by the increasing role of computers in chess opening preparation and the prospects for dealing with these problems by means of a shift from traditional chess to Fischer Random Chess, he discussed his views on several events in Russian politics. In a long May 2015 interview with Chess-News, he touched on a number of subjects, in particular, how for various reasons he was forced out of competitive chess, that the Kasparov–Karpov matches were a Kabbalistic "ritual" of Freemasonry, that the Kasparov–Anand match at the World Trade Center was related to the September 11th terrorist attacks in the United States, other sundry theories.
He is involved with political economy at universities near Madrid. Valery Salov rating card at FIDE Valery Salov player profile and games at Chessgames.com
A chess tournament is a series of chess games played competitively to determine a winning individual or team. Since the first international chess tournament in London, 1851, chess tournaments have become the standard form of chess competition among serious players. Today, the most recognized chess tournaments for individual competition include the Linares chess tournament and the Tata Steel chess tournament; the largest team chess tournament is the Chess Olympiad, in which players compete for their country's team in the same fashion as the Olympic Games. Since the 1950s, chess computers have begun entering the tournament scene. Most chess tournaments are organized and ruled according to the World Chess Federation handbook, which offers guidelines and regulations for conducting tournaments. Chess tournaments are held in either round-robin style, Swiss system style or elimination style to determine a winning party. Although modern chess had been established since around 1475, the first tournament was in Leeds in 1841.
There was a knockout tournament in London in 1849 and a tournament in Amsterdam in 1851. The first international chess tournament was held in London in 1851; the London 1851 tournament took place during The Great Exhibition, would serve as a guide for future international chess tournaments that would follow it. The tournament not only showed the need for time controls but it clearly demonstrated the drawbacks to the knockout elimination tournament format, it was won by Adolf Anderssen of Germany, who became regarded as the world's best chess player as a result. The number of international chess tournaments increased afterwards. By the end of the 1850s, chess tournaments had been held in Berlin, Manchester, New York, San Francisco and Vienna. By the end of World War II there were 24 international chess tournaments per year, by 1990 there were well over a thousand. An attempt was made in 1924 to include chess in the Olympic Games. However, because it was difficult to distinguish between amateur and professional chess players, the event was called off.
While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad took place separately from the Olympics, but in Paris. The Fédération Internationale des Échecs was formed on the closing day of the first unofficial Chess Olympiad. FIDE organized the first official Chess Olympiad in 1927 in which there were 16 participating countries. By the 29th Chess Olympiad in 1990, there were 127 member countries; the Chess Olympiads were held at irregular intervals by FIDE until 1950. The first chess engine to beat a person in tournament play was the Mac Hack Six, in 1967. Soon after, tournaments were created just for chess computers. In 1970, the first North American Computer Chess Championship was held in New York City, in 1974, the first World Computer Chess Championship was held in Stockholm. Kaissa, a chess program of the Soviet Union was named the world's first computer chess champion. In 1995, the first World Computer Speed Chess Championship was held in Paderborn, Germany for blitz chess.
For a time, computers competed in human tournaments as well, but computers have become so strong that humans are no longer able to compete with them. Interest remains in computer chess tournaments the World Computer Chess Championship and Top Chess Engine Championship; as of 2016, the World Computer Chess champion is Komodo. FIDE tournaments are held according to the FIDE handbook rules, used as a basic guide for many chess tournaments; the handbook contains nine articles dealing with chess competitions. A chess clock is a clock with two separate time displays of which only one display can be running at a time; the player with the black pieces will initiate their opponent's timer at the start of the game. Thus the player with the white pieces will have their timer running first, will make the first move; the player or the arbiter may end the game at any time after the player's opponent has overstepped their time limit. If a timed out clock remains unnoticed, the game will continue as normal. If the game needs to be interrupted, the arbiter shall stop the clock.
Due to most tournaments having increment or delay as well as digital clocks being more precise, digital chess clocks are the preferred choice of equipment in tournaments. If it is found that the starting position of the pieces is incorrect, the game must be cancelled and restarted. If it is found that an illegal move has been made, the game must return to the position directly before the irregularity. For the first illegal move by a player, the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent each time. If a player is to make a second illegal move in the same game, the arbiter shall declare the game lost by the offending player. If a game begins with the piece colors reversed, the game should be stopped and restarted unless an arbiter rules otherwise. If a player displaces any pieces, they should place them in the correct locations on their own time. In games with long time controls, each player is required to record all moves of the game in algebraic chess notation. However, if a player reaches less than five minutes on their clock, does not have an increment of thirty seconds or more, they are excused from recording the remaining game moves until the game has been completed.
