Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
A bootleg recording is an audio or video recording of a performance, not released by the artist or under other legal authority. The process of making and distributing such recordings is known as bootlegging. Recordings may be copied and traded among fans of the artist without financial exchange, but some bootleggers have sold recordings for profit, sometimes by adding professional-quality sound engineering and packaging to the raw material. Bootlegs consist of either unreleased studio recordings, live performances or interviews with an unpredictable level of quality; the concept of releasing unauthorised performances had been established before the 20th century, but reached new levels of popularity with Bob Dylan's Great White Wonder, a compilation of studio outtakes and demos released in 1969 using low-priority pressing plants. The following year, the Rolling Stones' Live'r Than You'll Ever Be, an audience recording of a late 1969 show, received a positive review in Rolling Stone. Subsequent bootlegs became more sophisticated in packaging the Trademark of Quality label with William Stout's cover artwork.
Compact disc bootlegs first appeared in the 1980s, internet distribution became popular in the 1990s. Changing technologies have affected the recording and varying profitability of the underground industry; the copyrights for the song and the right to authorise recordings reside with the artist, according to several international copyright treaties. The recording and sale of bootlegs continues to thrive, however as artists and record companies attempt to provide released alternatives to satisfy the demand; the word "bootleg" originates from the practice of smuggling illicit items in the legs of tall boots the smuggling of alcohol during the American Prohibition era. The word, over time, has come to refer to any illicit product; this term has become an umbrella term for illicit, unofficial, or unlicensed recordings, including vinyl LPs, silver CDs, or any other commercially sold media or material. The alternate term ROIO or VOI arose among Pink Floyd collectors, to clarify the recording source and copyright status was hard to determine.
Although unofficial and unlicensed recordings had existed before the 1960s, the first rock bootlegs came in plain sleeves with the title rubber stamped on it. However, they developed into more sophisticated packaging, in order to distinguish the manufacturer from inferior competitors. With today's packaging and desktop publishing technology the layman can create "official" looking CDs. With the advent of the cassette and CD-R, some bootlegs are traded with no attempt to be manufactured professionally; this is more evident with the ability to share bootlegs via the Internet. Bootlegs should not be confused with counterfeit or unlicensed recordings, which are unauthorised duplicates of released recordings attempting to resemble the official product as close as possible; some record companies have considered that any record issued outside of their control, for which they do not receive payment, to be a counterfeit, which includes bootlegs. However, some bootleggers are keen to stress that the markets for bootleg and counterfeit recordings are different, a typical consumer for a bootleg will have bought most or all of that artist's official releases anyway.
The most common type is the live bootleg, or audience recording, created with sound recording equipment smuggled into a live concert. Many artists and live venues prohibit this form of recording, but from the 1970s onwards the increased availability of portable technology made such bootlegging easier, the general quality of these recordings has improved over time as consumer equipment becomes sophisticated. A number of bootlegs originated with FM radio broadcasts of live or recorded live performances. Other bootlegs may be soundboard recordings taken directly from a multi-track mixing console used to feed the public address system at a live performance. Artists may record their own shows for private review, but engineers may surreptitiously take a copy of this, which ends up being shared; as a soundboard recording is intended to supplement the natural acoustics of a gig, a bootleg may have an inappropriate mix of instruments, unless the gig is so large that everything needs to be amplified and sent to the desk.
Some bootlegs consist of private or professional studio recordings distributed without the artist's involvement, including demos, works-in-progress or discarded material. These might be made from private recordings not meant to be shared, or from master recordings stolen or copied from an artist's home, a recording studio or the offices of a record label, or they may be copied from promotional material issued to music publishers or radio stations, but not for commercial release. A theme of early rock bootlegs was to copy deleted records, such as old singles and B-sides, onto a single LP, as a cheaper alternative to obtaining all the original recordings. Speaking, these were unlicensed recordings, but because the work required to clear all the copyrights and publishing of every track for an official release was considered to be prohibitively expensive, the bootlegs became popular; some bootlegs, did lead to official releases. The Who's Zoo bootleg, collecting early singles of The Who, inspired the official album Odds And Sods, which beat the bootleggers by issuing unreleased material, while various compilations of mid-1960s bands inspired the Nuggets series of albums.