At the conclusion of the game, both players must sign each other's scoresheets and turn them to the event organizers if instructed to do so. In fast chess games, players are not required to record moves, as it would take away from important th
USSR Chess Championship
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991. Organized by the USSR Chess Federation, it was the strongest national chess championship held, with eight world chess champions and four world championship finalists among its winners, it was held as a round-robin tournament with the exception of the 35th and 58th championships, which were of the Swiss system. Six titles: Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal Four titles: Tigran Petrosian, Viktor Korchnoi, Alexander Beliavsky Three titles: Paul Keres, Leonid Stein, Lev Polugaevsky, Anatoly Karpov Women's Soviet Chess Championship Russian Chess Championship Mark Taimanov, Bernard Cafferty, Soviet Championships, Everyman Chess, 1998
Efim Petrovich Geller was a Soviet chess player and world-class grandmaster at his peak. He won the Soviet Championship twice and was a Candidate for the World Championship on six occasions, he won four Ukrainian Championship titles and shared first in the 1991 World Seniors' Championship, winning the title outright in 1992. Geller was coach to Anatoly Karpov, he was an author. Geller grew up in Odessa, USSR, was Jewish, he was a fine basketball player, earned his doctorate in physical education before specialising in chess. His development as a top player was delayed by the inception of World War II. Geller's first notable result was sixth place in the 1947 Ukrainian Chess Championship at Kiev with 9½/15, he shared 3rd–5th places at Baku 1948 with 9/15, an event won by Jüri Randviir. Geller scored 11/18 in the 1948 Ukrainian Championship at Kiev for a shared 5th–8th place. Geller began to make his mark in the late 1940s, as he won the USSR Championship semifinal qualifier at Tbilisi 1949 with 11½/16, thus advancing to the final that year.
His finals debut was sensational at URS-ch17 at Moscow. Geller defeated such established players as Semyon Furman, Isaac Boleslavsky, Alexander Kotov, Salo Flohr, fellow finals debutant Tigran Petrosian, Viacheslav Ragozin, Grigory Levenfish. Despite this showing, he was obliged to return to the semifinal level the next year, but advanced with a third-place finish in the 1950 qualifier at Kiev with 9/15. At URS-ch18 at Moscow 1950, Geller made 9/17 for a shared 7th–10th place. In 1950, Geller won the Ukrainian Championship at Kiev, the first of his four titles in that event. Geller in 1950 made his international debut at the Przepiorka Memorial at Iwonicz Zdroj with 11½/19 for seventh place in a powerful field. Geller is reckoned to have been among the best ten players in the world for around twenty years, he was awarded the International Master title in 1951, the International Grandmaster title the following year. Geller played in 23 USSR Chess Championships, a record equalled by Mark Taimanov, achieving good results in many.
He won in 1955 at Moscow when, despite losing five games, he finished equal first with 12/19 defeated Smyslov in the playoff match by the score of +1 =6. He won his second title in 1979 at Minsk at the age of 54. Among his best results in other important tournaments were: clear first at Iwonicz Zdroj 1957, equal first with Taimanov at Dresden 1959, equal first with Lajos Portisch at Beverwijk 1965, clear first at Kislovodsk 1966, clear first at Gothenburg 1967, clear first at Kislovodsk 1968, equal first with Mikhail Botvinnik at Wijk aan Zee 1969, equal first at Havana 1971 with Vlastimil Hort, equal first at Hilversum 1973 with Laszlo Szabo, clear first at Budapest 1973 ahead of Anatoly Karpov, clear first at Teesside 1975, clear first at Moscow 1975, clear first at Las Palmas 1976, equal first with Gennadi Sosonko at Wijk aan Zee 1977, clear first at Bogotá 1978, equal first at Bern 1987 with Daniel Campora, clear first at Dortmund'A' 1989, equal first at New York Manhattan 1990 with Gregory Kaidanov, at age 65.
In Seniors' competition, Geller further distinguished himself in the early 1990s. At the World Seniors' Championship, Bad Woerishofen 1991, he tied for first with Smyslov at 8½/11. In the next year's Championship at the same site, Geller claimed clear first with the same score. Geller remained active in high-level competitive chess until age 70. Geller reached the stages of the World Championship several times, he was a Candidate at Zurich 1953 and Amsterdam 1956. Geller's best result was in the 1962 cycle, as he finished second to Bobby Fischer at the Stockholm Interzonal. In the Candidates', he ended up one-half point short of playing for the title by scoring 17/27 at Curaçao, tying for second place with Keres; that tournament was won by Tigran Petrosian, who went on to defeat Botvinnik for the title the next year. Geller lost a playoff match to Keres at Moscow 1962 by 4½–3½, but was able to enter the 1965 Candidates' matches as a substitute when Botvinnik declined to take part, he defeated Smyslov by 5½–2½ at Moscow in the first round, but lost to Spassky by 5½–2½ at Riga in the semifinals.
In a 1966 Copenhagen playoff match against Bent Larsen, the two players split eight games with two wins each, Larsen won the first tiebreak game to secure Candidates' exemption in case of a withdrawal by a qualified player in the next cycle. In the 1968 cycle, Geller again lost to Spassky, at Sukhumi by 5½–2½, in a Candidates' first-round match, he returned to the interzonal stage in 1970 at Palma de Mallorca, qualified as a Candidate again, losing his first match to Korchnoi at Moscow by 5½–2½. In 1973, he tied with Lajos Portisch and Lev Polugaevsky for second place at the Petropolis Interzonal, but lost out in the three-way playoff match tournament at Portorož, with two qualifying spots at stake, so he did not advance. Geller represented the USSR seven times in Chess Olympiads, over a 28-year span from 1952 to 1980, contributed well each time to the team gold medal
Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers and sprawls for 145 kilometers along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains; the area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334, up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census, making it Russia's largest resort city. Being part of the Caucasian Riviera, it is one of the few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters. With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of Rosa Khutor in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi hosted the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020, it was one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Lesser Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, the area successively belonged to the Georgian kingdoms of Lazica and Abkhazia, who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries, the was unified under the single Georgian monarchy in 11th-century, forming one of the Saeristavo, known as Tskhumi extending its possessions up to Nicopsis; the Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Alans, Khazars and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantine basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict. From the 14th to the 19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, their principal trading partner in the Muslim world.
The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of the Caucasian War and the Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829. Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the British Empire that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen; the Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route from Gelendzhik to Gagra, across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s. In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after; the last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O. S. where the Ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army.
On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract on June 2, 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia. After the end of Caucasian War all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire. Starting in 1866 the coast was colonized by Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Germans and other people from inner Russia. In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874. In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort; the first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909.
Sochi was granted town status in 1917. During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, White movement forces, the Democratic Republic of Georgia; as a result of the war Sochi has become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs from Tuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure. Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city. Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public. During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums; the centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology.
The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union. Following Russ
Alexey Borisovich Vyzmanavin was a Russian chess Grandmaster. During the early part of his career, he played in the Moscow Championships and in 1981, with an Elo rating of 2200, finished sixth, ahead of several strong grandmasters including David Bronstein, Yuri Razuvaev, Artur Yusupov, Alexey Suetin, Rafael Vaganian and Evgeny Vasiukov, he went on to win the event in 1984 and 1986. Qualifying as a grandmaster in 1989, he went on to tie for first place at the 1990 USSR Championship in Leningrad, he placed 5th-9th the following year at the final Soviet Championship, held in Moscow. These championship successes contributed to his selection for the national team and this included participating at the 1992 Manila Olympiad. Playing reserve board 2, he scored helping the Russian team to the gold medal. Among his international tournament successes were wins at Nałęczów 1986 and Tashkent 1987, he shared first place at Moscow 1988 and won at Sochi 1989. There followed his victory at the 1990/91 edition of the Rilton Cup in Stockholm and further success at the Gelsenkirchen 1991 tournament, where he won ahead of Vasily Smyslov.
He surprised the chess world at Leon in 1993, by placing second behind tournament victor Leonid Yudasin and thereby restricting Anatoly Karpov to a share of third prize. As a player of rapid and blitz chess, his reputation was that of a'speed demon', competing at the PCA rapidplay events of the 1990s and outplaying his more illustrious opponents. At the Moscow event in 1994, he reached the semi-final, narrowly losing out to Vladimir Kramnik, having beaten Alexei Shirov and Viktor Korchnoi. Commentating at one such PCA event, Maurice Ashley described Vyzmanavin in predatory terms—"He's a dangerous one, the V-man, looking like a cat, ready to pounce."Vyzmanavin's highest Elo rating was 2620 and he ceased playing circa 1997. Vyzmanavin's early death, aged 40, was described as being caused by a heart attack, he lived alone, but had been out with friends in Moscow on 6 January 2000 and his body was discovered some six days later. There were reports of poverty and depression. Grandmaster Alexander Baburin believes that there had been serious problems with drinking, which had worsened following the breakdown of his marriage.
Alexey Vyzmanavin player profile and games at Chessgames.com