According to enthusiast and author Clinton Heylin, the concept of a bootleg record can be traced back to
Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein
Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein is an American guitarist best known for his material with the horror punk band the Misfits and his own band eponymously named Doyle. Raised in Lodi, New Jersey, he attended Lodi High School two years behind his brother Jerry, he played on the school's football team for all four years and graduated in 1982. Doyle, the younger brother of the Misfits bassist, Jerry Only, was a roadie for the band and was taught how to play guitar by lead vocalist Glenn Danzig and his brother Jerry, he joined the Misfits in October 1980 at the age of 16. Doyle was the band's third guitarist, replacing Bobby Steele after Steele failed to show up to a recording session. Jerry and Doyle financed the band by working at their father's machine shop. Like Glenn and Jerry, Doyle incorporated the devilock into his image. In 1987, four years after the dissolution of the Misfits and Jerry formed the metal band Kryst The Conqueror with drummer The Murp. Select songs from the album were released by Jerry Only's record label "Cyclopian Music" as an EP, featured guest guitarist Dave "The Snake" Sabo of the rock band Skid Row.
In 1995 Jerry Only settled a legal battle out of court with co-founder Glenn Danzig allowing him rights to the band's name on a performing level. Doyle and Jerry reformed the Misfits in 1995, with Jerry acting as the band's figurehead and with Michale Graves as vocalist and Dr. Chud as drummer; the group released two full-length albums of new material. In 2005, Doyle left New Jersey for Las Vegas, began auditioning members for his own band, Gorgeous Frankenstein; the same year, he appeared on stage with Danzig numerous times throughout Danzig's Blackest of the Black tour. They would meet again in 2007, when Gorgeous Frankenstein played their first tour, opening for Danzig; this line up included Argyle Goolsby of Dr. Chud and Gorgeous George. Doyle has since joined them on several occasions to play 30-minute-long sets of classic Misfits songs. During the latter quarter of 2011, former vocalist Danzig and guitarist Doyle performed Misfits songs on four different occasions as part of the "Danzig Legacy" tour.
The first of the four shows, which took place on October 7 in Chicago as one of the headlining acts at Riot Fest, saw a sold-out crowd of 5,000+. The last true "Legacy" show took place on Halloween at the Gibson Amphitheater in Los Angeles with an over sold crowd of 7,000+. In 2012, "Danzig and Doyle" headlined several worldwide Festivals and did around 70+ shows together. Danzig would play his set; the year 2013 saw the inception of Doyle's solo effort, eponymously named "Doyle". The band features Alex Story of Cancerslug on vocals, Dr. Chud of the second-era Misfits on drums, "Left Hand" Graham on bass; the debut album, was released digitally through INgrooves/Fontana Distribution on July 30, 2013 through iTunes, Google Play, other streaming services like Deezer. It was distributed by Nippon Columbia and Cargo Records; the album was independently released by Doyle's own Monsterman Records. The official CD release was in October, 2013 in major retailers such as Best Buy and FYE. There is an "advance copy" available, sold at shows on the Danzig "Legacy Tour", as well as from Doyle's official website.
This pre-released advance is lacking a 13th track, released on the final cut, entitled "Drawing Down The Moon". In February 2014, Doyle started dating Arch Enemy vocalist Alissa White-Gluz. In May 2014, Doyle announced he was teaming up with Alan Robert, bassist of Life of Agony, for a special Halloween 2014 issue of Robert's award-winning Killogy comic series. Robert said that this was a continuation of his original Killogy comic series but issue will surround Doyle's character; the issue will be published by IDW Publishing. Doyle set out on the 2015 "Abominator tour" in March, hitting the road as an opening act for Mushroomhead through April, with headlining dates continuing after into May. Dr. Chud left the band shortly before the band's first tour "Annihilate America" in 2014, was replaced by Anthony "Tiny" Biuso Midway through the 2015 tour. Shortly after, "Tiny" stated that he would no longer be playing with the band, would not continue on the remainder of the tour. A replacement was found immediately: Brandon Pertzborn, the latest tour drummer of Black Flag.
"Left Hand" Graham was replaced for the 2015 tour and the band was featuring DieTrich Thrall on bass instead. On May 12, 2016 it was announced that Glenn Danzig, Jerry Only and Doyle would perform together as "The Original Misfits" for the first time in 33 years, they reunited for two headlining shows in September 2016 at the Riot Fest in Denver. Doyle's guitar playing style consisted of down strokes and power chords during which he used an Ibanez Iceman guitar. After experimenting with guitars in Kryst the Conqueror, Doyle developed his custom-made brand "Annihilator" guitar. In the 2000s, Doyle collaborated with October Guitars to recreate the "Annihilator" along with a signature pickup, but Doyle still uses his own "Annihilators" because Oktober: "don't make them the way that I want". These guitars are loaded with a Seymour Duncan Invader pickup, are strung with Dean Markley strings. Since the mid 90's he has used a Demeter TGP-3 rack preamp, that feeds the power in on an Ampeg SVT bass head.
His speaker cabinets are his own design, have Celestion speakers. His pedalboard has a TC Electronic Chorus/Flanger, an MXR Micro Flanger, Digitech Whammy IV pedal, a Morley Bad Horsie 2 wah, an Ampeg Scrambler, a Vox Time Machine delay. In his amp rack, there is an ISP Decimator, a Digitech Valve Distort
Caroline Records is a record label. Caroline has or had a number of subsidiary labels including Astralwerks, Caroline Blue Plate, Rocks the World and Passenger; the original Caroline record label started as a subsidiary of Richard Branson's Virgin Records from 1973 to 1976. It specialized in inexpensive LPs by progressive rock and jazz artists that lacked commercial appeal. Caroline records mentioned a connection with Virgin, some UK and European Virgin albums that were distributed internationally named Caroline as their American distributor; some Caroline records bore the label name Caroline Blue Plate. The first release was Outside the Dream Syndicate by Tony Conrad and Faust in 1973; the logo was a photographic-style variation of Virgin's "Twins" logo designed by Roger Dean. In 1983, the Caroline name was reused by Virgin in the US as the importer Caroline Distribution. Caroline Distribution founded the current Caroline Records in 1986. Caroline Records was merged into Virgin Records after Virgin was acquired by Thorn EMI.
Caroline Distribution became part of EMI Music Distribution. Primo Scree was an imprint of Caroline Records created by Ned Hayden of the Action Swingers, a sales rep at Caroline, its releases included the Action Swingers' single "Fear of a Fucked Up Planet", as well as Gumball's debut album Special Kiss and Monster Magnet's debut album Spine of God. Audio Active & Laraaji – The Way Out Is the Way In Kevin Ayers, June Campbell Cramer & Brian Eno – Lady June's Linguistic Leprosy Bad Brains – Quickness Ben Folds Five – Ben Folds Five Harold Budd Reuben Garcia Daniel Lentz – Music for 3 Pianos Cabaret Voltaire – The Drain Train Cabaret Voltaire – Drinking Gasoline Cherry Poppin' Daddies – Kids on the Street Cluster – Grosses Wasser Cluster – One Hour Lol Coxhill – Fleas in Custard Dumblonde – Dumblonde Egg – The Civil Surface Brian Eno – Before and After Science Eno Moebius Roedelius – After the Heat Brian Eno & Jah Wobble – Spinner Excel – Split Image Excel – The Joke's on You Excel – Seeking Refuge Fred Frith – Guitar Solos Various artists – Guitar Solos 2 Gilgamesh – Gilgamesh Gong – Camembert Electrique Gong – Angel's Egg Gong – You Goo Goo Dolls – Goo Goo Dolls Heatmiser – Mic City Sons Henry Cow – Concerts Hole – Pretty on the Inside Bat For Lashes–Two Suns Bat For Lashes – Fur and gold Idaho – Year After Year Idaho– This Way Out Idaho – Three Sheets to the Wind Jabula – Thunder into our hearts Killing Joke – Killing Joke Korn – The Paradigm Shift KT Tunstall - Kin Jayce Lewis/Protafield - Nemesis Mercyful Fate – Melissa The Misfits – Static Age Monster Magnet – Tab Oh Wonder – Oh Wonder Andy Partridge/Harold Budd – Through the Hill Primus – Frizzle Fry Smashing Pumpkins – Gish Southern Culture on the Skids – For Lovers Only Steven Wilson – To the Bone Suicidal Tendencies – Join the Army Suicideboys – I Want to Die in New Orleans Swans – Children of God Tangerine Dream – Livemiles Tangerine Dream – Pergamon Uncle Slam – Say Uncle Underdog – The Vanishing Point Various artists – Greasy Truckers Live at Dingwalls Dance Hall Van Morrison - Keep Me Singing Walt Mink – Bareback Ride Walt Mink – Miss Happiness Warzone – Don't Forget the Struggle, Don't Forget the Streets White Zombie – Gods on Voodoo Moon White Zombie – Soul-Crusher White Zombie – Make Them Die Slowly White Zombie – God of Thunder Youth Of Today – We're Not In This Alone Artist Shop Caroline Records Caroline Distribution Official website Discogs Caroline Records Discogs Gyroscope EMI Group Website links
Glenn Danzig is an American singer, songwriter and record producer from Lodi, New Jersey. He is the founder of the bands Misfits and Danzig, he owns the Evilive record label as well as Verotik, an adult-oriented comic book publishing company. Having begun in the mid-1970s, Danzig's musical career has encompassed a number of genres through the years, including punk rock, heavy metal, industrial and classical music, he has written songs for other musicians, most notably Johnny Cash and Roy Orbison. As a singer, he is noted for his baritone tenor vocal range. Danzig has cited Bill Medley as a vocal influence. Danzig was born Glenn Allen Anzalone, the third of four sons, to a Protestant family of Italian and Scottish heritage in Lodi, New Jersey, his father was a television repairman and a United States Marine Corps veteran of World War II and the Korean War. His mother worked at a record store. Danzig and his family spent some time living in Revere, Massachusetts. Danzig began listening to heavy music at an early age, has described Black Sabbath, The Ramones, Blue Cheer, The Doors as being among his early musical influences.
At age 11, Danzig began to use drugs and alcohol, leading him into frequent fights and trouble with the law. He stopped using drugs at age 15. While growing up, Danzig began reading the works of authors including Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe, developing his appreciation for horror. Danzig collected comic books and, frustrated by American comics, he started his own company to produce "crazy, erotic comics."Danzig graduated from Lodi High School in June 1973, aspiring to become a comic book creator and professional photographer. He attended the Tisch School of the Arts and the New York Institute of Photography. Danzig formed. Glenn Danzig's introduction to performing music began when he took piano and clarinet lessons as a child, he taught himself how to play the guitar. Danzig started in the music business at the age of 11, first as a drum roadie and playing in local garage bands, he had never taken vocal lessons, but his self-taught vocal prowess gained him attention in the local scene.
Throughout his teenage years he sang for several local bands, such as Talus and Koo-Dot-N-Boo-Jang, most of which played half original songs and half Black Sabbath songs. In the mid-1970s, Danzig started the Misfits. Danzig had attempted to get the Misfits signed to several record labels, only to be told that he would never have a career in music; the impetus for the band's name comes from Marilyn Monroe's last film, combined with Danzig considering himself to be a "social misfit." In October 1983, after releasing several singles and three albums, gaining a small underground following, Danzig disbanded the Misfits due to increasing animosity among the band members and his dissatisfaction with their musical abilities. Danzig explained his decision: "It was difficult for me to work with those guys, because they weren't prepared to put in the hours practicing. I wanted to move things forward, they didn't seem to have the same outlook. So it was time for me to move on."After the Misfits, he began work on a new band project, Samhain.
The origins of Samhain began when Danzig started rehearsing with Eerie Von of Rosemary's Babies. Danzig took the name of the band from the ancient Celtic New Year, which influenced the evolution of the modern Halloween. Samhain was conceived as a punk rock "super group"; the band featured members of Minor Threat and Reagan Youth, who contributed to Samhain's 1984 debut, Initium. The band settled with a lineup consisting of Eerie Von on bass, Damien on guitar, Steve Zing on drums. In 1985 the Unholy Passion EP was released, followed by November-Coming-Fire in 1986. Samhain began to attract the interest of major labels including Epic and Elektra. Rick Rubin, music producer and head of the Def American label, would see the band perform at the 1986 New Music Seminar, on the advice of then-Metallica bassist Cliff Burton. Danzig has credited both Burton and Metallica frontman James Hetfield with helping to raise awareness about his music: "I first met them at a Black Flag gig, we became kinda friends.
We'd bump into each other on the road... James and Cliff helped to spread the word about me, I was grateful to them." In 1987, after two albums and an EP, Samhain was signed to a major label by Rubin and the name of the band was changed to Danzig to allow the band to retain its name in the event of line-up changes. Danzig discussed the reasoning behind the name change: "Rick convinced me it was the way to go, would provide me with a lot more artistic freedom. After all, I was now in charge of where we were going musically, so if I didn't want to do something, it was a lot easier to say so." Danzig's intention at the time was for each album he recorded to consist of a different recording line-up, allowing him to keep working with different musicians. The original band consisted of guitarist John Christ, bassist Eerie Von, former Circle Jerks–DOA–Black Flag drummer Chuck Biscuits. In 1987, owing to his association with Rubin, was asked to write a song for Roy Orbison; the result was "Life Fades Away", featured in the 1987 movie Less than Zero.
Danzig contributed to the film's soundtrack with "You and Me". Danzig had been asked to write the song for a female vocalist, but when Rubin could not find a suitable s
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Jerry Only is an American musician, well known as the bassist for the Misfits and the vocalist as well. He is the only member to appear in every Misfits lineup. Gerald Caiafa Jr. was born in New Jersey. He joined Misfits in 1977, just a few months after receiving his first bass as a late Christmas present, he would work at his father's machine shop during the week to help finance the band and play shows on the weekend. This would go on for several years and the band split due to differences between lead singer Glenn Danzig and the rest of the band. During this downtime and his brother Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein formed Kryst The Conqueror. In 1995, Only settled a legal battle out of court with co-founder Glenn Danzig, allowing him rights to the Misfits' name on a performing level, while they split the money on merchandising, he reformed the band with Doyle, vocalist Michale Graves, drummer Dr. Chud. Chud and Graves left the group in 2000 to form Graves. In reaction to the loss of members, Doyle left the Misfits.
Graves and Chud were replaced on the M25 tour by Dez Cadena of Black Flag and DC3, on guitar and Marky Ramone of The Ramones, on drums. Only took up the singing duties from this point till the present date. In early 2005, Marky left the group and Only brought in ex-Misfit and Black Flag drummer ROBO to rejoin the group. A new album was recorded in 2010 in Colorado entitled The Devil's Rain, released in October 2011. A single, "Land of the Dead", was released at the mischief night show 2009 at Starland Ballroom in Sayreville, NJ. In 2013, Only and the Misfits released a new album entitled DEAD ALIVE! recorded live at several shows. In 2017, the reunited lineup performed two additional concerts at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas on December 28 and The Forum in Inglewood, California on December 30, they performed at the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey on May 19, 2018. In 1999, Only and the rest of the Misfits lineup had a brief stint in World Championship Wrestling when they aligned with wrestler Vampiro.
Only participated in the most memorable match of the Misfits' time when he fought Dr. Death in a steel cage match. Only was dominated in the match but Death was distracted when the rest of the Misfits interfered and attacked his manager Oklahoma, pouring barbecue sauce in his eyes. Only won the match after being accidentally Irish whipped through the cage door by Dr. Death. On May 6, 2014, it was announced that Glenn Danzig had filed a lawsuit against Jerry Only, claiming Only registered trademarks for everything Misfits-related in 2000 behind Danzig's back, misappropriating exclusive ownership over the trademarks for himself, including the band's iconic "Crimson Ghost" logo. Danzig claims. Danzig says that after registering the trademarks, Only secretly entered into deals with various merchandisers and cut him out of any potential profits in the process, he said that Only has purposefully led merchandisers, including Hot Topic, to believe that they are bound not to accept licenses to exploit the Marks from Danzig or his designees, Only continues to do so.
He said that through this, Only has caused merchandisers not to do business with him and it has deceived consumers as to the source of the merchandise which bore the trademarks. Danzig said a vast majority of the Misfits fans associate the trademarks with the 1977–1983 classic Misfits era when Danzig was a member of the band and not with the current era Misfits. Danzig feels that through false advertising and misrepresentations to merchandisers and consumers it has caused him to suffer damages in excess of $75,000. In August 2014, the judge dismissed the case in favor of Only. Static Age 12 Hits from Hell Walk Among Us Earth A. D./Wolfs Blood Evilive Legacy of Brutality Misfits Collection II American Psycho Evilive II Famous Monsters Cuts from the Crypt Project 1950 The Devil's Rain Dead Alive! Vampire Girl Friday The 13th Deliver Us from Evil Osaka Popstar and the American Legends of Punk Vampira: The Movie KISS Loves You Fans and Freaks: The Culture of Comics and Conventions Campfire Stories The Big Brother Video: Crap Bruiser Big Money Hustlas Animal Room Cumpty Dumpty TV Biography The X Show Mayhem WCW Monday Nitro